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Svahn, S., Lövheim, H., Isaksson, U., Sandman, P.-O. & Gustafsson, M. (2020). Cardiovascular drug use among people with cognitive impairment living in nursing homes in northern Sweden. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 76(4), 525-537
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cardiovascular drug use among people with cognitive impairment living in nursing homes in northern Sweden
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2020 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 76, no 4, p. 525-537Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe changes in the pattern of cardiovascular agents used in elderly people living in nursing homes between 2007 and 2013. Further, the aim was to analyse the use of cardiovascular drugs in relation to cognitive impairment and associated factors within the same population, where prescription of loop diuretics was used as a proxy for heart failure.

Methods: Two questionnaire surveys were performed including 2494 people in 2007 and 1654 people in 2013 living in nursing homes in northern Sweden. Data were collected concerning drug use, functioning in activities of daily living (ADL) and cognition, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). The use of different drugs and drug classes among people at four different levels of cognitive function in 2007 and 2013 were compared.

Results: The proportion of people prescribed ASA and diuretics was significantly lower at all four levels of cognitive function in 2013 compared to 2007. Among people prescribed loop diuretics, the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACEI/ARBs) increased from 37.8 to 45.6%, β-blockers from 36.0 to 41.8% and warfarin from 4.4 to 11.4%. The use of warfarin, ACEI/ARBs, β-blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) were less common among individuals with more severe cognitive impairment.

Conclusion: The results indicate that cardiovascular drug treatment has improved between 2007 and 2013, but there is room for further improvement, especially regarding adherence to guidelines for heart failure. Increasing cognitive impairment had an effect on treatment patterns for heart failure and atrial fibrillation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Cardiovascular drugs, Drug use, Heart failure, Major neurocognitive disorders, Nursing home
National Category
Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-169526 (URN)10.1007/s00228-019-02778-y (DOI)000521297200007 ()31915846 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85077552235 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-04-03 Created: 2020-04-03 Last updated: 2020-05-14Bibliographically approved
Backman, A. C., Ahnlund, P., Sjögren, K., Lövheim, H., McGilton, K. S. & Edvardsson, D. (2020). Embodying person-centred being and doing: Leading towards person-centred care in nursing homes as narrated by managers. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29(1-2), 172-183
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Embodying person-centred being and doing: Leading towards person-centred care in nursing homes as narrated by managers
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 29, no 1-2, p. 172-183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore how managers describe leading towards person-centred care in Swedish nursing homes.

BACKGROUND: Although a growing body of research knowledge exists highlighting the importance of leadership to promote person-centred care, studies focused on nursing home managers' own descriptions of leading their staff towards providing person-centred care is lacking.

DESIGN: Descriptive interview study. COREQ guidelines have been applied.

METHODS: The study consisted of semi-structured interviews with 12 nursing home managers within 11 highly person-centred nursing homes purposively selected from a nationwide survey of nursing homes in Sweden. Data collection was performed in April 2017, and the data were analysed using content analysis.

RESULTS: Leading towards person-centred care involved a main category; embodying person-centred being and doing, with four related categories: operationalising person-centred objectives; promoting a person-centred atmosphere; maximising person-centred team potential; and optimising person-centred support structures.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings revealed that leading towards person-centred care was described as having a personal understanding of the PCC concept and how to translate it into practice, and maximising the potential of and providing support to care staff, within a trustful and innovative work place. The findings also describe how managers co-ordinate several aspects of care simultaneously, such as facilitating, evaluating and refining the translation of person-centred philosophy into synchronised care actions.

RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The findings can be used to inspire nursing home leaders' practices and may serve as a framework for implementing person-centred care within facilities. A reasonable implication of these findings is that if organisations are committed to person-centred care provision, care may need to be organised in a way that enables managers to be present on the units, to enact these strategies and lead person-centred care.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
aged care, elder care, leadership, long-term care, management, nursing research, person-centred, qualitative descriptive
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165634 (URN)10.1111/jocn.15075 (DOI)31612556 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85074759005 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-02 Created: 2019-12-02 Last updated: 2020-03-23Bibliographically approved
Näsman, M., Niklasson, J., Nygård, M., Olofsson, B., Lövheim, H., Gustafson, Y. & Nyqvist, F. (2020). Risk factors for a decrease in high morale in very old peopleover a 5‑year period: data from two Nordic countries. European Journal of Ageing, 17, 31-41
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk factors for a decrease in high morale in very old peopleover a 5‑year period: data from two Nordic countries
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2020 (English)In: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380, Vol. 17, p. 31-41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High morale could be considered to be an essential part of aging well and increased knowledge of how to prevent a decreasein high morale in very old age could have important implications for policy, and social and health care development. Theobjective was to identify social and health-related risk factors for a decrease in morale over 5 years in very old peopleamong those with high morale at baseline. The study is based on data derived from the Umeå85+/GERDA study conductedin Northern Sweden and Western Finland. The final sample consisted of 174 individuals who were 85 years and older atbaseline and who had completed the follow-up 5 years later. Morale was measured with The Philadelphia Geriatric CenterMorale Scale (PGCMS). A set of social and health-related variables were used to test which factors were associated with adecrease in morale over 5 years. Linear regression was used for the multivariable analyses. The sample had a mean changeof − 1.3 (SD = 2.5) in PGCMS scores from T1 to T2. The results from the regression analyses showed that development ofdepressive disorders, increased feelings of loneliness and the death of a child during the follow-up period were associatedwith a decrease in morale. The results from our study indicate that preventing the development of depressive disorders andincreasing loneliness are key factors in preventing a decrease in high morale. Additionally, very old people who have recentlylost an adult child should receive adequate psychosocial support

