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Bidleman, T. F., Andersson, A., Brugel, S., Ericson, L., Haglund, P., Kupryianchyk, D., . . . Tysklind, M. (2019). Bromoanisoles and Methoxylated Bromodiphenyl Ethers in Macroalgae from Nordic Coastal Regions. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 881-892
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bromoanisoles and Methoxylated Bromodiphenyl Ethers in Macroalgae from Nordic Coastal Regions
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2019 (English)In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, p. 881-892Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Marine macroalgae are used worldwide for human consumption, animal feed, cosmetics and agriculture. In addition to beneficial nutrients, macroalgae contain halogenated natural products (HNPs), some of which have toxic properties similar to those of well-known anthropogenic contaminants. Sixteen species of red, green and brown macroalgae were collected in 2017–2018 from coastal waters of the northern Baltic Sea, Sweden Atlantic and Norway Atlantic, and analyzed for bromoanisoles (BAs) and methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs). Target compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-LRMS), with qualitative confirmation in selected species by GC-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Quantified compounds were 2,4-diBA, 2,4,6-triBA, 2′-MeO-BDE68, 6-MeO-BDE47, and two tribromo-MeO-BDEs and one tetrabromo-MeO-BDE with unknown bromine substituent positions. Semiquantitative results for pentabromo-MeO-BDEs were also obtained for a few species by GC-HRMS. Three extraction methods were compared; soaking in methanol, soaking in methanol–dichloromethane, and blending with mixed solvents. Extraction yields of BAs did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) with the three methods and the two soaking methods gave equivalent yields of MeO-BDEs. Extraction efficiencies of MeO-BDEs were significantly lower using the blend method (p < 0.05). For reasons of simplicity and efficiency, the soaking methods are preferred. Concentrations varied by orders of magnitude among species: ∑2BAs 57 to 57 700 and ∑5MeO-BDEs < 10 to 476 pg g−1 wet weight (ww). Macroalgae standing out with ∑2BAs >1000 pg g−1 ww were Ascophyllum nodosumCeramium tenuicorneCeramium virgatumFucus radicansFucus serratusFucus vesiculosusSaccharina latissimaLaminaria digitata, and Acrosiphonia/Spongomorpha sp. Species A. nodosumC. tenuicorneChara virgataF. radicans and F. vesiculosus (Sweden Atlantic only) had ∑5MeO-BDEs >100 pg g−1ww. Profiles of individual compounds showed distinct differences among species and locations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
Keywords
bromoanisoles, methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers, halogenated natural products, macroalgae, Baltic Sea, Sweden Atlantic, Norway Atlantic
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
environmental science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158517 (URN)10.1039/C9EM00042A (DOI)000468787800009 ()31032511 (PubMedID)
Projects
EcoChange
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasEcosystem dynamics in the Baltic Sea in a changing climate perspective - ECOCHANGE
Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Förlin, L., Asker, N., Töpel, M., Österlund, T., Kristiansson, E., Parkkonen, J., . . . Sturve, J. (2019). mRNA Expression and Biomarker Responses in Perch at a Biomonitoring Site in the Baltic Sea - Possible Influence of Natural Brominated Chemicals. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, Article ID 316.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>mRNA Expression and Biomarker Responses in Perch at a Biomonitoring Site in the Baltic Sea - Possible Influence of Natural Brominated Chemicals
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 316Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perch (Perca fluviatilis) has been used in biological effect monitoring in a program for integrated coastal fish monitoring at the reference site Kvadofjarden along the Swedish east coast, which is a site characterized by no or minor local anthropogenic influences. Using a set of physiological and biochemical endpoints (i.e., biomarkers), clear time trends for "early warning" signs of impaired health were noted in the perch from this site, possibly as a result of increased baseline pollution. The data sets also showed relatively large variations among years. To identify additional temporal variation in biological parameters, global mRNA expression studies using RNA sequencing was performed. Perch collected in 2010 and 2014 were selected, as they showed variations in several biomarkers, such as the activity of the detoxification enzyme CYP1A (EROD), the plasma levels of vitellogenin, markers for oxidative stress, white blood cells count and gonad sizes. The RNA sequencing study identified approximately 4800 genes with a significantly difference in mRNA expression levels. A gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that these differentially expressed genes were involved in biological processes such as complement activation, iron ion homeostasis and cholesterol biosynthetic process. In addition, differences in immune system parameters and responses to the exposure of toxic substances have now been verified in two different biological levels (mRNA and protein) in perch collected in 2010 and 2014. Markedly higher mRNA expression of the membrane transporter (MATE) and the detoxification enzyme COMT, together with higher concentrations of bioactive naturally produced brominated compounds, such as brominated indoles and carbazoles, seem to indicate that the perch collected in 2014 had been exposed to macro- and microalga blooming to a higher degree than did perch from 2010. These results and the differential mRNA expression between the 2 years in genes related to immune and oxidative stress parameters suggest that attention must be given to algae blooming when elucidating the well-being of the perch at Kvadofjarden and other Baltic coastal sites.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
