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Bidleman, Terry F.
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 27) Show all publications
Bidleman, T. F. & Tysklind, M. (2018). Breakthrough during air sampling with polyurethane foam: What do PUF 2/PUF 1 ratios mean?. Chemosphere, 192, 267-271
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breakthrough during air sampling with polyurethane foam: What do PUF 2/PUF 1 ratios mean?
2018 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 192, p. 267-271Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Frontal chromatography theory is applied to describe movement of gaseous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) through a column of polyurethane foam (PUF). Collected mass fractions (FC) are predicted for sample volume/breakthrough volume ratios (τ = VS/VB) up to 6.0 and PUF bed theoretical plate numbers (N) from 2 to 16. The predictions assume constant air concentrations and temperatures. Extension of the calculations is done to relate the collection efficiency of a 2-PUF train (FC1+2) to the PUF 2/PUF 1 ratio. FC1+2 exceeds 0.9 for PUF 2/PUF 1 ≤ 0.5 and lengths of PUF commonly used in air samplers. As the PUF 2/PUF 1 ratio approaches unity, confidence in these predictions is limited by the analytical ability to distinguish residues on the two PUFs. Field data should not be arbitrarily discarded because some analytes broke through to the backup PUF trap. The fractional collection efficiencies can be used to estimate air concentrations from quantities retained on the PUF trap when sampling is not quantitative.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Air sampling, Semivolatile organic compounds, Polyurethane foam, Frontal chromatography, Collection efficiency
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141454 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.10.152 (DOI)000418313900030 ()29107878 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-06 Created: 2017-11-06 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Bidleman, T. F., Brorström-Lundén, E., Hansson, K., Laudon, H., Nygren, O. & Tysklind, M. (2017). Atmospheric transport and deposition of bromoanisoles along a temperate to arctic gradient. Environmental Science and Technology, 51(19), 10974-10982
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atmospheric transport and deposition of bromoanisoles along a temperate to arctic gradient
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1086-931X, E-ISSN 1520-6912, Vol. 51, no 19, p. 10974-10982Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bromoanisoles (BAs) arise from O-methylation of bromophenols, produced by marine algae and invertebrates. BAs undergo sea-air exchange and are transported over the oceans. Here we report 2,4-DiBA and 2,4,6-TriBA in air and deposition on the Swedish west coast (Råö) and the interior of arctic Finland (Pallas). Results are discussed in perspective with previous measurements in the northern Baltic region in 2011−2013. BAs in air decreased from south to north in the order Råö > northern Baltic > Pallas. Geometric mean concentrations at Pallas increased significantly (p < 0.05) between 2002 and 2015 for 2,4-DiBA but not for 2,4,6-TriBA. The logarithm of BA partial pressures correlated significantly to reciprocal air temperature at the coastal station Råö and over the Baltic, but only weakly (2,4-DiBA) or not significantly (2,4,6-TriBA) at inland Pallas. Deposition fluxes of BAs were similar at both sites despite lower air concentrations at Pallas, due to greater precipitation scavenging at lower temperatures. Proportions of the two BAs in air and deposition were related to Henry’s law partitioning and source regions. Precipitation concentrations were 10−40% of those in surface water of Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea. BAs deposited in the bay catchment likely enter rivers and provide an unexpected source to northern estuaries. BAs may be precursors to higher molecular weight compounds identified by others in Swedish inland lakes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017
Keywords
polybrominated diphenyl ethers, persistent organic pollutants, bromoperoxidase catalyzed dimerization, halogenated natural products, dibenzo-P-dioxins, OH-PBDES, methoxylated derivatives, photochemical formation, brominated anisoles, marine environment
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-140301 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.7b03218 (DOI)000412716500008 ()28885011 (PubMedID)
Projects
EcoChange
Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-10-04 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Bidleman, T. F., Laudon, H., Nygren, O., Svanberg, S. & Tysklind, M. (2017). Chlorinated pesticides and natural brominated anisoles in air at three northern Baltic stations. Environmental Pollution, 225, 381-389