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Longitudinal studies, Aged 80 and over, Subjective well-being, Quality of life
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163940 (URN)10.1007/s10433-019-00521-1 (DOI)000519370200004 ()32158370 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85068004240 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
Corneliusson, L., Sköldunger, A., Sjögren, K., Lövheim, H., Lindkvist, M., Wimo, A., . . . Edvardsson, D. (2020). Well‐being and Thriving in Sheltered Housing versus Ageing in Place: Results from the U‐Age Sheltered Housing Study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 73(3), 856-866
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Well‐being and Thriving in Sheltered Housing versus Ageing in Place: Results from the U‐Age Sheltered Housing Study
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 856-866Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: To explore to what extent type of residence (sheltered housing or ageing in place) contributes to thriving and well-being in older adults, when controlling for age, sex, living alone, being a widow and adjusting for functional status, self-rated health, and depressive mood.

Design: A matched cohort study.Methods A self-report survey was sent out to a total population of residents in all sheltered housings in Sweden and a matched control group ageing in place (N = 3,805). The data collection took place between October 2016-January 2017.

Results: The interaction analyses related to thriving showed that with increasing level of depressive mood and decreasing levels of self-rated health and functional status, those residing in sheltered housing generally reported higher levels of thriving, as compared with those ageing in place. Well-being was not found to be significantly associated with type of accommodation.

Conclusion: There may be features in sheltered housing that are associated with resident thriving especially among individuals with impairments of function, health or mood, although further studies are required to identify these specific features.

Impact: This study informs staff and policymakers about thriving and well-being in sheltered housing accommodations. These findings may be used to further the development of sheltered housing accommodations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
aged, cohort study, housing for the elderly, nursing, older people, quality of life, residence characteristics, social participation, thriving, well-being
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-166130 (URN)10.1111/jan.14285 (DOI)000512486200010 ()31814145 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-12-12 Created: 2019-12-12 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
Lopatko Lindman, K., Weidung, B., Olsson, J., Josefsson, M., Kok, E., Johansson, A., . . . Lövheim, H. (2019). A genetic signature including apolipoprotein Eε4 potentiates the risk of herpes simplex-associated Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & dementia, 5, 697-704
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A genetic signature including apolipoprotein Eε4 potentiates the risk of herpes simplex-associated Alzheimer's disease
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2019 (English)In: Alzheimer's & dementia, ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 5, p. 697-704Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) in combination with genetic susceptibility has previously been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis.

Methods: Plasma from 360 AD cases, obtained on average 9.6 years before diagnosis, and their age- and sex-matched controls, were analyzed for anti-HSV1 immunoglobulin (Ig) G with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). APOE genotype and nine other selected risk genes for AD were extracted from a genome-wide association study analysis by deCODE genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Results: The interaction between APOEε4 heterozygosity (APOEε24 or ε3/ε4) and anti-HSV1 IgG carriage increased the risk of AD (OR 4.55, P = .02). A genetic risk score based on the nine AD risk genes also interacted with anti-HSV1 IgG for the risk of developing AD (OR 2.35, P = .01).

Discussion: The present findings suggest that the APOEε4 allele and other AD genetic risk factors might potentiate the risk of HSV1-associated AD.

