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Widerström, Micael
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Publications (10 of 27) Show all publications
Sharma, S., Hagbom, M., Carlsson, B., Ohd, J. N., Insulander, M., Eriksson, R., . . . Nordgren, J. (2019). Secretor Status is Associated with Susceptibility to Disease in a Large GII.6 Norovirus Foodborne Outbreak. Food and Environmnetal Virology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Secretor Status is Associated with Susceptibility to Disease in a Large GII.6 Norovirus Foodborne Outbreak
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2019 (English)In: Food and Environmnetal Virology, ISSN 1867-0334, E-ISSN 1867-0342Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Norovirus is commonly associated with food and waterborne outbreaks. Genetic susceptibility to norovirus is largely dependent on presence of histo-blood group antigens (HBGA), specifically ABO, secretor, and Lewis phenotypes. The aim of the study was to determine the association between HBGAs to norovirus susceptibility during a large norovirus foodborne outbreak linked to genotype GII.6 in an office-based company in Stockholm, Sweden, 2015. A two-episode outbreak with symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting occurred in 2015. An online questionnaire was sent to all 1109 employees that had worked during the first outbreak episode. Food and water samples were collected from in-house restaurant and tested for bacterial and viral pathogens. In addition, fecal samples were collected from 8 employees that had diarrhea. To investigate genetic susceptibility during the outbreak, 98 saliva samples were analyzed for ABO, secretor, and Lewis phenotypes using ELISA. A total of 542 of 1109 (49%) employees reported gastrointestinal symptoms. All 8 fecal samples tested positive for GII norovirus, which was also detected in coleslaw collected from the in-house restaurant. Eating at the in-house restaurant was significantly associated with risk of symptom development. Nucleotide sequencing was successful for 5/8 fecal samples and all belonged to the GII.6 genotype. HBGA characterization showed a strong secretor association to norovirus-related symptoms (P = 0.014). No association between norovirus disease and ABO phenotypes was observed. The result of this study shows that non-secretors were significantly less likely to report symptoms in a large foodborne outbreak linked to the emerging GII.6 norovirus strain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Norovirus, Outbreak, Host genetics, Histo-blood group antigens, GII.6
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165475 (URN)10.1007/s12560-019-09410-3 (DOI)000493266400001 ()31664650 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-12-04 Created: 2019-12-04 Last updated: 2019-12-04
Lilja, M., Widerström, M. & Lindh, J. (2018). Persisting post-infection symptoms 2 years after a large waterborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis in northern Sweden. BMC Research Notes, 11(1), Article ID 625.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persisting post-infection symptoms 2 years after a large waterborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis in northern Sweden
2018 (English)In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 625Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: In 2010–2011, a large waterborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis affected the city of Östersund in Sweden. Previous findings had suggested that gastrointestinal symptoms can persist for up to 11 months after the initial infection. Here we investigated whether the parasite could cause sequelae in infected individuals up to 28 months after the outbreak. We compared cases linked to the outbreak and the previous follow-up study with non-cases regarding symptoms present up to 28 months after the initial infection. We investigated whether cases were more likely to report a list of symptoms at follow-up compared to non-cases, calculating odds ratio and 95% confidence interval obtained through logistic regression.

Results: A total of 559 individuals (215 cases) were included in the study. Forty-eight percent of the outbreak cases reported symptoms at follow-up. Compared to non-cases, cases were more likely to report watery diarrhea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, nausea, headache, or joint stiffness/pain/discomfort at follow-up after adjusting for age and sex. Our findings suggest that gastrointestinal symptoms and joint pain can persist several years after the initial Cryptosporidium infection and should be regarded as a potential cause of unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms or joint pain in people who have had this infection.

