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Massei, R., Hollert, H., Krauss, M., von Tümpling, W., Weidauer, C., Haglund, P., . . . Brack, W. (2019). Toxicity and neurotoxicity profiling of contaminated sediments from Gulf of Bothnia (Sweden): a multi-endpoint assay with Zebrafish embryos. Environmental Sciences Europe, 31, Article ID 8.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toxicity and neurotoxicity profiling of contaminated sediments from Gulf of Bothnia (Sweden): a multi-endpoint assay with Zebrafish embryos
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2019 (English)In: Environmental Sciences Europe, ISSN 2190-4707, E-ISSN 2190-4715, Vol. 31, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The toxicological characterization of sediments is an essential task to monitor the quality of aquatic environments. Many hazardous pollutants may accumulate in sediments and pose a risk to the aquatic community. The present study provides an attempt to integrate a diagnostic whole mixture assessment workflow based on a slightly modified Danio rerio embryo acute toxicity test with chemical characterization. Danio rerio embryos were directly exposed to sieved sediment (≤ 63 μm) for 96 h. Sediment samples were collected from three polluted sites (Kramfors, Sundsvall and Örnsköldsvik) in the Gulf of Bothnia (Sweden) which are characterized by a long history of pulp and paper industry impact. Effect data were supported by chemical analyses of 237 organic pollutants and 30 trace elements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156256 (URN)10.1186/s12302-019-0188-y (DOI)000457727700001 ()
Projects
EcoChange
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Veenaas, C. & Haglund, P. (2018). A retention index system for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using polyethylene glycols. Journal of Chromatography A, 1536, 67-74
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A retention index system for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using polyethylene glycols
2018 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1536, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The characterization and identification of compounds in complex real-world samples is quite difficult and new concepts and workflows are highly desirable. Retention indices (RIs) are widely used in gas chromatography (GC) to support the identification of unknown compounds. Several attempts have been made to introduce a similar concept for the second dimension in comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) GC (GC × GC) but, an easily applicable and robust system remains elusive. In the present study, a new RI system for GC × GC was developed. Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) were used in combination with a simple linear regression, with n-alkanes as reference points for virtually unretained compounds and PEG homologs as reference compounds for second-dimension RIs (PEG-2I). The n-alkanes were assigned a PEG-2I of zero and the distance between consecutive PEG homologs from PEG-2 (diethylene glycol) and higher were assigned a PEG-2I value of 10. We used ethylene glycol and PEG-2 through PEG-10 as reference compounds, thereby covering a PEG-2I range from 20.0 for ethylene glycol, over 50.0 for diethylene glycol (PEG-2) to 130.0 for decaethylene glycol (PEG-10); additional PEGs can be added to cover a wider polarity range. The PEG-2I system was initially evaluated using a 30 m × 0.25 mm non-polar (5% phenyl, 0.25 μm film thickness) first-dimension column and a 1.6 m × 0.18 mm polar (50% phenyl, 0.18 μm film thickness) second-dimension column. This system was validated for use with non-polar first-dimension columns and a semi-polar (50% phenyl) second-dimension column, and exhibited robustness to changes in the carrier gas flow velocity, oven temperature ramping rate, and secondary oven temperature offset. An average relative standard deviation of 2.7%, equal to a 95% confidence interval of 1.27 PEG-2I units, was obtained for the PEG-2I values of 72 environmental pollutants. Additionally, the system was found to be applicable over a wide range of boiling points (in the current case, from n-heptane to n-dotriacontane (C7-C32)) and can be used with various column dimensions. Changing the second-dimension column to either a narrower 0.1 mm column or a wider 0.25 mm column, yielded similar 95%-percentiles to that of the 0.18 mm column, differing by only 3.20 and 2.80 PEG-2I units, respectively. Moreover, methods for improving the system were suggested.