Keywords
APOEε4, Alzheimer's disease, Apolipoprotein E4, Dementia, HSV, Herpes simplex, Nested case-control study
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Research subject
Medical Virology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-167226 (URN)10.1016/j.trci.2019.09.014 (DOI)31921962 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-01-13 Created: 2020-01-13 Last updated: 2020-01-14Bibliographically approved
Brännström, J., Lövheim, H., Gustafson, Y. & Nordström, P. (2019). Association Between Antidepressant Drug Use and Hip Fracture in Older People Before and After Treatment Initiation. JAMA psychiatry, 76(2), 172-179
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association Between Antidepressant Drug Use and Hip Fracture in Older People Before and After Treatment Initiation
2019 (English)In: JAMA psychiatry, ISSN 2168-6238, E-ISSN 2168-622X, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 172-179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

IMPORTANCE: Treatment with antidepressants has been associated with hip fracture. This association could restrict the treatment options, especially in older patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between antidepressant drug treatment and hip fracture starting 1 year before the initiation of treatment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this nationwide cohort study, 204 072 individuals in the Prescribed Drugs Register of Sweden's National Board of Health and Welfare aged 65 years or older who had a prescription of antidepressants filled between July 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, were matched by birth year and sex to 1 control participant who was not prescribed antidepressants (for a total of 408 144 people in the register). Outcome data were collected from 1 year before to 1 year after the index date (date of prescription being filled). Data analysis was performed from July 1, 2005, to December 31, 2012. EXPOSURES: First filled prescription of an antidepressant drug. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Incident hip fractures occurring in the year before and year after initiation of antidepressant therapy were registered. Associations were investigated using multivariable conditional logistic regression models and flexible parametric models. RESULTS: Of the 408 144 people in the register who were included in the study, 257 486 (63.1%) were women, with a mean (SD) age of 80.1 (7.2) years. Antidepressant users sustained more than twice as many hip fractures than did nonusers in the year before and year after the initiation of therapy (2.8% vs 1.1% and 3.5% vs 1.3%, respectively, per actual incidence figures). In adjusted analyses, the odds ratios were highest for the associations between antidepressant use and hip fracture 16 to 30 days before the prescription was filled (odds ratio, 5.76; 95% CI, 4.73-7.01). In all separate analyses of age groups, of men and women, and of individual antidepressants, the highest odds ratios were seen 16 to 30 days before initiation of treatment, and no clear dose-response relationship was seen. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The present study found an association between antidepressant drug use and hip fracture before and after the initiation of therapy. This finding raises questions about the association that should be further investigated in treatment studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American medical association, 2019
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162516 (URN)10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.3679 (DOI)000457835000011 ()30601883 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-21 Created: 2019-08-21 Last updated: 2019-08-21Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, M., Lämås, K., Isaksson, U., Sandman, P.-O. & Lövheim, H. (2019). Constipation and laxative use among people living in nursing homes in 2007 and 2013. BMC Geriatrics, 19, Article ID 38.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Constipation and laxative use among people living in nursing homes in 2007 and 2013
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2019 (English)In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 19, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Constipation is a common condition among older people, particularly among people living in nursing homes, and the use of drugs such as opioids is one of many factors that contribute to its high prevalence. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of constipation and the use of laxatives between 2007 and 2013, to analyze constipation and laxative use among people who are prescribed opioids, and to identify factors associated with constipation. Methods: In 2007 and 2013, two surveys were performed in the county of Vasterbotten in Northern Sweden, comprising all those living in nursing homes. The Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale was used to collect data regarding laxative, opioid and anticholinergic drug use, functioning in activities of daily living (ADL), cognition and symptoms of constipation. A comparison was made between 2820 people from 2007 and 1902 people from 2013. Results: The prevalence of symptoms of constipation among people living in nursing homes increased from 36% in 2007 to 40% in 2013. After controlling for age, sex, ADL, cognitive impairment and use of opioid and anticholinergic drugs, this difference was found to be statistically significant. When controlled for demographic changes, there was a statistically significant difference in the regular use of laxatives between the respective years, from 46% in 2007 to 59% in 2013. People prescribed opioids and anticholinergic drugs were at increased risk of constipation, while people with a higher ADL score were at decreased risk. Further, among people prescribed opioids and rated as constipated, 35% in 2007 and 20% in 2013 were not prescribed laxatives for regular use, a difference that was found to be statistically significant. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms of constipation increased between 2007 and 2013. Although there was a decrease between the years, there were still a number of people being prescribed with opioids and rated as constipated who were not treated with laxatives. This study therefore indicates that constipation remains a significant problem among people in nursing homes and also indicates that those prescribed opioids could benefit from an increased awareness of the risk of constipation and treatment, if required.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMC, 2019
Keywords
Constipation, Laxatives, Dementia, Nursing homes
National Category
Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162507 (URN)10.1186/s12877-019-1054-x (DOI)000458136800002 ()30736737 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-21 Created: 2019-08-21 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Näsman, M., Niklasson, J., Saarela, J., Nygård, M., Olofsson, B., Conradsson, M., . . . Nyqvist, F. (2019). Five-year change in morale is associated with negative life events in very old age. Aging & Mental Health, 84-91
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Five-year change in morale is associated with negative life events in very old age
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2019 (English)In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, p. 84-91Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to study changes in morale in individuals 85 years and older, and to assess the effect of negative life events on morale over a five-year follow-up period.