transcriptomics, biomonitoring, ecotoxicology, biomarkers, perch, brominated chemicals
National Category
Other Biological Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161520 (URN)10.3389/fmars.2019.00316 (DOI)000471699400001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2019-07-11 Created: 2019-07-11 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Rostkowski, P., Haglund, P., Aalizadeh, R., Alygizakis, N., Thomaidis, N., Beltran Arandes, J., . . . Yang, C. (2019). The strength in numbers: comprehensive characterization of house dust using complementary mass spectrometric techniques. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 411(10), 1957-1977
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The strength in numbers: comprehensive characterization of house dust using complementary mass spectrometric techniques
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2019 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 411, no 10, p. 1957-1977Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Untargeted analysis of a composite house dust sample has been performed as part of a collaborative effort to evaluate the progress in the field of suspect and nontarget screening and build an extensive database of organic indoor environment contaminants. Twenty-one participants reported results that were curated by the organizers of the collaborative trial. In total, nearly 2350 compounds were identified (18%) or tentatively identified (25% at confidence level 2 and 58% at confidence level 3), making the collaborative trial a success. However, a relatively small share (37%) of all compounds were reported by more than one participant, which shows that there is plenty of room for improvement in the field of suspect and nontarget screening. An even a smaller share (5%) of the total number of compounds were detected using both liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thus, the two MS techniques are highly complementary. Most of the compounds were detected using LC with electrospray ionization (ESI) MS and comprehensive 2D GC (GCxGC) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electron ionization (EI), respectively. Collectively, the three techniques accounted for more than 75% of the reported compounds. Glycols, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and various biogenic compounds dominated among the compounds reported by LC-MS participants, while hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon derivatives, and chlorinated paraffins and chlorinated biphenyls were primarily reported by GC-MS participants. Plastics additives, flavor and fragrances, and personal care products were reported by both LC-MS and GC-MS participants. It was concluded that the use of multiple analytical techniques was required for a comprehensive characterization of house dust contaminants. Further, several recommendations are given for improved suspect and nontarget screening of house dust and other indoor environment samples, including the use of open-source data processing tools. One of the tools allowed provisional identification of almost 500 compounds that had not been reported by participants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
House dust, Suspect and nontarget analysis, Collaborative trial, Complementary analytical techniques, Mass spectrometry
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158583 (URN)10.1007/s00216-019-01615-6 (DOI)000464714400004 ()30830245 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85062728989 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2019-05-27Bibliographically approved
Massei, R., Hollert, H., Krauss, M., von Tümpling, W., Weidauer, C., Haglund, P., . . . Brack, W. (2019). Toxicity and neurotoxicity profiling of contaminated sediments from Gulf of Bothnia (Sweden): a multi-endpoint assay with Zebrafish embryos. Environmental Sciences Europe, 31, Article ID 8.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toxicity and neurotoxicity profiling of contaminated sediments from Gulf of Bothnia (Sweden): a multi-endpoint assay with Zebrafish embryos
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2019 (English)In: Environmental Sciences Europe, ISSN 2190-4707, E-ISSN 2190-4715, Vol. 31, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The toxicological characterization of sediments is an essential task to monitor the quality of aquatic environments. Many hazardous pollutants may accumulate in sediments and pose a risk to the aquatic community. The present study provides an attempt to integrate a diagnostic whole mixture assessment workflow based on a slightly modified Danio rerio embryo acute toxicity test with chemical characterization. Danio rerio embryos were directly exposed to sieved sediment (≤ 63 μm) for 96 h. Sediment samples were collected from three polluted sites (Kramfors, Sundsvall and Örnsköldsvik) in the Gulf of Bothnia (Sweden) which are characterized by a long history of pulp and paper industry impact. Effect data were supported by chemical analyses of 237 organic pollutants and 30 trace elements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156256 (URN)10.1186/s12302-019-0188-y (DOI)000457727700001 ()