Keywords
GC×GC, Retention indices, Polyethylene glycols, n-alkanes, Environmental contaminants
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144541 (URN)10.1016/j.chroma.2017.08.062 (DOI)000425074200009 ()28882343 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-06 Created: 2018-02-06 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Blum, K. M., Gallampois, C., Andersson, P. L., Renman, G., Renman, A. & Haglund, P. (2018). Comprehensive assessment of organic contaminant removal from on-site sewage treatment facility effluent by char-fortified filter beds. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 361, 111-122
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive assessment of organic contaminant removal from on-site sewage treatment facility effluent by char-fortified filter beds
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 361, p. 111-122Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The removal of organic contaminants from wastewater using cost-efficient and easily accessible methods have been increasingly studied in recent years. Most studies have focused on municipal sewage treatment plants; however, our study investigated treatment with char-fortified filter beds for on-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs). OSSFs are commonly used in rural and semi-urban areas all over the world to treat wastewater to reduce eutrophication and water-related diseases. To screen for a wide range of organic contaminants in order to improve the understanding of wastewater treatment efficiency and molecular properties, samples were taken from an OSSF field study site that used three filter types: sand, char-fortified sand, and char-fortified gas concrete. First, we screened for organic contaminants with state-of-the-art gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based targeted and untargeted analysis and then we developed quantitative structure-property relationship models to find the key molecular features responsible for the removal of organic contaminants. We identified 74 compounds, of which 24 were confirmed with reference standards. Amongst these 74 compounds were plasticizers, UV stabilizers, fragrances, pesticides, surfactant and polymer impurities, pharmaceuticals and their metabolites, and many biogenic compounds. Sand filters that are sometimes used as a last treatment step in OSSFs can remove hydrophobic contaminants. The addition of biochar significantly increases the removal of these and a few hydrophilic compounds (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, α = 0.05). Gas concrete did not appear to be suitable for the removal of organic contaminants. This study showed that, besides hydrophobic effects, biodegradation is the most important removal pathway in long-term field applications. However, further improvements are necessary to remove very hydrophilic contaminants as they were not removed with sand and biochar-fortified sand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Screening, decentralized wastewater treatment systems, GC×GC-HRMS, LC IM HRMS, biochar, quantitative structure-property relationship
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144261 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.08.009 (DOI)000449125800013 ()30176409 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2012-2101
Available from: 2018-01-29 Created: 2018-01-29 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Rodríguez, J., Gallampois, C., Timonen, S., Andersson, A., Sinkko, H., Haglund, P., . . . Rowe, O. (2018). Effects of Organic Pollutants on Bacterial Communities Under Future Climate Change Scenarios. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9, Article ID 2926.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Organic Pollutants on Bacterial Communities Under Future Climate Change Scenarios
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, article id 2926Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coastal ecosystems are highly dynamic and can be strongly influenced by climate change, anthropogenic activities (e.g. pollution) and a combination of the two pressures. As a result of climate change, the northern hemisphere is predicted to undergo an increased precipitation regime, leading in turn to higher terrestrial runoff and increased river inflow. This increased runoff will transfer terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM) and anthropogenic contaminants to coastal waters. Such changes can directly influence the resident biology, particularly at the base of the food web, and can influence the partitioning of contaminants and thus their potential impact on the food web. Bacteria have been shown to respond to high tDOM concentration and organic pollutants loads, and could represent the entry of some pollutants into coastal food webs. We carried out a mesocosm experiment to determine the effects of: 1) increased tDOM concentration, 2) organic pollutant exposure, and 3) the combined effect of these two factors, on pelagic bacterial communities. This study showed significant responses in bacterial community composition under the three environmental perturbations tested. The addition of tDOM increased bacterial activity and diversity, while the addition of organic pollutants led to an overall reduction of these parameters, particularly under concurrent elevated tDOM concentration. Furthermore, we identified 33 bacterial taxa contributing to the significant differences observed in community composition, as well as 35 bacterial taxa which responded differently to extended exposure to organic pollutants. These findings point to the potential impact of organic pollutants under future climate change conditions on the basal coastal ecosystem, as well as to the potential utility of natural bacterial communities as efficient indicators of environmental disturbance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
