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Nordin, Steven
Publications (10 of 154) Show all publications
Lindahl, B., Norberg, M., Johansson, H., Lindvall, K., Ng, N., Nordin, M., . . . Schulz, P. J. (2020). Health literacy is independently and inversely associated with carotid artery plaques and cardiovascular risk. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 27(2), 209-215
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health literacy is independently and inversely associated with carotid artery plaques and cardiovascular risk
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2020 (English)In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 209-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: Health literacy, the degree to which individuals understand and act upon health information, may have a pivotal role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with low health literacy potentially explaining poorer adherence to prevention guidelines. We investigated the associations between health literacy, ultrasound-detected carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods: Baseline data (cross-sectional analysis) from a randomized controlled trial, integrated within the Västerbotten Intervention Program, Northern Sweden, was used. We included 3459 individuals, aged 40 or 50 years with ≥1 conventional risk factor or aged 60 years old. The participants underwent clinical examination, blood sampling, carotid ultrasound assessment of intima-media wall thickness (CIMT) and plaque formation, and answered a questionnaire on health literacy – the Brief Health Literacy Screen. The European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation and Framingham Risk Score were calculated.

Results: About 20% of the participants had low health literacy. Low health literacy was independently associated with the presence of ultrasound-detected carotid artery plaques after adjustment for age and education, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.54 (1.28–1.85), demonstrating a similar level of risk as for smoking. Health literacy was associated with CIMT in men. Low health literacy was associated with higher CVD risk scores. Sensitivity analyses with low health literacy set to 9% or 30% of the study sample, respectively, yielded essentially the same results.

Conclusions: Low health literacy was independently associated with carotid artery plaques and a high level of CVD risk scores. Presenting health information in a fashion that is understood by all patients may improve preventive efforts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2020
Keywords
Health literacy, cardiovascular risk scores, carotid artery plaque, ultrasound
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165791 (URN)10.1177/2047487319882821 (DOI)000491457000001 ()31615294 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85074364646 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2020-03-23Bibliographically approved
Haanes, J. V., Nordin, S., Hillert, L., Witthöft, M., van Kamp, I., van Thriel, C. & Van den Bergh, O. (2020). "Symptoms associated with environmental factors" (SAEF) - Towards a paradigm shift regarding "idiopathic environmental intolerance" and related phenomena. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 131, Article ID 109955.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Symptoms associated with environmental factors" (SAEF) - Towards a paradigm shift regarding "idiopathic environmental intolerance" and related phenomena
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 131, article id 109955Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Health conditions characterized by symptoms associated with chemical, physical and biological environmental factors unrelated to objectifiable pathophysiological mechanisms are often labelled by the general term "idiopathic environmental intolerances". More specific, exposure-related terms are also used, e.g. "multiple chemical sensitivities", "electromagnetic hypersensitivity" and "candidiasis hypersensitivity". The prevalence of the conditions varies from a few up to more than 50%, depending on definitions and populations. Based on evolving knowledge within this field, we provide arguments for a paradigm shift from terms focusing on exposure and intolerance/(hyper-)sensitivity towards a term more in line with the perceptual elements that seem to underlie these phenomena. Symptoms caused by established pathophysiologic mechanisms should not be included, e.g. allergic or toxicological conditions, lactose intolerance or infections. We discuss different alternatives for a new term/concept and end up proposing an open and descriptive term, "symptoms associated with environmental factors" (SAEF), including a definition. "Symptoms associated with environmental factors" both is in line with the current knowledge and acknowledge the experiences of the afflicted persons. Thus, the proposed concept is likely to facilitate therapy and communication between health professionals and afflicted persons, and to provide a base for better understanding of such phenomena in healthcare, society and science.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity, Environmental sensitivities, Multiple chemical sensitivities, Nocebo, Paradigm shift, Symptom perception
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-169443 (URN)10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.109955 (DOI)000519149900011 ()32058864 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-04-03 Created: 2020-04-03 Last updated: 2020-04-03Bibliographically approved
Paulin, J., Nordin, M., Nyback, M.-H. & Nordin, S. (2019). Associations between hyperacusis and psychosocial work factors in the general population. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 92(1), 59-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between hyperacusis and psychosocial work factors in the general population
2019 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: We investigated the association between hyperacusis and aspects of psychosocial work environment in a general population. The objectives were to investigate (1) prevalence and characteristics (among age, sex, access to social support at home, education, smoking, physical exercise, and perceived general health) of hyperacusis in a general working population and (2) associations between hyperacusis and psychosocial factors in the work environment. The psychosocial work aspects included effort, reward, overcommitment, worry, and social and emotional support.