Keywords
Cryptosporidium, Diarrhea, Sequelae
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152574 (URN)10.1186/s13104-018-3721-y (DOI)30165888 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052726607 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-12 Created: 2018-10-12 Last updated: 2019-05-27Bibliographically approved
Ridderstedt, F., Widerström, M., Lindh, J. & Lilja, M. (2018). Sick leave due to diarrhea caused by contamination of drinking water supply with Cryptosporidium hominis in Sweden: a retrospective study. Journal of Water and Health, 16(5), 704-710
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sick leave due to diarrhea caused by contamination of drinking water supply with Cryptosporidium hominis in Sweden: a retrospective study
2018 (English)In: Journal of Water and Health, ISSN 1477-8920, E-ISSN 1996-7829, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 704-710Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigated sick leave from work, studies, preschool, and kindergarten occurring between 1 November 2010 and 31 January 2011 and associated with a waterborne outbreak of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium hominis in late November 2010 in Östersund, Sweden with 45.2% of 60,000 residents being symptomatic. A questionnaire defining acute watery diarrhoea and/or ≥3 diarrhea episodes/day as cryptosporidiosis was sent to 1,508 residents in late January 2011 (response rate 69.2%). Among adults aged 18–60 years, 24.0% took sick leave for a mean of 4.6 (SD ± 4.0) days due to cryptosporidiosis, and an additional 10.6% were absent from work a mean of 4.0 (±2.2) days to care for symptomatic children. Among children (aged ≤17 years), 35.0% stayed home sick from kindergarten/preschool or school/university for a mean of 5.2 (±3.8) days resulting in 5.1 (±4.4) days of absence from work per sick child shared between parents/guardians. The estimated total number of sick leave days was 50,000 for adults and 20,700 for children, with an estimated direct cost of €7 million for employers. The potential impact on society of sick leave caused by waterborne diseases must be considered in decisions regarding the quality of drinking water.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IWA Publishing, 2018
Keywords
cryptosporidiosis, disease outbreaks, drinking water, sick leave
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152575 (URN)10.2166/wh.2017.311 (DOI)000446334800003 ()30285952 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-10-12 Created: 2018-10-12 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Saffari, F., Monsen, T., Karmostaji, A., Azimabad, F. B. & Widerström, M. (2017). Significant spread of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii genotypes of clonal complex 92 among intensive care unit patients in a university hospital in southern Iran. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 66(11), 1656-1662
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Significant spread of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii genotypes of clonal complex 92 among intensive care unit patients in a university hospital in southern Iran
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0022-2615, E-ISSN 1473-5644, Vol. 66, no 11, p. 1656-1662Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Infections associated with Acinetobacter baumannii represent an increasing threat in healthcare settings. Therefore, we investigated the epidemiological relationship between clinical isolates of A. baumannii obtained from patients in a university hospital in Bandar Abbas in southern Iran.

Methodology: Sixty-four consecutive non-duplicate clinical isolates collected during 2014–2015 were subjected to susceptibility testing, clonal relationship analysis using PFGE, multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and examined for the presence of carbapenemases and integrons.

Results: Almost all A. baumannii isolates were extensively drug-resistant (XDR; 98 %) and carried an OXA carbapenemase gene (bla OXA-23-like; 98 %) and class 1 integrons (48 %). PFGE and MLST analysis identified three major genotypes, all belonging to clonal complex 92 (CC92): sequence type 848 (ST848) (n=23), ST451 (n=16) and ST195 (n=8). CC92 has previously been documented in the hospital setting in northern Iran, and ST195 has been reported in Arab States of the Persian Gulf. These data suggest national and global transmission of A. baumannii CC92.