bacterial community composition, organic pollutants, dissolved organic matter, climate change, Baltic Sea, metagenomics
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153774 (URN)10.3389/fmicb.2018.02926 (DOI)000451904500001 ()30555447 (PubMedID)
Projects
ECOCHANGE
Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Blum, K. M., Haglund, P., Gao, Q., Ahrens, L., Gros, M., Wiberg, K. & Andersson, P. L. (2018). Mass fluxes per capita of organic contaminants from on-site sewage treatment facilities. Chemosphere (201), 864-873
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mass fluxes per capita of organic contaminants from on-site sewage treatment facilities
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2018 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, no 201, p. 864-873Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

This study is the first attempt to quantify environmental fluxes per capita of organic contaminants discharged from on-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs) in affected recipients. Five sites were monitored around the River Fyris in Sweden: three mainly affected by OSSFs and two mainly affected by municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine environmental concentrations of 30 anthropogenic contaminants, including organophosphorus compounds, rubber and plastic additives, UV stabilizers, fragrances, surfactant ingredients and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Uni- and multivariate statistical analysis of the most frequently detected contaminants showed that median fluxes per capita of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, and n-butylbenzene sulfonamide were similar at OSSF and STP sites, but the mass fluxes per capita of tris-(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate, 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole, and galaxolide, were significantly lower (~2 to 3-fold) at OSSF sites than at STP sites (Mann-Whitney, α = 0.05). Differences between these sites were larger in samples collected in summer and autumn than in samples collected in winter. Deviations likely originated from differences in treatment technology and distances between source and sampling sites. Further studies are needed to characterize mass fluxes per capita of contaminants in waters that directly receive discharges from OSSFs.

Keywords
Decentralized wastewater treatment systems, environmental load, surface water, diffuse sources, GC×GC-HRMS
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144259 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.03.058 (DOI)000430895300095 ()29567470 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-29 Created: 2018-01-29 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Veenaas, C., Bignert, A., Liljelind, P. & Haglund, P. (2018). Nontarget Screening and Time-Trend Analysis of Sewage Sludge Contaminants via Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Environmental Science and Technology, 52(14), 7813-7822
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nontarget Screening and Time-Trend Analysis of Sewage Sludge Contaminants via Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
2018 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 14, p. 7813-7822Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nondestructive sample cleanup and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCXGC) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis generated a massive amount of data that could be used for nontarget screening purposes. We present a data reduction and prioritization strategy that involves time-trend analysis of nontarget data. Sewage sludge collected between 2005 and 2015 in Stockholm (Sweden) was retrieved from an environmental specimen bank, extracted, and analyzed by GCX GC-HRMS. After data alignment features with high blank levels, artifacts and low detection frequency were removed. Features that appeared in four to six out of ten years were reprocessed to fill in gaps. The total number of compounds was reduced by more than 97% from almost 60 000 to almost 1500. The remaining compounds were analyzed for monotonic (log-linear) and nonmonotonic (smoother) time trends. In total, 192 compounds with log-linear trends and 120 compounds with nonmonotonic trends were obtained, respectively. Most compounds described by a log-linear trend exhibited decreasing trends and were traffic-related. Compounds with increasing trends included UV-filters, alkyl-phenols, and flavor and fragrances, which often could be linked to trade statistics. We have shown that nontarget screening and stepwise reduction of data provides a simple way of revealing significant changes in emissions of chemicals in society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
Keywords
Gas chromatography, GC×GC, non-target screening, time-trend analysis, sewage sludge, data reduction
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144542 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.8b01126 (DOI)000439397800026 ()29898598 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048660866 (Scopus ID)