Methods: Using data from a sample stratified for age and sex from the Österbotten Environmental Health Study in Finland, currently employed participants with self-reported hyperacusis and referents were compared on questionnaire instruments quantifying six aspects of their psychosocial work environment.

Results: Among 856 currently employed participants, 47 constituted a hyperacusis group and 809 a reference group. The hyperacusis group scored significantly higher than the referents on worry at work, social support at work, and reward at work, but not on emotional support at work, work overcommitment, or effort at work. About 40% of the hyperacusis group scored on the upper quartile of the three former work environment factors, with odds ratios ranging from 1.91 to 2.56.

Conclusions: The results suggest that worrying about aspects at work, perceiving low social support, and not perceiving being rewarded at work are associated with hyperacusis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Psychosocial work environment, Effort-reward imbalance, Worry at work, Social support, Emotional support
National Category
Applied Psychology Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155771 (URN)10.1007/s00420-018-1356-x (DOI)000455144300005 ()30194539 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-12-11Bibliographically approved
Söderholm, A., Liljelind, I., Edvardsson, B. & Nordin, S. (2019). Development and evaluation of a questionnaire instrument for chemical intolerance, based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Disability and Rehabilitation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and evaluation of a questionnaire instrument for chemical intolerance, based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health
2019 (English)In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose was to develop a questionnaire instrument to measure difficulties in activities and participation, and impact of environmental factors in chemical intolerance, based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and to assess its validity and reliability.

Method: Development in three steps: (1) choosing items of relevance for chemical intolerance with an expert group, (2) conducting interviews with persons with chemical intolerance, using sampling to redundancy, (3) conducting a survey with 112 respondents at a first assessment and 91 at a second assessment for test-retest.

Results: The final version of the instrument consists of 57 items divided in three parts, which showed good internal consistency in each part, Cronbach alpha: 0.73-0.87. It had good content validity, readability and face validity. Test-retest showed good to very good (≥0.61) Kappa agreement for 37 items, and moderate (0.41-0.60) for 17 items. Three items had poor or fair (<0.41) Kappa agreement.

Conclusion: The instrument was found to be valid and reliable. It can be used as a clinical tool to help persons with chemical intolerance to receive the best suited help and support for each individual, identify key points in rehabilitation, measure rehabilitation outcome and establish priority for treatment. 

Keywords
Chemical intolerance, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, multiple chemical sensitivity, reliability, sensory hypereactivity, validity
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165800 (URN)10.1080/09638288.2019.1672812 (DOI)000489434100001 ()31591906 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-12-04 Created: 2019-12-04 Last updated: 2019-12-06
Domotor, Z., Nordin, S., Witthoeft, M. & Koteles, F. (2019). Modern health worries: A systematic review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 124, Article ID 109781.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modern health worries: A systematic review
2019 (English)In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 124, article id 109781Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Modern health worries (MHWs) refer to people's concerns about possible harmful effects of modern technologies, and are widespread in the developed countries. The aim of the present work was to provide comprehensive, yet integrated understanding for MHWs and associated factors.

Methods: Following the PRISMA guideline, a systematic review was conducted based on 48 empirical articles published between 2001 and 2018 (Prospero registration number: CRD42018103756). All empirical studies were included that (1) were published between 2001 and 2018 in peer-reviewed scientific journals in English, German, or Hungarian, (2) used the Modern Health Worries Scale or any of its sub-scales, and (3) assessed associations between MHWs and other constructs and/or compared criterion groups (i.e. purely psychometric studies were excluded).

Results: The results from the review suggest that female gender, age, somatic symptom distress and idiopathic environmental intolerances, holistic thinking, and paranoid beliefs are positively associated with MHWs, whereas educational qualification and the five major dimensions of personality appear not to be.

