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Eliasson, Mats
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Eliasson, M., Eriksson, M., Lundqvist, R., Wennberg, P. & Söderberg, S. (2018). Comparison of trends in cardiovascular risk factors between two regions with and without a community and primary care prevention programme. Paper presented at European-Society-of-Cardiology Congress, AUG 25-29, 2018, Munich, GERMANY. European Heart Journal, 39, 76-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of trends in cardiovascular risk factors between two regions with and without a community and primary care prevention programme
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2018 (English)In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 39, p. 76-76Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2018
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157619 (URN)10.1093/eurheartj/ehy564.P608 (DOI)000459824000219 ()
Conference
European-Society-of-Cardiology Congress, AUG 25-29, 2018, Munich, GERMANY
Note

Supplement: 1

Meeting Abstract: P608

Available from: 2019-03-26 Created: 2019-03-26 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Eliasson, M., Eriksson, M., Lundqvist, R., Wennberg, P. & Söderberg, S. (2018). Comparison of trends in cardiovascular risk factors between two regions with and without a community and primary care prevention programme. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 25(6), 1765-1772
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of trends in cardiovascular risk factors between two regions with and without a community and primary care prevention programme
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2018 (English)In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1765-1772Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background The effect of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is debated. The Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) is an individual and community-based public health programme that comprises the whole county of Västerbotten (VB). In the neighbouring county of Norrbotten (NB), no programmes have been implemented.

Method Between 1994 and 2014, five surveys were performed in the two counties on persons aged 40 to 75 years within the Northern Sweden MONICA Study. The number of subjects participating was 6600 (75.4%). We compared time trends in risk factors between the two counties using regression models including age, county and year of survey. To test whether time trends differed between counties, the interaction between county and year was included in the models.

Results Systolic blood pressure declined in both counties, and the decline was faster in Västerbotten than in Norrbotten ( p = 0.043 for interaction county*year). Diastolic blood pressure declined in VB but increased in NB ( p < 0.001). Cholesterol levels declined at a similar rate in both counties whereas body mass index increased in both counties. Fasting glucose decreased in VB ( p = 0.003) and increased in NB. The prevalence of regular smokers decreased faster in VB than in NB ( p = 0.01). Trend in waist and hip circumference, known diabetes, having an academic degree, being physically inactive or 10 year cardiovascular mortality according to SCORE did not differ.

Conclusion Blood pressure, glucose and smoking improved at a faster rate in the county with a community and primary care-based intervention than in the county without such an intervention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
Prevention, blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, cholesterol, cohort, diabetes, glucose, obesity, risk factor, smoking
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-149620 (URN)10.1177/2047487318778349 (DOI)000448077100013 ()29846119 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-06-25 Created: 2018-06-25 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Karjalainen, T., Adiels, M., Björck, L., Cooney, M.-T., Graham, I., Perk, J., . . . Eliasson, M. (2017). An evaluation of the performance of SCORE Sweden 2015 in estimating cardiovascular risk: The Northern Sweden MONICA Study 1999-2014. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 24(1), 103-110
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An evaluation of the performance of SCORE Sweden 2015 in estimating cardiovascular risk: The Northern Sweden MONICA Study 1999-2014
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2017 (English)In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 103-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Risk prediction models for cardiovascular death are important for providing advice on lifestyle and in decision-making regarding primary preventive drug treatment. The latest Swedish version of the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE 2015) has yet not been tested in the population.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of high and very high risk of fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) of the current population according to 2015 SCORE Sweden and to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the 2003 Swedish version of SCORE (2003 SCORE Sweden) and 2015 SCORE Sweden in a population with declining CVD mortality.

METHODS: We estimated the high and very high risk group for cardiovascular death for individuals 40-65 years of age in the 2014 Northern Sweden MONICA population survey excluding subjects with known diabetes or previous CVD (n = 813). Using the 1999 MONICA survey (n = 3347) followed up for 10 years for CVD mortality, we assessed the calibration of both 2003 and 2015 SCORE Sweden.