Conclusion: This report demonstrates the occurrence and potential spread of closely related XDR genotypes of A. baumannii CC92 within a university hospital in southern Iran. These genotypes were found in the majority of the investigated isolates, showed high prevalence of blaOXA-23 and integron class 1, and were associated with stay in the intensive care unit. Very few treatment options remain for healthcare-adapted XDR A. baumannii, and hence effective measures are desperately needed to reduce the spread of these strains and resultant infections in the healthcare setting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MICROBIOLOGY SOC, 2017
Keywords
nosocomial infections, Acinetobacter baumannii, Iran, carbapenem resistance, MLVA, MLST, PFGE, oss infection, molecular epidemiology, ICU
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142259 (URN)10.1099/jmm.0.000619 (DOI)000414369800020 ()29058650 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-12-08 Created: 2017-12-08 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Adler, S., Widerström, M., Lindh, J. & Lilja, M. (2017). Symptoms and risk factors of Cryptosporidium hominis infection in children: data from a large waterborne outbreak in Sweden. Parasitology Research, 116(10), 2613-2618
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Symptoms and risk factors of Cryptosporidium hominis infection in children: data from a large waterborne outbreak in Sweden
2017 (English)In: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, no 10, p. 2613-2618Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cryptosporidium is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. In developing countries, this infection is endemic and in children, associated with growth faltering and cognitive function deficits, with the most severe impact on those aged <2 years. Little has been reported about symptoms and risk factors for children in industrialized countries, although the disease incidence is increasing in such regions. In November 2010, a large waterborne outbreak of C. hominis occurred in the city of Östersund in Sweden. Approximately 27,000 of the 60,000 inhabitants were symptomatic. We aimed to describe duration of symptoms and the risk factors for infection with C. hominis in children aged <15 years in a Western setting. Within 2 months after a boil water advisory, a questionnaire was sent to randomly selected inhabitants of all ages, including 753 children aged <15 years. Those with ≥3 loose stools/day were defined as cases of diarrhoea. The response rate was 70.3%, and 211 children (39.9%) fulfilled the case definition. Mean duration of diarrhoea was 7.5 days (median 6, range 1-80 days). Recurrence, defined as a new episode of diarrhoea after ≥2 days of normal stools, occurred in 52.5% of the cases. Significant risk factors for infection, besides living within the distribution area of the contaminated water plant, included a high level of water consumption, male sex, and a previous history of loose stools. The outbreak was characterized by high attack and recurrence rates, emphasizing the necessity of water surveillance to prevent future outbreaks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2017
Keywords
Cryptosporidiosis, children, risk factors, symptoms
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139192 (URN)10.1007/s00436-017-5558-z (DOI)000410808100001 ()28776228 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-09-08 Created: 2017-09-08 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Hulterström, A. K., Sellin, M., Monsen, T., Widerström, M., Gurram, B. K. & Berggren, D. (2016). Bacterial flora and the epidemiology of staphylococcus aureus in the nose among patients with symptomatic nasal septal perforations. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 136(6), 620-625
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bacterial flora and the epidemiology of staphylococcus aureus in the nose among patients with symptomatic nasal septal perforations
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2016 (English)In: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, E-ISSN 1651-2251, Vol. 136, no 6, p. 620-625Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conclusions Patients with symptomatic perforations of the nasal septum had a high prevalence of S. aureus in the nasal mucosa. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed a high genetic heterogeneity of S. aureus among both patients and controls. This indicates that presence of different strains of S. aureus can maintain a chronic inflammation in symptomatic nasal septal perforations. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial flora around nasal septal perforations in patients having severe symptoms regarding bleeding, obstruction, and crustation associated with their perforation. Methods Twenty-five patients with untreated symptomatic nasal septal perforations were included. For culture, swabs around the perforations were collected. Bacteria were identified with standard laboratory techniques including a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. Epidemiological analysis was done using PFGE protocols. Bacteriological data were compared with data from a healthy control group. Results Staphylococcus aureus was present in the mucosa surrounding the nasal perforation significantly more often (p < 0.0001) in the patients (88%) compared to a control group (13%). Corynebacterium spp. and Propionibacterium spp. were significantly more frequently identified in the control group. The PFGE analysis of S. aureus strains revealed a high genetic heterogeneity and no specific S. aureus genotypes were associated with septal perforation.

National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117369 (URN)10.3109/00016489.2016.1139743 (DOI)000375483400015 ()26852671 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-02-29 Created: 2016-02-29 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Widerström, M., Wiström, J., Edebro, H., Marklund, E., Backman, M., Lindqvist, P. & Monsen, T. (2016). Colonization of patients, healthcare workers, and the environment with healthcare-associated Staphylococcus epidermidis genotypes in an intensive care unit: a prospective observational cohort study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 16, Article ID 743.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Colonization of patients, healthcare workers, and the environment with healthcare-associated Staphylococcus epidermidis genotypes in an intensive care unit: a prospective observational cohort study
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2016 (English)In: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 16, article id 743Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: During the last decades, healthcare-associated genotypes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (HA-MRSE) have been established as important opportunistic pathogens. However, data on potential reservoirs on HA-MRSE is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the dynamics and to which extent HA-MRSE genotypes colonize patients, healthcare workers (HCWs) and the environment in an intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods: Over 12 months in 2006-2007, swab samples were obtained from patients admitted directly from the community to the ICU and patients transferred from a referral hospital, as well as from HCWs, and the ICU environment. Patients were sampled every third day during hospitalization. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed according to EUCAST guidelines. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing were used to determine the genetic relatedness of a subset of MRSE isolates.

Results: We identified 620 MRSE isolates from 570 cultures obtained from 37 HCWs, 14 patients, and 14 environmental surfaces in the ICU. HA-MRSE genotypes were identified at admission in only one of the nine patients admitted directly from the community, of which the majority subsequently were colonized by HA-MRSE genotypes within 3 days during hospitalization. Almost all (89%) of HCWs were nasal carriers of HA-MRSE genotypes. Similarly, a significant proportion of patients transferred from the referral hospital and fomites in the ICU were widely colonized with HA-MRSE genotypes.

