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Saaristo, M., Lagesson, A., Bertram, M. G., Fick, J., Klaminder, J., Johnstone, C. P., . . . Brodin, T. (2019). Behavioural effects of psychoactive pharmaceutical exposure on European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a multi-stressor environment. Science of the Total Environment, 655, 1311-1320
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behavioural effects of psychoactive pharmaceutical exposure on European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a multi-stressor environment
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2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 655, p. 1311-1320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the ability to resist biodegradation and exert therapeutic effects at low concentrations, pharmaceutical contaminants have become environmental stressors for wildlife. One such contaminant is the anxiolytic oxazepam, a psychoactive pharmaceutical that is frequently detected in surface waters globally. Despite growing interest in understanding how wildlife respond to anxiolytics, synergistic effects of pharmaceuticals and other abiotic (e.g. temperature) and biotic (e.g. predation risk) stressors remain unclear. Here, using a multi-stressor approach, we investigated effects of 7-day oxazepam exposure (6.5 μg/L) on anxiety-related behaviours in juvenile European perch (Perca fluviatilis). The multi-stressor approach was achieved by exposing perch to oxazepam at two temperatures (10 °C and 18 °C), and at two predation risk regimes—generated using chemical cues from the northern pike (Esox lucius). Our exposures resulted in a successful uptake of the drug from the water, i.e., oxazepam was measured in perch muscle tissue at 50 ± 17 ng/g (mean ± SD). We found significant oxazepam-induced effects on boldness, with 76.7% of the treated fish entering the white background (i.e. ‘exposed’ area where exposure to presumed risks are higher) within the first 5 min, compared to 66.6% of the control fish. We also found a significant effect of temperature on total time spent freezing (i.e. staying motionless). Specifically, fish in the low temperature treatments (oxazepam, predation) froze for longer than fish in high temperatures. Our multi-stressor study is the first to uncover how anxiety-related behaviours in wild juvenile fish are altered by changes in water temperature and perceived predation risk. Importantly, our findings highlight the need to focus on multiple stressors to improve understanding of how organisms not only survive, but adapt to, human-induced environmental change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Anti-predator behaviour, Behavioural ecotoxicology, Oxazepam, Pharmaceuticals, Temperature effect
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155752 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.228 (DOI)000455034600127 ()30577123 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2013-4431
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved
Lagesson, A., Saaristo, M., Brodin, T., Fick, J., Klaminder, J., Martin, J. M. & Wong, B. B. (2019). Fish on steroids: Temperature-dependent effects of 17 beta-trenbolone on predator escape, boldness, and exploratory behaviors. Environmental Pollution, 245, 243-252
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fish on steroids: Temperature-dependent effects of 17 beta-trenbolone on predator escape, boldness, and exploratory behaviors
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2019 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 245, p. 243-252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hormonal growth promoters (HGPs), widely used in beef cattle production globally, make their way into the environment as agricultural effluent with potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. One MPG of particular concern is 17 beta-trenbolone, which is persistent in freshwater habitats and can affect the development, morphology and reproductive behaviors of aquatic organisms. Despite this, few studies have investigated impacts of 17 beta-trenbolone on non-reproductive behaviors linked to growth and survival, like boldness and predator avoidance. None consider the interaction between 17 beta-trenbolone and other environmental stressors, such as temperature, although environmental challenges confronting animals in the wild seldom, if ever, occur in isolation. Accordingly, this study aimed to test the interactive effects of trenbolone and temperature on organismal behavior. To do this, eastern mosquitofish (Gambusio holbrooki) were subjected to an environmentally-relevant concentration of 17 beta-trenbolone (average measured concentration 3.0 +/- 0.2 ng/L) or freshwater (i.e. control) for 21 days under one of two temperatures (20 and 30 degrees C), after which the predator escape, boldness and exploration behavior of fish were tested. Predator escape behavior was assayed by subjecting fish to a simulated predator strike, while boldness and exploration were assessed in a separate maze experiment. We found that trenbolone exposure increased boldness behavior. Interestingly, some behavioral effects of trenbolone depended on temperature, sex, or both. Specifically, significant effects of trenbolone on male predator escape behavior were only noted at 30 degrees C, with males becoming less reactive to the simulated threat. Further, in the maze experiment, trenbolone-exposed fish explored the maze faster than control fish, but only at 20 degrees C. We conclude that field detected concentrations of 17 beta-trenbolone can impact ecologically important behaviors of fish, and such effects can be temperature dependent. Such findings underscore the importance of considering the potentially interactive effects of other environmental stressors when investigating behavioral effects of environmental contaminants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Anti-predator behavior, Behavioral ecoroxicology, Endocrine disrupting chemicals, Synthetic androgenic anabolic steroid, Temperature