Projects
EcoChange
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Veenaas, C. & Haglund, P. (2018). A retention index system for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using polyethylene glycols. Journal of Chromatography A, 1536, 67-74
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A retention index system for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using polyethylene glycols
2018 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1536, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The characterization and identification of compounds in complex real-world samples is quite difficult and new concepts and workflows are highly desirable. Retention indices (RIs) are widely used in gas chromatography (GC) to support the identification of unknown compounds. Several attempts have been made to introduce a similar concept for the second dimension in comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) GC (GC × GC) but, an easily applicable and robust system remains elusive. In the present study, a new RI system for GC × GC was developed. Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) were used in combination with a simple linear regression, with n-alkanes as reference points for virtually unretained compounds and PEG homologs as reference compounds for second-dimension RIs (PEG-2I). The n-alkanes were assigned a PEG-2I of zero and the distance between consecutive PEG homologs from PEG-2 (diethylene glycol) and higher were assigned a PEG-2I value of 10. We used ethylene glycol and PEG-2 through PEG-10 as reference compounds, thereby covering a PEG-2I range from 20.0 for ethylene glycol, over 50.0 for diethylene glycol (PEG-2) to 130.0 for decaethylene glycol (PEG-10); additional PEGs can be added to cover a wider polarity range. The PEG-2I system was initially evaluated using a 30 m × 0.25 mm non-polar (5% phenyl, 0.25 μm film thickness) first-dimension column and a 1.6 m × 0.18 mm polar (50% phenyl, 0.18 μm film thickness) second-dimension column. This system was validated for use with non-polar first-dimension columns and a semi-polar (50% phenyl) second-dimension column, and exhibited robustness to changes in the carrier gas flow velocity, oven temperature ramping rate, and secondary oven temperature offset. An average relative standard deviation of 2.7%, equal to a 95% confidence interval of 1.27 PEG-2I units, was obtained for the PEG-2I values of 72 environmental pollutants. Additionally, the system was found to be applicable over a wide range of boiling points (in the current case, from n-heptane to n-dotriacontane (C7-C32)) and can be used with various column dimensions. Changing the second-dimension column to either a narrower 0.1 mm column or a wider 0.25 mm column, yielded similar 95%-percentiles to that of the 0.18 mm column, differing by only 3.20 and 2.80 PEG-2I units, respectively. Moreover, methods for improving the system were suggested.

Keywords
GC×GC, Retention indices, Polyethylene glycols, n-alkanes, Environmental contaminants
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144541 (URN)10.1016/j.chroma.2017.08.062 (DOI)000425074200009 ()28882343 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-06 Created: 2018-02-06 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Blum, K. M., Gallampois, C., Andersson, P. L., Renman, G., Renman, A. & Haglund, P. (2018). Comprehensive assessment of organic contaminant removal from on-site sewage treatment facility effluent by char-fortified filter beds. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 361, 111-122
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive assessment of organic contaminant removal from on-site sewage treatment facility effluent by char-fortified filter beds
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 361, p. 111-122Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The removal of organic contaminants from wastewater using cost-efficient and easily accessible methods have been increasingly studied in recent years. Most studies have focused on municipal sewage treatment plants; however, our study investigated treatment with char-fortified filter beds for on-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs). OSSFs are commonly used in rural and semi-urban areas all over the world to treat wastewater to reduce eutrophication and water-related diseases. To screen for a wide range of organic contaminants in order to improve the understanding of wastewater treatment efficiency and molecular properties, samples were taken from an OSSF field study site that used three filter types: sand, char-fortified sand, and char-fortified gas concrete. First, we screened for organic contaminants with state-of-the-art gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based targeted and untargeted analysis and then we developed quantitative structure-property relationship models to find the key molecular features responsible for the removal of organic contaminants. We identified 74 compounds, of which 24 were confirmed with reference standards. Amongst these 74 compounds were plasticizers, UV stabilizers, fragrances, pesticides, surfactant and polymer impurities, pharmaceuticals and their metabolites, and many biogenic compounds. Sand filters that are sometimes used as a last treatment step in OSSFs can remove hydrophobic contaminants. The addition of biochar significantly increases the removal of these and a few hydrophilic compounds (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, α = 0.05). Gas concrete did not appear to be suitable for the removal of organic contaminants. This study showed that, besides hydrophobic effects, biodegradation is the most important removal pathway in long-term field applications. However, further improvements are necessary to remove very hydrophilic contaminants as they were not removed with sand and biochar-fortified sand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Screening, decentralized wastewater treatment systems, GC×GC-HRMS, LC IM HRMS, biochar, quantitative structure-property relationship