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chlorinated pesticides and natural brominated anisoles in air at three northern Baltic stations
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 225, p. 381-389Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive samplers were deployed at one inland and two island locations in the Bothnian Bay region of the northern Baltic Sea. Uptake was linear over 81–147 d and a temperature range of −2.6 to 14.2 °C for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) having log KOA ≥9 at ambient temperatures. Partial saturation of the PUF disks occurred for the more volatile OCPs hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and for bromoanisoles (BAs), which are products of bromophenols released by natural and anthropogenic sources. Correction for nonlinear uptake of these was made using experimentally measured PUF-air partition coefficients. Passive-derived air concentrations of pesticides were uniform over the bay and agreed within a factor of 2 or better with levels determined by active (pumped) sampling at one of the island stations. Levels of OCPs were similar to those reported at background sites in the European and Canadian Arctic and at monitoring stations in the central Baltic and southern Scandinavia, indicating long-range transport. The insecticide chlorpyrifos was 10 times lower at bay stations than in the Canadian Arctic. Insight to sources and processes was gained by examining compound profiles. Fractions Falpha = α-HCH/(α-HCH + γ-HCH) and FTC = trans-chlordane/(trans-chlordane + cis-chlordane) at bay stations were higher than in the Norwegian and Finnish Arctic and similar to those at the southern monitoring stations. Volatilization of chlordanes from Baltic seawater may also modify FTC. Higher FTriBA = 2,4,6-TriBA/(2,4,6-TriBA + 2,4-DiBA) distinguished local volatilization from the Baltic Sea versus lower FTriBA found at the inland site and reported in air on the Norwegian coast, suggesting westerly transport from the Atlantic across Norway and Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Passive air sampling, Polyurethane foam, Pesticides, Halogenated Natural Products, Baltic Sea
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-134149 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2017.02.064 (DOI)000401679200041 ()28336095 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-04-27 Created: 2017-04-27 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Pućko, M., Stern, G. A., Burt, A. E., Jantunen, L. M., Bidleman, T. F., Macdonald, R. W., . . . Rysgaard, S. (2017). Current use pesticide and legacy organochlorine pesticide dynamics at the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere interface in resolute passage, Canadian Arctic, during winter-summer transition. Science of the Total Environment, 580, 1460-1469
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Current use pesticide and legacy organochlorine pesticide dynamics at the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere interface in resolute passage, Canadian Arctic, during winter-summer transition
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2017 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 580, p. 1460-1469Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Here, we present the first detailed analysis of processes by which various current use pesticides (CUPs) and legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are concentrated in melt ponds that form on Arctic sea ice in the summer, when surface snow is melting and ice eventually breaks up. Four current use pesticides (dacthal, chlorpyrifos, trifluralin, and pentachloronitrobenzene) and one legacy organochlorine pesticide (α-hexachlorocyclohexane) were detected in ponds in Resolute Passage, Canadian Arctic, in 2012. Melt-pond concentrations changed over time as a function of gas exchange, precipitation, and dilution with melting sea ice. Observed increases in melt-pond concentrations for all detected pesticides were associated with precipitation events. Dacthal reached the highest concentration of all current use pesticides in ponds (95 ± 71 pg L− 1), a value exceeding measured concentrations in the under-ice (0 m) and 5 m seawater by &gt; 10 and &gt; 16 times, respectively. Drainage of dacthal-enriched pond water to the ocean during ice break-up provides an important ice-mediated annual delivery route, adding ~ 30% of inventory in the summer Mixed Layer (ML; 10 m) in the Resolute Passage, and a concentrating mechanism with potential implications for exposures to organisms such as ice algae, and phytoplankton.