Conclusion: Scientific inquiry on the MHWs phenomenon is still in its descriptive-explorative phase; more rigorously designed studies are needed. The presented theoretical framework integrates illness-related and holistic thinking-related aspects of MHWs as a starting point to guide further research in this area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019
Keywords
Symptoms, Idiopathic environmental intolerances, Risk perception
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164514 (URN)10.1016/j.jpsychores.2019.109781 (DOI)000483008100006 ()31443819 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-11-20 Created: 2019-11-20 Last updated: 2019-11-20Bibliographically approved
Olaru, G., Wilhelm, O., Nordin, S., Witthöft, M. & Kösteles, F. (2019). Modern health worries: Deriving two measurement invariant short scales for cross-cultural research with Ant Colony Optimization. PLoS ONE, 14(2), 1-16, Article ID e0211819.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modern health worries: Deriving two measurement invariant short scales for cross-cultural research with Ant Colony Optimization
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2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 1-16, article id e0211819Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Worries about possible harmful effects of new technologies (modern health worries) have intensely been investigated in the last decade. However, the comparability of translated self-report measures across countries is often problematic. This study aimed to overcome this problem by developing psychometrically sound brief versions of the widely used 25-item Modern Health Worries Scale (MHWS) suitable for multi-country use. Based on data of overall 5,176 individuals from four European countries (England, Germany, Hungary, Sweden), Ant Colony Optimization was used to identify the indicators that optimize model fit and measurement invariance across countries. Two scales were developed. A short (12-item) version of the MHWS that represents the four-factor structure of the original version and an ultra-short (4-item) scale that only measures the general construct. Both scales show that overall levels of health worries were highest in England and Hungary, but that the main reason for concern (e.g. electromagnetic radiation or food related fears) differs considerably between these countries. This study also shows that even if measurement invariance of translated self-report instruments across countries is problematic, it can be optimized by using adequate item selection procedures. Differences of modern health worries across countries and recommendations for cross-cultural research are discussed.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157656 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0211819 (DOI)000458026000063 ()30730928 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-27 Created: 2019-03-27 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Ekström, I., Josefsson, M., Larsson, M., Rönnlund, M., Nordin, S. & Olofsson, J. K. (2019). Subjective olfactory loss in older adults concurs with long-term odor identification decline. Chemical Senses, 44(2), 105-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subjective olfactory loss in older adults concurs with long-term odor identification decline
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2019 (English)In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Olfactory impairments may provide early indications of future health outcomes in older adults. Thus, an important question concerns whether these impairments can be self-assessed. Previous findings of cross-sectional studies indicate low correlations between self-reported olfactory function and objective olfactory performance. On the other hand, subjective olfactory impairments predict future dementia and mortality in longitudinal settings. No previous study has assessed the relationship between subjectively and objectively measured decline in olfaction over time. Based on data for 903 older adults derived from the Betula Study, a Swedish population-based prospective study, we tested whether rate-of-change in odor identification could be predicted from subjective olfactory decline over a time span of 10 years during which subjective and objective odor functions were assessed on 2 or 3 test occasions. Indeed, we found that participants who experienced subjective olfactory decline over the study period also had significantly steeper rates of decline in odor identification, even after adjusting for demographic, cognitive, and genetic factors that previously have been associated with performance in odor identification. This association was, however, not present in a subsample with baseline cognitive impairment. We interpret these results as evidence that when asked about whether they have an olfactory impairment or not, older persons are assessing intraindividual olfactory changes, rather than interindividual differences. Our results indicate that subjective olfactory loss reflects objective olfactory decline in cognitively intact older adults. This association might be harnessed to predict health outcomes and highlights the need to develop effective olfactory self-assessments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019
Keywords
decline, longitudinal studies, odor identification, self-reported olfaction, smell, subjective
National Category
Neurosciences Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157657 (URN)10.1093/chemse/bjy079 (DOI)000461508600004 ()30544138 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-27 Created: 2019-03-27 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Näslund, U., Ng, N., Lundgren, A., Fhärm, E., Grönlund, C., Johansson, H., . . . Norberg, M. (2019). Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA): a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 393(10167), 133-142
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA): a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial
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2019 (English)In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 393, no 10167, p. 133-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease often fails because of poor adherence among practitioners and individuals to prevention guidelines. We aimed to investigate whether ultrasound-based pictorial information about subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, targeting both primary care physicians and individuals, improves prevention.

METHODS: Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA) is a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial that was integrated within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, an ongoing population-based cardiovascular disease prevention programme in northern Sweden. Individuals aged 40, 50, or 60 years with one or more conventional risk factors were eligible to participate. Participants underwent clinical examination, blood sampling, and ultrasound assessment of carotid intima media wall thickness and plaque formation. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 with a computer-generated randomisation list to an intervention group (pictorial representation of carotid ultrasound plus a nurse phone call to confirm understanding) or a control group (not informed). The primary outcomes, Framingham risk score (FRS) and European systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE), were assessed after 1 year among participants who were followed up. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01849575.