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144261 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.08.009 (DOI)000449125800013 ()30176409 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2012-2101
Available from: 2018-01-29 Created: 2018-01-29 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Rodríguez, J., Gallampois, C., Timonen, S., Andersson, A., Sinkko, H., Haglund, P., . . . Rowe, O. (2018). Effects of Organic Pollutants on Bacterial Communities Under Future Climate Change Scenarios. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9, Article ID 2926.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Organic Pollutants on Bacterial Communities Under Future Climate Change Scenarios
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, article id 2926Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coastal ecosystems are highly dynamic and can be strongly influenced by climate change, anthropogenic activities (e.g. pollution) and a combination of the two pressures. As a result of climate change, the northern hemisphere is predicted to undergo an increased precipitation regime, leading in turn to higher terrestrial runoff and increased river inflow. This increased runoff will transfer terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM) and anthropogenic contaminants to coastal waters. Such changes can directly influence the resident biology, particularly at the base of the food web, and can influence the partitioning of contaminants and thus their potential impact on the food web. Bacteria have been shown to respond to high tDOM concentration and organic pollutants loads, and could represent the entry of some pollutants into coastal food webs. We carried out a mesocosm experiment to determine the effects of: 1) increased tDOM concentration, 2) organic pollutant exposure, and 3) the combined effect of these two factors, on pelagic bacterial communities. This study showed significant responses in bacterial community composition under the three environmental perturbations tested. The addition of tDOM increased bacterial activity and diversity, while the addition of organic pollutants led to an overall reduction of these parameters, particularly under concurrent elevated tDOM concentration. Furthermore, we identified 33 bacterial taxa contributing to the significant differences observed in community composition, as well as 35 bacterial taxa which responded differently to extended exposure to organic pollutants. These findings point to the potential impact of organic pollutants under future climate change conditions on the basal coastal ecosystem, as well as to the potential utility of natural bacterial communities as efficient indicators of environmental disturbance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
bacterial community composition, organic pollutants, dissolved organic matter, climate change, Baltic Sea, metagenomics
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153774 (URN)10.3389/fmicb.2018.02926 (DOI)000451904500001 ()30555447 (PubMedID)
Projects
ECOCHANGE
Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Blum, K. M., Haglund, P., Gao, Q., Ahrens, L., Gros, M., Wiberg, K. & Andersson, P. L. (2018). Mass fluxes per capita of organic contaminants from on-site sewage treatment facilities. Chemosphere (201), 864-873
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mass fluxes per capita of organic contaminants from on-site sewage treatment facilities
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2018 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, no 201, p. 864-873Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

This study is the first attempt to quantify environmental fluxes per capita of organic contaminants discharged from on-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs) in affected recipients. Five sites were monitored around the River Fyris in Sweden: three mainly affected by OSSFs and two mainly affected by municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine environmental concentrations of 30 anthropogenic contaminants, including organophosphorus compounds, rubber and plastic additives, UV stabilizers, fragrances, surfactant ingredients and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Uni- and multivariate statistical analysis of the most frequently detected contaminants showed that median fluxes per capita of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, and n-butylbenzene sulfonamide were similar at OSSF and STP sites, but the mass fluxes per capita of tris-(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate, 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole, and galaxolide, were significantly lower (~2 to 3-fold) at OSSF sites than at STP sites (Mann-Whitney, α = 0.05). Differences between these sites were larger in samples collected in summer and autumn than in samples collected in winter. Deviations likely originated from differences in treatment technology and distances between source and sampling sites. Further studies are needed to characterize mass fluxes per capita of contaminants in waters that directly receive discharges from OSSFs.