RESULTS: In 2014 2.6% of the population was considered at high or very high risk for fatal CVD, 95% were men and 76% were in the age group 60-65 years. Including subjects with a single markedly elevated risk factor, known diabetes or CVD, 12% of the population was at high or very high risk. During 10 years of follow-up of the 1999 cohort, 34 CVD deaths (24 men and 10 women) occurred. The 2003 SCORE overestimated the risk of death from CVD (ratio predicted/observed 2.3, P < 0.001) whereas the 2015 SCORE slightly overestimated the number of deaths (predicted/observed 1.3, P = 0.12). The 2015 SCORE predicted more accurately than the 2003 SCORE the number of deaths in the different risk and age categories.

CONCLUSION: The 2015 SCORE Sweden more adequately than 2003 SCORE Sweden predicts the number of deaths. In 2014, the proportion of high-risk individuals is small in northern Sweden. The main use of 2015 SCORE Sweden would therefore be as an educational tool between the physician and people without diabetes or CVD in a consultation regarding cardiovascular risk.

Keywords
Cardiovascular disease, cohort study, mortality, SCORE prediction
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127027 (URN)10.1177/2047487316673142 (DOI)000390556800009 ()27708071 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-10-26 Created: 2016-10-26 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Brunström, M., Eliasson, M., Nilsson, P. M. & Carlberg, B. (2017). Blood pressure treatment levels and choice of antihypertensive agent in people with diabetes mellitus: an overview of systematic reviews. Journal of Hypertension, 35, 435-462
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blood pressure treatment levels and choice of antihypertensive agent in people with diabetes mellitus: an overview of systematic reviews
2017 (English)In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 35, p. 435-462Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: Multiple systematic reviews address the effect of antihypertensive treatment in people with diabetes. Here, we summarize current systematic reviews concerning antihypertensive treatment effect at different blood pressure (BP) levels, and relative treatment effect of different antihypertensive agents.

METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, BIOSIS, DARE and CDSR during years 2005-2016. Eligibility criteria, number of trials and participants, outcomes analysed, statistical methods used for data synthesis, and principal results were extracted for each review. Review quality was assessed using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews tool.

RESULTS: We found four reviews concerning BP treatment level. These consistently showed that the effect of antihypertensive treatment on mortality, cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease was attenuated at lower BP levels. If SBP was more than 140 mmHg, treatment reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular disease, stroke, myocardial infarction and heart failure. If SBP was less than 140 mmHg, treatment increased the risk of cardiovascular death. We found eight reviews concerning choice of agent. We found no difference between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers and diuretics in preventing all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, combined cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and end-stage renal disease. Minor differences exist for stroke and heart failure. Data were limited on people with type 1 diabetes and very elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. None of the reviews concerning choice of agent included all relevant trials.

CONCLUSION: The available evidence supports treatment in people with type 2 diabetes and SBP more than 140 mmHg, using any of the major antihypertensive drug classes.