Keywords
Pesticides, Sea ice, Melt ponds, Arctic sea
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-132072 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.122 (DOI)000395353600144 ()28038873 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-03-02 Created: 2017-03-02 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Sánchez-Osorio, J. L., Macías-Zamora, J. V., Ramírez-Álvarez, N. & Bidleman, T. F. (2017). Organochlorine pesticides in residential soils and sediments within two main agricultural areas of northwest Mexico: concentrations, enantiomer compositions and potential sources. Chemosphere, 173, 275-287
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organochlorine pesticides in residential soils and sediments within two main agricultural areas of northwest Mexico: concentrations, enantiomer compositions and potential sources
2017 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 173, p. 275-287Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The agricultural Mexicali and Yaqui valleys (MV, YV) in northwest Mexico were heavily treated with organochlorine pesticides in the past. Residential soils and agricultural drain sediments were sampled in 2008–2009 and analyzed for DDTs (o,p′- and p,p′- isomers of DDE, DDD and DDT); hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ- and δ-HCH) and chlordanes (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, heptachlor and heptachlor exo-epoxide). Geometric means (GMs) (ng g−1 dry weight) were: MV soils (n = 27) ΣDDT 22, ΣHCH 0.80, ΣCHL 0.88; YV soils (n = 25) ΣDDT 5.0, ΣHCH 0.23, ΣCHL 0.67; MV sediments (n = 3) ΣDDT 5.0, ΣHCH 0.23, ΣCHL 0.53; YV sediments (n = 8) ΣDDT 2.6, ΣHCH 0.12, ΣCHL 0.090. GMs were significantly higher (p &lt; 0.05) in MV than YV soils for ΣDDT and ΣHCH, but not for ΣCHL. Comparison to worldwide regulatory guideline values (RGVs) for residential soils showed all compounds below mean or GM RGVs, but above the lowest RGV in some cases. Low p,p′-DDT/(p,p′-DDT + p,p′-DDE) in most soils indicated aged residues. Lack of p,p′-DDT metabolism might account for its dominance in a few soils. HCH isomer profiles suggested aged technical HCH in the YV, and technical HCH + lindane in the MV. Heptachlor dominated the ΣCHL, probably from application of technical heptachlor as well as chlordane. Chiral compounds were nonracemic in soils and sediments and indicated enantioselective microbial degradation of (+)α-HCH, (−)trans-chlordane, (−)cis-chlordane and (+)o,p′-DDT. Depletion of (+)o,p′-DDT in soils may account for similar enantiomer signatures previously reported in air of northwest Mexico.

Keywords
Organochlorine pesticides, Soil, Sediment, Enantiomers, Mexico
National Category
Chemical Sciences Soil Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130649 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.01.010 (DOI)000395213700031 ()
Available from: 2017-01-27 Created: 2017-01-27 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Weidemann, E., Andersson, P. L., Bidleman, T., Boman, C., Carlin, D. J., Collina, E., . . . Jansson, S. (2016). 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources. Environmental science and pollution research international, 23(8), 8141-8159
Open this publication in new window or tab >>14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources
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2016 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 8141-8159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in UmeAyen, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

Keywords
Products of incomplete combustion, Human health, Soot, Particles, Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated dibenzofurans, Congress paper
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121585 (URN)10.1007/s11356-016-6308-y (DOI)000374994600105 ()26906006 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-27 Created: 2016-06-03 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Bidleman, T. F., Nygren, O. & Tysklind, M. (2016). Field estimates of polyurethane foam: air partition coefficients for hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and bromoanisoles. Chemosphere, 159, 126-131
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Field estimates of polyurethane foam: air partition coefficients for hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and bromoanisoles
2016 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 159, p. 126-131Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Partition coefficients of gaseous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between polyurethane foam (PUF) and air (KPA) are needed in the estimation of sampling rates for PUF disk passive air samplers. We determined KPA in field experiments by conducting long-term (24-48 h) air sampling to saturate PUF traps and shorter runs (2-4 h) to measure air concentrations. Sampling events were done at daily mean temperatures ranging from 1.9 to 17.5 °C. Target compounds were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), 2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DiBA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TriBA). KPA (mL g(-1)) was calculated from quantities on the PUF traps at saturation (ng g(-1)) divided by air concentrations (ng mL(-1)). Enthalpies of PUF-to-air transfer (ΔHPA, kJ mol(-1)) were determined from the slopes of log KPA/mL g(-1) versus 1/T(K) for HCB and the bromoanisoles, KPA of α-HCH was measured only at 14.3 to 17.5 °C and ΔHPA was not determined. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) at 15 °C were HCB = 7.37; α-HCH = 8.08; 2,4-DiBA = 7.26 and 2,4,6-TriBA = 7.26. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) were compared with predictions based on an octanol-air partition coefficient (log KOA) model (Shoeib and Harner, 2002a) and a polyparameter linear free relationship (pp-LFER) model (Kamprad and Goss, 2007) using different sets of solute parameters. Predicted KP values varied by factors of 3 to over 30, depending on the compound and the model. Such discrepancies provide incentive for experimental measurements of KPA for other SVOCs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Polyurethane foam, Air sampling, Semivolatile organic compounds, Bromoanisoles, Polyparameter linear free energy relationship, Octanol-air partition coefficient