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form with title "Non-target screening and time trend analysis of sewage sludge contaminants via comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography"

Available from: 2018-02-06 Created: 2018-02-06 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Blum, K. M., Andersson, P. L., Ahrens, L., Wiberg, K. & Haglund, P. (2018). Persistence, mobility and bioavailability of emerging organic contaminants discharged from sewage treatment plants. Science of the Total Environment, 612, 1532-1542
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistence, mobility and bioavailability of emerging organic contaminants discharged from sewage treatment plants
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2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 612, p. 1532-1542Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Little is known about the impact of emissions of micropollutants from small and large-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs) on drinking water source areas. We investigated a populated catchment that drains into Lake Malaren, which is the drinking water source for around 2 million people including the inhabitants of Stockholm, Sweden. To assess the persistence, mobility, bioavailability and bioaccumulation of 32 structurally diverse emerging organic contaminants, sediment, integrated passive and grab water samples were collected along the catchment of the River Fyris, Sweden. The samples were complemented with STP effluent and fish samples from one sampling event. Contaminants identified as persistent, mobile, and bioavailable were 4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydrocyclopenta[g] isochromene (galaxolide), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate. Galaxolide and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol were additionally found to be bioaccumulative, whereas n-butylbenzenesulfonamide was found to be only persistent and mobile. The total median mass flux of the persistent and mobile target analytes from Lake Ekoln into the drinking water source area of Lake Malaren was estimated to be 27 kg per year. Additionally, 10 contaminants were tentatively identified by non-target screening using NIST library searches and manual review. Two of those were confirmed by reference standards and further two contaminants, propylene glycol and rose acetate, were discharged from STPs and travelled far from the source. Attenuation of mass fluxes was highest in the summer and autumn seasons, suggesting the importance of biological degradation and photodegradation for the persistence of the studied compounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Mass fluxes, Fate, Sediment-water distribution, Bioaccumulation, Non-target screening, GC x GC-HRMS
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141837 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.006 (DOI)000413313700151 ()28915547 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-14 Created: 2017-11-14 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Björlenius, B., Ripszám, M., Haglund, P., Lindberg, R. H., Tysklind, M. & Fick, J. (2018). Pharmaceutical residues are widespread in Baltic Sea coastal and offshore waters: Screening for pharmaceuticals and modelling of environmental concentrations of carbamazepine. Science of the Total Environment, 633, 1496-1509
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pharmaceutical residues are widespread in Baltic Sea coastal and offshore waters: Screening for pharmaceuticals and modelling of environmental concentrations of carbamazepine
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2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 633, p. 1496-1509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The consumption of pharmaceuticals worldwide coupled with modest removal efficiencies of sewage treatment plants have resulted in the presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems globally. In this study, we investigated the environmental concentrations of a selection of 93 pharmaceuticals in 43 locations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. The Baltic Sea is vulnerable to anthropogenic activities due to a long turnover time and a sensitive ecosystem in the brackish water. Thirty-nine of 93 pharmaceuticals were detected in at least one sample, with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 80 ng/L. One of the pharmaceuticals investigated, the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine, was widespread in coastal and offshore seawaters (present in 37 of 43 samples). In order to predict concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, a mass balance-based grey box model was set up and the persistent, widely used carbamazepine was selected as the model substance. The model was based on hydrological and meteorological sub-basin characteristics, removal data from smaller watersheds and wastewater treatment plants, and statistics relating to population, consumption and excretion rate of carbamazepine in humans. The grey box model predicted average environmental concentrations of carbamazepine in sub-basins with no significant difference from the measured concentrations, amounting to 0.57–3.2 ng/L depending on sub-basin location. In the Baltic Sea, the removal rate of carbamazepine in seawater was estimated to be 6.2 10−9 s−1 based on a calculated half-life time of 3.5 years at 10 °C, which demonstrates the long response time of the environment to measures phasing out persistent or slowly degradable substances such as carbamazepine. Sampling, analysis and grey box modelling were all valuable in describing the presence and removal of carbamazepine in the Baltic Sea.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Coastal and offshore waters, Baltic Sea, Pharmaceuticals, Carbamazepine, Half-life time, Model