METHOD: The present study is based on longitudinal data from the Umeå85+/GERDA-study, including individuals 85 years and older at baseline (n = 204). Morale was measured with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). Negative life events were assessed using an index including 13 negative life events occurring during the follow-up period. Linear regression was used for the multivariate analyses.

RESULTS: The majority of the sample (69.1%) had no significant changes in morale during the five-year follow-up. However, the accumulation of negative life events was significantly associated with a greater decrease in PGCMS. A higher baseline PGCMS score did not attenuate the adverse effect negative life events had on morale.

CONCLUSION: Morale seemed to be mainly stable in a five-year follow-up of very old people. It seems, nonetheless, that individuals are affected by negative life events, regardless of level of morale. Preventing negative life events and supporting individuals who experience multiple negative life events could have important implications for the care of very old people.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Longitudinal studies, life events, mental health, morale
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142034 (URN)10.1080/13607863.2017.1393795 (DOI)000461682000012 ()29077486 (PubMedID)
Funder
Västerbotten County CouncilNorrbotten County CouncilForte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2013-1512Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
Lövheim, H., Gustafsson, M., Isaksson, U., Karlsson, S. & Sandman, P.-O. (2019). Gottfries' Cognitive Scale for Staff Proxy Rating of Cognitive Function Among Nursing Home Residents. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 72(4), 1251-1260
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gottfries' Cognitive Scale for Staff Proxy Rating of Cognitive Function Among Nursing Home Residents
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 1251-1260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: For research purposes, there is a need for tools to assess an individual's level of cognitive function. For survey-based investigations in nursing home contexts, proxy ratings allow the assessment also of individuals with severe cognitive impairment. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the feasibility and psychometric properties of Gottfries' cognitive scale when used in a nursing home context for proxy rating of cognitive function. Method: The psychometric properties of Gottfries' cognitive scale were investigated in a sample of 8,492 nursing home residents in Vasterbotten County, Sweden, using item response theory and classic scale theory-based approaches. Results: Cognitive function could be scored in 97.1% of the assessed individuals. The scale had a negligible floor effect, it had items with a large spread in difficulties, it appeared linear, and it distributed the assessed individuals equally over the scale. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.967, and an exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors of the scale - interpreted to represent orientation to time, to place, and to person. Conclusion: Gottfries' cognitive scale is a feasible tool for grading cognitive function among nursing home residents using staff proxy ratings. The scale has excellent psychometric properties with a very high internal consistency, a favorable distribution of item difficulties producing an almost rectangular distribution of scores, and a negligible floor effect. The scale thus can be recommended for use in survey-based investigations in nursing home contexts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2019
Keywords
Assessment, cognitive function, cognitive impairment, dementia, measurement, nursing home, scale, survey
National Category
Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-166992 (URN)10.3233/JAD-190599 (DOI)000503006600021 ()31683479 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-01-08 Created: 2020-01-08 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
Lövheim, H., Norman, T., Weidung, B., Olsson, J., Josefsson, M., Adolfsson, R., . . . Elgh, F. (2019). Herpes Simplex Virus, APOE ɛ4, and Cognitive Decline in Old Age: Results from the Betula Cohort Study. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 67(1), 211-220
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Herpes Simplex Virus, APOE ɛ4, and Cognitive Decline in Old Age: Results from the Betula Cohort Study
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 211-220Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been suggested to play a role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) development.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the early AD-related symptom episodic memory decline in relation to HSV and carriage of allele 4 of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE ɛ4) in a large population-based cohort with a long follow-up time.

Methods: The study included 3,413 persons, with longitudinal data available for 1,293 persons with a mean follow-up time of 11.6 years. The associations between HSV carriage, APOE ɛ4 carriage, and episodic memory was investigated at baseline, as well as in longitudinal analyses where individuals with and without HSV antibodies (HSV1/2 non-specific) were matched and episodic memory decline compared.

Results: Cross-sectional analyses revealed an age-dependent association of HSV carriage with lower episodic memory function, particularly among APOE ɛ4 carriers (p = 0.008). Longitudinal analyses showed an increased risk of episodic memory decline in HSV carriers (≥65 years: p < 0.001, all ages: non-significant), and a significant interaction between HSV and APOE ɛ4 for episodic memory decline (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: In this large population-based cohort study, both cross-sectional and longitudinal results support an association between HSV carriage and declining episodic memory function, especially among APOE ɛ4 carriers. The results strengthen the hypothesis that HSV is associated with AD development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2019
Keywords
Alzheimer’s disease, APOE ɛ4, apolipoprotein E4, cognitive impairment, cohort study, dementia, epidemiological study, episodic memory, herpes simplex virus
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162728 (URN)10.3233/JAD-171162 (DOI)000457778000017 ()30636735 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5271-4780

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