FINDINGS: 3532 individuals were enrolled between April 29, 2013, and June 7, 2016, of which 1783 were randomly assigned to the control group and 1749 were assigned to the intervention group. 3175 participants completed the 1-year follow-up. At the 1-year follow-up, FRS and SCORE differed significantly between groups (FRS 1·07 [95% CI 0·11 to 2·03, p=0·0017] and SCORE 0·16 [0·02 to 0·30, p=0·0010]). FRS decreased from baseline to the 1-year follow-up in the intervention group and increased in the control group (-0·58 [95% CI -0·86 to -0·30] vs 0·35 [0·08 to 0·63]). SCORE increased in both groups (0·13 [95% CI 0·09 to 0·18] vs 0·27 [0·23 to 0·30]).

INTERPRETATION: This study provides evidence of the contributory role of pictorial presentation of silent atherosclerosis for prevention of cardiovascular disease. It supports further development of methods to reduce the major problem of low adherence to medication and lifestyle modification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154318 (URN)10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32818-6 (DOI)000455437100026 ()30522919 (PubMedID)
Funder
Västerbotten County Council, Dnr ALFVLL-298001Swedish Research Council, Dnr 521-2013-2708Swedish Research Council, 2016-01891Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, Dnr 20150369Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20170481
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2020-05-15Bibliographically approved
Karvala, K., Sainio, M., Palmquist, E., Claeson, A.-S., Nyback, M.-H. & Nordin, S. (2018). Building-Related Environmental Intolerance and Associated Health in the General Population. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(9), Article ID 2047.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building-Related Environmental Intolerance and Associated Health in the General Population
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, article id 2047Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

People frequently attribute adverse symptoms to particular buildings when exposure to pollutants is low, within nonhazardous levels. Our aim was to characterize building-related intolerance (BRI) in the general population. Data were derived from two population-based questionnaire surveys, the Vasterbotten and osterbotten Environmental Health Study. We identified cases of BRI if respondents reported symptoms emerging from residing in certain buildings, when most other people had none. The questionnaires covered lifestyle factors, perceived general health, BRI duration and symptom frequency, the emotional and behavioral impact of BRI, coping strategies, and physician-diagnosed diseases. From the total of 4941 participants, we formed two case groups, 275 (5.6%) fulfilled criteria for self-reported BRI, and 123 (2.5%) for BRI with wide-ranging symptoms. Individuals in both case groups were significantly more often female, single, and perceived their general health as poorer than the referents, i.e., those reporting no BRI symptoms. The mean duration of BRI was 12 years. In both case groups, avoidance behavior was found in over 60%, and nearly half of the sample had sought medical care. BRI with wide-ranging symptoms was associated with elevated odds for all studied comorbidities (somatic and psychiatric diseases and functional somatic syndromes). The perceived health of individuals with BRI is poorer and comorbidities are more frequent than among referents. BRI seems to be similar to other environmental intolerances and shares features with functional somatic syndromes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
environmental intolerance, building-related intolerance, sick-building syndrome, asthma, functional somatic syndrome
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152897 (URN)10.3390/ijerph15092047 (DOI)000445765600256 ()30235805 (PubMedID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M14-0375:1
Available from: 2018-10-31 Created: 2018-10-31 Last updated: 2018-10-31Bibliographically approved
Gruber, M., Palmquist, E. & Nordin, S. (2018). Characteristics of perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity in the general population. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 59(4), 422-427
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics of perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity in the general population
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 422-427Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Health problems evoked in the presence of electrical equipment is a concern, calling for better understanding for characteristics of electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) in the general population. The present study investigated demographics, lifestyle factors, frequency and duration, coping strategies, proportion meeting clinical criteria for intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated persons with self-reported (n=91) EHS in comparison to referents (n=3,250). Middle age, female sex and poor perceived health was found to be associated with EHS. More than 50% in the EHS group reported having EMF-related symptoms more often than once a week, and the mean number of years experiencing EHS was 10.5. More than half of the EHS group reported that their symptoms started after a high-dose or long-term EMF exposure, that they actively tried to avoid EMF sources and that they mostly could affect the EMF environment. A minority of the EHS group had sought medical attention, been diagnosed by a physician or received treatment. Exhaustion syndrome, anxiety disorder, back/joint/muscle disorder, depression, functional somatic syndrome and migraine were comorbid with EHS. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of EHS and or consequences of EHS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity, functional somatic syndrome, environmental intolerance, prevalence, lifestyle factors, coping strategies
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150661 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12449 (DOI)000437295200008 ()29741795 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047489078 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2018-08-28Bibliographically approved
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