Keywords
Quality improvement, Stroke registries, Stroke risk factors, Time trends
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-128528 (URN)10.1097/HJH.0000000000001183 (DOI)000393822200004 ()27870655 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-12-06 Created: 2016-12-06 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Lee, C. M., Woodward, M., Pandeya, N., Adams, R., Barrett-Connor, E., Boyko, E. J., . . . Huxley, R. R. (2017). Comparison of relationships between four common anthropometric measures and incident diabetes. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 132, 36-44
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of relationships between four common anthropometric measures and incident diabetes
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2017 (English)In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227, Vol. 132, p. 36-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: First, to conduct a detailed exploration of the prospective relations between four commonly used anthropometric measures with incident diabetes and to examine their consistency across different population subgroups. Second, to compare the ability of each of the measures to predict five-year risk of diabetes. Methods: We conducted a meta- analysis of individual participant data on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist- hip and waist- height ratio (WHtR) from the Obesity, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Collaboration. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association between a one standard deviation increment in each anthropometric measure and incident diabetes. Harrell's concordance statistic was used to test the predictive accuracy of each measure for diabetes risk at five years. Results: Twenty- one studies with 154,998 participants and 9342 cases of incident diabetes were available. Each of the measures had a positive association with incident diabetes. A one standard deviation increment in each of the measures was associated with 64- 80% higher diabetes risk. WC and WHtR more strongly associated with risk than BMI (ratio of hazard ratios: 0.95 [0.92,0.99] - 0.97 [0.95,0.98]) but there was no appreciable difference between the four measures in the predictive accuracy for diabetes at five years. Conclusions: Despite suggestions that abdominal measures of obesity have stronger associations with incident diabetes and better predictive accuracy than BMI, we found no overall advantage in any one measure at discriminating the risk of developing diabetes. Any of these measures would suffice to assist in primary diabetes prevention efforts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Diabetes, Body mass index, Waist circumference
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142476 (URN)10.1016/j.diabres.2017.07.022 (DOI)000415202800005 ()28783531 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-12-04 Created: 2017-12-04 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Johansson, K., Jansson, J.-H., Johansson, L., Bylesjö, I., Nilsson, T. K., Eliasson, M., . . . Lind, M. (2017). Factor XII as a Risk Marker for Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Prospective Cohort Study. Cerebrovascular diseases extra, 7(1), 84-94
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factor XII as a Risk Marker for Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Prospective Cohort Study
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2017 (English)In: Cerebrovascular diseases extra, ISSN 1664-5456, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 84-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Coagulation factor XII (FXII) is involved in pathological thrombus formation and is a suggested target of anticoagulants. It is unclear whether FXII levels are correlated with cardiovascular risk factors and whether they are associated with myocardial infarction or ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between FXII and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population. We also aimed to study the associations between FXII levels and future myocardial infarction and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

METHODS: This prospective cohort study measured FXII levels in 1,852 randomly selected participants in a health survey performed in northern Sweden in 1994. Participants were followed until myocardial infarction, stroke, death, or until December 31, 2011.

RESULTS: During the median follow-up of 17.9 years, 165 individuals were diagnosed with myocardial infarction, 108 with ischemic stroke, and 30 with hemorrhagic stroke. There were weak correlations between FXII and body mass index, cholesterol, and hypertension. There was no association between FXII and myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke, neither in univariable Cox regression analysis nor after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. In univariable Cox regression analysis, the hazard ratio for the association between FXII levels and hemorrhagic stroke was 1.42 per SD (95% confidence interval: 0.99-2.05). In the multivariable model, higher levels of FXII were associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio 1.51 per SD; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.21).

CONCLUSION: We found an independent association between FXII levels and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke, but not between FXII levels and ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
S. Karger, 2017
Keywords
Coagulation, Biomarkers, Intracranial hemorrhage, Cohort study, Cardiovascular disease
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-136401 (URN)10.1159/000468994 (DOI)000405098500004 ()28433996 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-06-16 Created: 2017-06-16 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Engberg, I., Segerstedt, J., Waller, G., Wennberg, P. & Eliasson, M. (2017). Fatigue in the general population-associations to age, sex, socioeconomic status, physical activity, sitting time and self-rated health: the northern Sweden MONICA study 2014. BMC Public Health, 17, Article ID 654.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatigue in the general population-associations to age, sex, socioeconomic status, physical activity, sitting time and self-rated health: the northern Sweden MONICA study 2014
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2017 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 654Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Fatigue is widespread in the population and a common complaint in primary care. Little is known about prevalence of fatigue in the population and its predictors. We aimed to describe the pattern of fatigue in the general population and to explore the associations with age, sex, socioeconomic status, self-reported physical activity, sitting time and self-rated health.

Methods: One thousand, five hundred and fifty-seven out of 2500 invited subjects in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study 2014, aged 25-74 years, filled out the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), consisting of four subscales: General fatigue (GF), Physical fatigue (PF), Reduced activity (RA) and Mental fatigue (MF). Questions regarding age, sex, socioeconomic status, physical activity, sitting time and self-rated health were also included.