National Category
Environmental Sciences Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162768 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2018.10.116 (DOI)000457511900026 ()30423539 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-05 Last updated: 2019-09-05Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, M., Andersson, M., Fick, J., Brodin, T., Klaminder, J. & Piovano, S. (2019). High-speed imaging reveals how antihistamine exposure affects escape behaviours in aquatic insect prey. Science of the Total Environment, 648, 1257-1262
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-speed imaging reveals how antihistamine exposure affects escape behaviours in aquatic insect prey
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2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 648, p. 1257-1262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aquatic systems receive a wide range of pharmaceuticals that may have adverse impacts on aquatic wildlife. Among these pharmaceuticals, antihistamines are commonly found, and these substances have the potential to influence the physiology of aquatic invertebrates. Previous studies have focused on how antihistamines may affect behaviours of aquatic invertebrates, but these studies probably do not capture the full consequences of antihistamine exposure, as traditional recording techniques do not capture important animal movements occurring at the scale of milliseconds, such as prey escape responses. In this study, we investigated if antihistamine exposure can impact escape responses in aquatic insect, by exposing damselfly (Coenagrion hastulatum) larvae to two environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1 and 1 μg L−1) of diphenhydramine. Importantly, we used a high-speed imaging approach that with high-time resolution captures details of escape responses and, thus, potential impacts of diphenhydramine on these behaviours. Our results show overall weak effects of antihistamine exposure on the escape behaviours of damselfly larvae. However, at stage 2 of the C-escape response, we found a significant increase in turning angle, which corresponds to a reduced swimming velocity, indicating a reduced success at evading a predator attack. Thus, we show that low concentrations of an antihistamine may affect behaviours strongly related to fitness of aquatic insect prey – effects would have been overlooked using traditional recording techniques. Hence, to understand the full consequences of pharmaceutical contamination on aquatic wildlife, high-speed imaging should be incorporated into future environmental risk assessments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Damselfly larvae, Diphenhydramine, Escape response, Pharmaceutical pollution
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150912 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.226 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052146409 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-11-12Bibliographically approved
McCallum, E., Sundelin, A., Fick, J., Alanärä, A., Klaminder, J., Hellström, G. & Brodin, T. (2019). Investigating tissue bioconcentration and the behavioural effects of two pharmaceutical pollutants on sea trout (Salmo trutta) in the laboratory and field. Aquatic Toxicology, 207, 170-178
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating tissue bioconcentration and the behavioural effects of two pharmaceutical pollutants on sea trout (Salmo trutta) in the laboratory and field
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2019 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 207, p. 170-178Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pharmaceuticals entering aquatic ecosystems via wastewater effluents are of increasing concern for wild animals. Because some pharmaceuticals are designed to modulate human behaviour, measuring the impacts of exposure to pharmaceuticals on fish behaviour has become a valuable endpoint. While laboratory studies have shown that pharmaceuticals can affect fish behaviour, there is a lack of understanding if behaviour is similarly affected in natural environments. Here, we exposed sea trout (Salmo trutta) smolts to two concentrations of two pharmaceutical pollutants often detected in surface waters: temazepam (a benzodiazepine, anxiolytic) or irbesartan (an angiotensin II receptor blocker, anti-hypertensive). We tested the hypothesis that changes to behavioural traits (anxiety and activity) measured in laboratory trials following exposure are predictive of behaviour in the natural environment (downstream migration). Measures of anxiety and activity in the laboratory assay did not vary with temazepam treatment, but temazepam-exposed fish began migrating faster in the field. Activity in the laboratory assay did predict overall migration speed in the field. In contrast to temazepam, we found that irbesartan exposure did not affect behaviour in the laboratory, field, or the relationship between the two end-points. However, irbesartan was also not readily taken up into fish tissue (i.e. below detection levels in the muscle tissue), while temazepam bioconcentrated (bioconcentration factor 7.68) rapidly (t(1/2) < 24 h). Our findings add to a growing literature showing that benzodiazepine pollutants can modulate fish behaviour and that laboratory assays may be less sensitive at detecting the effects of pollutants compared to measuring effects in natural settings. Therefore, we underscore the importance of measuring behavioural effects in the natural environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Ecotoxicology, Scototaxis, Steady-state, In situ, Bioconcentration