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124432 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.05.040 (DOI)000380417800015 ()27285381 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-08-11 Created: 2016-08-11 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Bidleman, T. F., Agosta, K., Andersson, A., Haglund, P., Liljelind, P., Hegmans, A., . . . Tysklind, M. (2016). Sea-air exchange of bromoanisoles and methoxylated bromodiphenylethers in the Northern Baltic. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 112(1-2), 58-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sea-air exchange of bromoanisoles and methoxylated bromodiphenylethers in the Northern Baltic
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2016 (English)In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 112, no 1-2, p. 58-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Halogenated natural products in biota of the Baltic Sea include bromoanisoles (BAs) and methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs). We identified biogenic 6-MeO-BDE47 and 2'-MeO-BDE68 in Baltic water and air for the first time using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. Partial pressures in air were related to temperature by: log p/Pa=m/T(K)+b. We determined Henry's law constants (HLCs) of 2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DiBA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TriBA) from 5 to 30°C and revised our assessment of gas exchange in the northern Baltic. The new water/air fugacity ratios (FRs) were lower, but still indicated net volatilization in May-June for 2,4-DiBA and May - September for 2,4,6-TriBA. The net flux (negative) of BAs from Bothnian Bay (38,000km2) between May - September was revised from -1319 to -532kg. FRs of MeO-BDEs were >1, suggesting volatilization, although this is tentative due to uncertainties in their HLCs and binding to dissolved organic carbon.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Air-water exchange, Baltic Sea, Bromoanisoles, Halogenated natural products, Methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126879 (URN)10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.08.042 (DOI)000386188900017 ()27575397 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-10-19 Created: 2016-10-19 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Jantunen, L. M., Wong, F., Gawor, A., Kylin, H., Helm, P. A., Stern, G. A., . . . Bidleman, T. F. (2015). 20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean. Environmental Science and Technology, 49(23), 13844-13852
Open this publication in new window or tab >>20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean
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2015 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 23, p. 13844-13852Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air–water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water–air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air–surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2015
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114097 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.5b01303 (DOI)000365930500015 ()26196214 (PubMedID)
Note

This article is part of the Ron Hites Tribute special issue.

Available from: 2016-01-13 Created: 2016-01-13 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Bidleman, T. F., Jantunen, L. M., Hung, H., Ma, J., Stern, G. A., Rosenberg, B. & Racine, J. (2015). Annual cycles of organochlorine pesticide enantiomers in Arctic air suggest changing sources and pathways. Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, 15(3), 1411-1420
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Annual cycles of organochlorine pesticide enantiomers in Arctic air suggest changing sources and pathways
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2015 (English)In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 1411-1420Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Air samples collected during 1994-2000 at the Canadian Arctic air monitoring station Alert (82 degrees 30'N, 62 degrees 20'W) were analysed by enantiospecific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH), trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC). Results were expressed as enantiomer fractions (EF = peak areas of (+)/[(+) + (-)] enantiomers), where EFs = 0.5, <0.5 and >0.5 indicate racemic composition, and preferential depletion of (+) and (-) enantiomers, respectively. Long-term average EFs were close to racemic values for alpha-HCH (0.504 +/- 0.004, n = 197) and CC (0.505 +/- 0.004, n = 162), and deviated farther from racemic for TC (0.470 +/- 0.013, n = 165). Digital filtration analysis revealed annual cycles of lower alpha-HCH EFs in summer-fall and higher EFs in winter-spring. These cycles suggest volatilization of partially degraded alpha-HCH with EF < 0.5 from open water and advection to Alert during the warm season, and background transport of alpha-HCH with EF > 0.5 during the cold season. The contribution of sea-volatilized alpha-HCH was only 11% at Alert, vs. 32% at Resolute Bay (74.68 degrees N, 94.90 degrees W) in 1999. EFs of TC also followed annual cycles of lower and higher values in the warm and cold seasons. These were in phase with low and high cycles of the TC / CC ratio (expressed as F-TC = TC/(TC + CC)), which suggests greater contribution of microbially "weathered" TC in summer-fall versus winter-spring. CC was closer to racemic than TC and displayed seasonal cycles only in 1997-1998. EF profiles are likely to change with rising contribution of secondary emission sources, weathering of residues in the environment, and loss of ice cover in the Arctic. Enantiomer-specific analysis could provide added forensic capability to air monitoring programs.

National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-101416 (URN)10.5194/acp-15-1411-2015 (DOI)000349799500017 ()
Available from: 2015-04-30 Created: 2015-03-30 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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