Keywords
Decentralized wastewater treatment systems, environmental load, surface water, diffuse sources, GC×GC-HRMS
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144259 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.03.058 (DOI)000430895300095 ()29567470 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-29 Created: 2018-01-29 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Veenaas, C., Bignert, A., Liljelind, P. & Haglund, P. (2018). Nontarget Screening and Time-Trend Analysis of Sewage Sludge Contaminants via Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Environmental Science and Technology, 52(14), 7813-7822
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nontarget Screening and Time-Trend Analysis of Sewage Sludge Contaminants via Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
2018 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 14, p. 7813-7822Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nondestructive sample cleanup and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCXGC) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis generated a massive amount of data that could be used for nontarget screening purposes. We present a data reduction and prioritization strategy that involves time-trend analysis of nontarget data. Sewage sludge collected between 2005 and 2015 in Stockholm (Sweden) was retrieved from an environmental specimen bank, extracted, and analyzed by GCX GC-HRMS. After data alignment features with high blank levels, artifacts and low detection frequency were removed. Features that appeared in four to six out of ten years were reprocessed to fill in gaps. The total number of compounds was reduced by more than 97% from almost 60 000 to almost 1500. The remaining compounds were analyzed for monotonic (log-linear) and nonmonotonic (smoother) time trends. In total, 192 compounds with log-linear trends and 120 compounds with nonmonotonic trends were obtained, respectively. Most compounds described by a log-linear trend exhibited decreasing trends and were traffic-related. Compounds with increasing trends included UV-filters, alkyl-phenols, and flavor and fragrances, which often could be linked to trade statistics. We have shown that nontarget screening and stepwise reduction of data provides a simple way of revealing significant changes in emissions of chemicals in society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
Keywords
Gas chromatography, GC×GC, non-target screening, time-trend analysis, sewage sludge, data reduction
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144542 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.8b01126 (DOI)000439397800026 ()29898598 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048660866 (Scopus ID)
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form with title "Non-target screening and time trend analysis of sewage sludge contaminants via comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography"

Available from: 2018-02-06 Created: 2018-02-06 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Blum, K. M., Andersson, P. L., Ahrens, L., Wiberg, K. & Haglund, P. (2018). Persistence, mobility and bioavailability of emerging organic contaminants discharged from sewage treatment plants. Science of the Total Environment, 612, 1532-1542
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistence, mobility and bioavailability of emerging organic contaminants discharged from sewage treatment plants
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2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 612, p. 1532-1542Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Little is known about the impact of emissions of micropollutants from small and large-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs) on drinking water source areas. We investigated a populated catchment that drains into Lake Malaren, which is the drinking water source for around 2 million people including the inhabitants of Stockholm, Sweden. To assess the persistence, mobility, bioavailability and bioaccumulation of 32 structurally diverse emerging organic contaminants, sediment, integrated passive and grab water samples were collected along the catchment of the River Fyris, Sweden. The samples were complemented with STP effluent and fish samples from one sampling event. Contaminants identified as persistent, mobile, and bioavailable were 4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydrocyclopenta[g] isochromene (galaxolide), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate. Galaxolide and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol were additionally found to be bioaccumulative, whereas n-butylbenzenesulfonamide was found to be only persistent and mobile. The total median mass flux of the persistent and mobile target analytes from Lake Ekoln into the drinking water source area of Lake Malaren was estimated to be 27 kg per year. Additionally, 10 contaminants were tentatively identified by non-target screening using NIST library searches and manual review. Two of those were confirmed by reference standards and further two contaminants, propylene glycol and rose acetate, were discharged from STPs and travelled far from the source. Attenuation of mass fluxes was highest in the summer and autumn seasons, suggesting the importance of biological degradation and photodegradation for the persistence of the studied compounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Mass fluxes, Fate, Sediment-water distribution, Bioaccumulation, Non-target screening, GC x GC-HRMS
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141837 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.006 (DOI)000413313700151 ()28915547 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-14 Created: 2017-11-14 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2293-7913

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