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146829 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.276 (DOI)000432475300145 ()29758901 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044791102 (Scopus ID)
Projects
ECOCHANGE
Available from: 2018-04-19 Created: 2018-04-19 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Veenaas, C., Linusson, A. & Haglund, P. (2018). Retention-time prediction in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to aid identification of unknown contaminants. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 410(30), 7931-7941
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Retention-time prediction in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to aid identification of unknown contaminants
2018 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 410, no 30, p. 7931-7941Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS, GC×GC-MS), which enhances selectivity compared to GC-MS analysis, can be used for non-directed analysis (non-target screening) of environmental samples. Additional tools that aid in identifying unknown compounds are needed to handle the large amount of data generated. These tools include retention indices for characterizing relative retention of compounds and prediction of such. In this study, two quantitative structure–retention relationship (QSRR) approaches for prediction of retention times (1tR and 2tR) and indices (linear retention indices (LRIs) and a new polyethylene glycol–based retention index (PEG-2I)) in GC × GC were explored, and their predictive power compared. In the first method, molecular descriptors combined with partial least squares (PLS) analysis were used to predict times and indices. In the second method, the commercial software package ChromGenius (ACD/Labs), based on a “federation of local models,” was employed. Overall, the PLS approach exhibited better accuracy than the ChromGenius approach. Although average errors for the LRI prediction via ChromGenius were slightly lower, PLS was superior in all other cases. The average deviations between the predicted and the experimental value were 5% and 3% for the 1tR and LRI, and 5% and 12% for the 2tR and PEG-2I, respectively. These results are comparable to or better than those reported in previous studies. Finally, the developed model was successfully applied to an independent dataset and led to the discovery of 12 wrongly assigned compounds. The results of the present work represent the first-ever prediction of the PEG-2I.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2018
Keywords
GCxGC, Retention-time prediction, Partial least squares (PLS), Federation of local models, Quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR), Non-target analysis
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154932 (URN)10.1007/s00216-018-1415-x (DOI)000450071400011 ()30361914 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, U., Haglund, P. & Kärrman, A. (2017). Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), 61, 80-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs)
2017 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), ISSN 1001-0742, E-ISSN 1878-7320, Vol. 61, p. 80-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants, as a result of their incorporation in everyday products and industrial processes. In this study, we measured several classes of persistent PFASs, precursors, transformation intermediates, and newly identified PFASs in influent and effluent sewage water and sludge from three municipal waste water treatment plants in Sweden, sampled in 2015. For sludge, samples from 2012 and 2014 were analyzed as well. Levels of precursors in sludge exceeded those of perfluoroalkyl acids and sulfonic acids (PFCAs and PFSAs), in 2015 the sum of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs) were 15-20 ng/g dry weight, the sum of fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs) was 0.8-1.3 ng/g, and the sum of perfluorooctane sulfonamides and ethanols ranged from non-detected to 3.2 ng/g. Persistent PFSAs and PFCAs were detected at 1.9-3.9 ng/g and 2.4-7.3 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The influence of precursor compounds was further demonstrated by an observed substantial increase for a majority of the persistent PFCAs and PFSAs in water after waste water treatment. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) had a net mass increase in all WWTPs, with mean values of 83%, 28%, 37% and 58%, respectively. The load of precursors and intermediates in influent water and sludge combined with net mass increase support the hypothesis that degradation of precursor compounds is a significant contributor to PFAS contamination in the environment. (C) 2017 The Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SCIENCE PRESS, 2017
Keywords
diPAPs, FTSAs, Waste water, Daily discharge, PFCA precursor
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143066 (URN)10.1016/j.jes.2017.05.004 (DOI)000416721600010 ()
Available from: 2017-12-15 Created: 2017-12-15 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2293-7913

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