Results: Higher age correlated significantly with lower fatigue scores for the GF and MF subscales. Women had higher fatigue scores than men on all subscales (p < 0.05). Among men, higher socioeconomic status was related to lower fatigue for the GF, PF and RA subscales (age adjusted p < 0.05). Among women, higher socioeconomic status was related to lower fatigue for the PF and MF subscales (age adjusted p < 0.05). Higher physical activity was connected to lower levels of fatigue for all subscales (age and sex adjusted p < 0.001) except for MF. Longer time spent sitting was also related to more fatigue on all subscales (age and sex adjusted p < 0.005) except for MF. Better self-rated health was strongly associated with lower fatigue for all subscales (age and sex adjusted p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Older, highly educated, physically active men, with little sedentary behavior are generally the least fatigued. Self-rated health is strongly related to fatigue. Interventions increasing physical exercise and reducing sedentary behavior may be important to help patients with fatigue and should be investigated in prospective studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2017
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139625 (URN)10.1186/s12889-017-4623-y (DOI)000408015100001 ()28806984 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Awad, A., Lundqvist, R., Rolandsson, O., Sundström, A. & Eliasson, M. (2017). Lower cognitive performance among long-term type 1 diabetes survivors: A case-control study. Journal of diabetes and its complications, 31(8), 1328-1331
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lower cognitive performance among long-term type 1 diabetes survivors: A case-control study
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2017 (English)In: Journal of diabetes and its complications, ISSN 1056-8727, E-ISSN 1873-460X, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 1328-1331Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. The cognitive decrement is believed to depend on macro- and microvascular complications and long disease duration. Some patients do not develop these complications, but still report cognitive symptoms. We examined if long-standing T1D without complications is associated with lower cognitive performance.

METHODS: A group of patients (n=43) with long-standing T1D (>30years) without micro- or macro vascular complications was compared with a non-diabetic control group (n=86) on six cognitive tests which probed episodic memory, semantic memory, episodic short-term memory, visual attention and psychomotor speed. Each patient was matched with two controls regarding age, gender and education. A linear mixed effect model was used to analyze the data.

RESULTS: The mean age was 57years and mean duration was 41years. Patients with diabetes had lower diastolic blood pressure but BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and smoking did not differ between groups. Patients had lower results than non-diabetic controls in episodic short-term memory (p<0.001) and also lower values on a test that mirrors visual attention and psychomotor speed (p=0.019).

CONCLUSIONS: Long-standing T1D was associated with lower cognitive performance, regardless of other diabetes-related complications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Cognition, Complications, Memory, Psychomotor speed, Type 1-diabetes
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-136399 (URN)10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2017.04.023 (DOI)000406081200016 ()28579311 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-06-16 Created: 2017-06-16 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Carrasquilla, G. D., Frumento, P., Berglund, A., Borgfeldt, C., Bottai, M., Chiavenna, C., . . . Leander, K. (2017). Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of stroke: A pooled analysis of data from population-based cohort studies. PLoS Medicine, 14(11), Article ID e1002445.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of stroke: A pooled analysis of data from population-based cohort studies
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2017 (English)In: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 14, no 11, article id e1002445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Recent research indicates a favourable influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) if initiated early, but not late, on subclinical atherosclerosis. However, the clinical relevance of timing of HT initiation for hard end points such as stroke remains to be determined. Further, no previous research has considered the timing of initiation of HT in relation to haemorrhagic stroke risk. The importance of the route of administration, type, active ingredient, and duration of HT for stroke risk is also unclear. We aimed to assess the association between HT and risk of stroke, considering the timing of initiation, route of administration, type, active ingredient, and duration of HT.