Conclusions: Patients transferred from a referral hospital, HCWs, and the hospital environment serve as important reservoirs for HA-MRSE. These observations highlight the need for implementation of effective infection prevention and control measures aiming at reducing HA-MRSE transmission in the healthcare setting.

Keywords
Staphylococcus epidermidis, Cross infection/epidemiology, Cross infection/infection & control, Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Molecular epidemiology, Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), Healthcare-associated infections, Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient, Intensive Care Units, Environmental Microbiology
National Category
Infectious Medicine Anesthesiology and Intensive Care
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130229 (URN)10.1186/s12879-016-2094-x (DOI)000390270900002 ()
Available from: 2017-01-16 Created: 2017-01-14 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Saffari, F., Widerström, M., Gurram, B. K., Edebro, H., Hojabri, Z. & Monsen, T. (2016). Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Clones of Staphylococcus epidermidis in Iranian Hospitals: Clonal Relatedness to Healthcare-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Isolates in Northern Europe. Microbial Drug Resistance, 22(7), 570-577
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Clones of Staphylococcus epidermidis in Iranian Hospitals: Clonal Relatedness to Healthcare-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Isolates in Northern Europe
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2016 (English)In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 570-577Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus epidermidis in Iranian hospitals and to compare the genotypes with a previously characterized collection of >1,300 S. epidermidis isolates of nosocomial and community origin from Northern Europe, Australia, and USA. In total, 82 clinical S. epidermidis isolates from three Iranian hospitals were examined by multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of the ica operon, and the predilection to biofilm formation were assessed. Three predominant PFGE clones were found. The PFGE patterns of the most common sequence type (PFGE type 040-ST2) showed 80% similarity to multidrug-resistant S. epidermidis (MDRSE) clinical isolates from eight hospitals in Northern Europe. The second most common (PFGE 024-ST22) showed an unique PFGE pattern, whereas the third most predominant genotype (PFGE 011-ST5) proved indistinguishable to the PFGE Co-ST5 identified in five hospitals in Northern Europe. In conclusion, the study documented the dissemination of three MDRSE clones within and between hospitals in Iran and revealed an intercontinental spread of two clonal multidrug-resistant lineages (ST2 and ST5) in the hospital environment. Isolates of the predominant clones were significantly more frequently associated with multidrug-resistance and biofilm formation compared to nonclonal isolates. Further studies are needed to explore and characterize the genetic traits that enable these successful MDRSE clones to persist and disseminate worldwide in the healthcare settings.

Keywords
molecular epidemiology, Staphylococci, multidrug-resistant, infection, nosocomial, MLST
National Category
Infectious Medicine Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127618 (URN)10.1089/mdr.2015.0283 (DOI)000385864800010 ()26981847 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-11-30 Created: 2016-11-16 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Smith-Palmer, A., Oates, K., Webster, D., Taylor, S., Scott, K. J., Smith, G., . . . McMenamin, J. (2016). Outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis capsular group W among scouts returning from the World Scout Jamboree, Japan, 2015. Eurosurveillance, 21(45)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis capsular group W among scouts returning from the World Scout Jamboree, Japan, 2015
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2016 (English)In: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 21, no 45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The 23rd World Scout Jamboree was held in Japan from 28 July to 8 August 2015 and was attended by over 33,000 scouts from 162 countries. An outbreak of invasive meningococcal disease capsular group W was investigated among participants, with four confirmed cases identified in Scotland, who were all associated with one particular scout unit, and two confirmed cases in Sweden; molecular testing showed the same strain to be responsible for illness in both countries. The report describes the public health action taken to prevent further cases and the different decisions reached with respect to how wide to extend the offer of chemoprophylaxis in the two countries; in Scotland, chemoprophylaxis was offered to the unit of 40 participants to which the four cases belonged and to other close contacts of cases, while in Sweden chemoprophylaxis was offered to all those returning from the Jamboree. The report also describes the international collaboration and communication required to investigate and manage such multinational outbreaks in a timely manner.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130564 (URN)10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.45.30392 (DOI)27918267 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-23 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Sane, J., Sorvari, T., Widerström, M., Kauma, H., Kaukoniemi, U., Tarkka, E., . . . Lyytikäinen, O. (2016). Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015. Eurosurveillance, 21(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015
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2016 (English)In: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 21, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130563 (URN)10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.2.30105 (DOI)26840007 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-23 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
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