Methods and findings: Data on HT use reported by the participants in 5 population-based Swedish cohort studies, with baseline investigations performed during the period 1987-2002, were combined in this observational study. In total, 88,914 postmenopausal women who reported data on HT use and had no previous cardiovascular disease diagnosis were included. Incident events of stroke (ischaemic, haemorrhagic, or unspecified) and haemorrhagic stroke were identified from national population registers. Laplace regression was employed to assess crude and multivariable-adjusted associations between HT and stroke risk by estimating percentile differences (PDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The fifth and first PDs were calculated for stroke and haemorrhagic stroke, respectively. Crude models were adjusted for age at baseline only. The final adjusted models included age at baseline, level of education, smoking status, body mass index, level of physical activity, and age at menopause onset. Additional variables evaluated for potential confounding were type of menopause, parity, use of oral contraceptives, alcohol consumption, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, family history of cardiovascular disease, and cohort. During a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 6,371 first-time stroke events were recorded; of these, 1,080 were haemorrhagic. Following multivariable adjustment, early initiation (<5 years since menopause onset) of HT was associated with a longer stroke-free period than never use (fifth PD, 1.00 years; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.57), but there was no significant extension to the time period free of haemorrhagic stroke (first PD, 1.52 years; 95% CI -0.32 to 3.37). When considering timing as a continuous variable, the stroke-free and the haemorrhagic stroke-free periods were maximal if HT was initiated approximately 0-5 years from the onset of menopause. If single conjugated equine oestrogen HT was used, late initiation of HT was associated with a shorter stroke-free (fifth PD, -4.41 years; 95% CI -7.14 to -1.68) and haemorrhagic stroke-free (first PD, -9.51 years; 95% CI -12.77 to -6.24) period than never use. Combined HT when initiated late was significantly associated with a shorter haemorrhagic stroke-free period (first PD, -1.97 years; 95% CI -3.81 to -0.13), but not with a shorter stroke-free period (fifth PD, -1.21 years; 95% CI -3.11 to 0.68) than never use. Given the observational nature of this study, the possibility of uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded. Further, immortal time bias, also related to the observational design, cannot be ruled out.

Conclusions: When initiated early in relation to menopause onset, HT was not associated with increased risk of incident stroke, regardless of the route of administration, type of HT, active ingredient, and duration. Generally, these findings held also for haemorrhagic stroke. Our results suggest that the initiation of HT 0-5 years after menopause onset, as compared to never use, is associated with a decreased risk of stroke and haemorrhagic stroke. Late initiation was associated with elevated risks of stroke and haemorrhagic stroke when conjugated equine oestrogen was used as single therapy. Late initiation of combined HT was associated with haemorrhagic stroke risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2017
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143590 (URN)10.1371/journal.pmed.1002445 (DOI)000416834800028 ()29149179 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-05 Created: 2018-01-05 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, M., Carlberg, B., Pennlert, J., Söderberg, S. & Eliasson, M. (2017). Time trends and socioeconomic differences in blood pressure levels: the Northern Sweden MONICA study 1994-2014. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 24(14), 1473-1481
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time trends and socioeconomic differences in blood pressure levels: the Northern Sweden MONICA study 1994-2014
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2017 (English)In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 24, no 14, p. 1473-1481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: People with low socioeconomic status have higher blood pressure (BP), increasing their risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. We hypothesized that the gap in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP, according to educational level, has decreased over time but, that economical vulnerability would confer higher BP.

Methods: A total of 4564 women and 4363 men aged 25-74 years participated in five population-based surveys in the Northern Sweden MONICA study between 1994 and 2014 (participation rate 76.8-62.5%).

Results: SBP decreased by 10 mmHg in women and 4 mmHg in men, while DBP was unchanged. Treatment with antihypertensives increased in all but the youngest men. The prevalence of BP control in the population (<140/90 mmHg) increased and in 2014 reached 75% among women and 70% among men. The decrease in SBP was more pronounced in people without university education than in people with university education and DBP showed the same pattern, regardless of education. After adjustment for confounding factors, age, male sex, higher body mass index, and being born in a Nordic country were related to higher SBP and DBP. University education was related to lower SBP, while variables mirroring economic vulnerability were not associated with BP levels.

Conclusions: BP levels as well as the socioeconomic gap in BP has decreased in Sweden but people with a lower level of education still have higher SBP. Lacking economic resources is not associated with high BP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
Blood pressure, socioeconomic status, educational status, risk factors, cardiovascular diseases
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-137831 (URN)10.1177/2047487317722263 (DOI)000411206400003 ()28718663 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-07-21 Created: 2017-07-21 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
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