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources Ecology Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162518 (URN)10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.11.028 (DOI)000457659300019 ()30576864 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-21 Created: 2019-08-21 Last updated: 2019-08-21Bibliographically approved
Klaminder, J., Jonsson, M., Leander, J., Fahlman, J., Brodin, T., Fick, J. & Hellström, G. (2019). Less anxious salmon smolt become easy prey during downstream migration. Science of the Total Environment, 687, 488-493
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Less anxious salmon smolt become easy prey during downstream migration
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2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 687, p. 488-493Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hatchery-reared salmon smolt used for supplementary stocking often display poor migration behavior compared to wild smolt, which reduces the success of this management action. Oxazepam, an anxiolytic drug, has been shown to intensify salmon smolt migration in mesocosm experiments, and treatment with this drug has, therefore, been suggested as a management option to improve downstream smolt migration. In this study, we tested this by assessing migration performance of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt along a 21-km long natural river-to-sea migration route in a boreal river in Northern Sweden. Using acoustic telemetry, the migration rate and survival of smolt that had been exposed to oxazepam (200 mu g L-1, N = 20) was monitored and compared with a control group (N = 20) of unexposed smolt. Exposed smolt took significantly longer time to initiate migration after release compared to the control fish, but after that we observed no significant difference in downstream migration speed. However, exposed smolt had considerably higher probability of being predated on compared to control smolt. We attribute these results to increased risk-taking and higher activity in oxazepam-exposed smolt, which in turn increased initial non-directional exploratory behavior and decreased predator vigilance. These results are discussed based on current concerns for ecological implications of behavioral modifications induced by pharmaceutical pollution and climate change. We conclude that exposure to oxazepam is an unsuitable management option to prime migration of reared salmon in natural systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Pharmaceutical, Behavior, Ecosystem experiment, Predator-prey, GABAergicD
National Category
Environmental Sciences Ecology Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162828 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.488 (DOI)000480316300051 ()31212157 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-09-16 Created: 2019-09-16 Last updated: 2019-09-16Bibliographically approved
Saaristo, M., Lagesson, A., Bertram, M. G., Fick, J., Klaminder, J., Johnstone, C. P., . . . Brodin, T. (2018). Behavioural effects of temperature, predation-risk and anxiolytic exposure on the European perch (Perca fluviatilis).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behavioural effects of temperature, predation-risk and anxiolytic exposure on the European perch (Perca fluviatilis)
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2018 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With the ability to resist biodegradation and exert therapeutic effects at low concentrations, emerging contaminants have become environmental stressors for wildlife. One such contaminant is the anxiolytic oxazepam, a psychoactive pharmaceutical which is frequently detected in surface waters globally. Despite the growing interest in understanding how wildlife responds to such contaminants, the synergistic fitness effects of pharmaceuticals and increased variability in temperature remain unclear. Here, by using a multi-stressor approach, we investigated the effects of 7-d oxazepam exposure (6.5 μg/L) on anxiety-related behaviours in juvenile European perch (Perca fluviatilis). The multi-stressor approach was achieved by exposing perch to oxazepam at either low (10°C) or high (18°C) temperature, with or without a predation cue, generating 8 treatments. Our exposures resulted in a successful uptake of the drug from the water, i.e. oxazepam was measured at muscle tissue concentrations around 50 ± 17 ng/g (mean ± SD). We found significant effects on boldness induced by the studied drug: 92.8% of the fish in the 'oxazepam and predation and high temperature' treatment entered the white background (representing a novel area where exposure to presumed risks are higher) within the first 5 min, compared to 79.3% of the 'control and predation and high temperature' fish. We also found a significant effect on temperature on the total time freezing (i.e. staying motionless). Specifically, fish in the low temperature treatments (oxazepam, predation and control) froze for longer than fish in the high temperatures, respectively. Our study is the first to show altered anxiety-related behaviours in a native juvenile fish resulting from oxazepam, predation and high temperature. As adaptation to a range of biotic and abiotic pressures is essential to living organisms, our study highlights the need to focus on multiple stressors to improve understanding of how organisms not only survive, but adapt to human-induced environmental change.

Keywords
Behavioural ecotoxicology, Benzodiazepines, Freshwater fish, Multiple stressors, Scototaxis
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151126 (URN)
Available from: 2018-08-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2018-08-28
Becher, M., Olofsson, J., Berglund, L. & Klaminder, J. (2018). Decreased cryogenic disturbance: one of the potential mechanisms behind the vegetation change in the Arctic. Polar Biology, 41(1), 101-110
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decreased cryogenic disturbance: one of the potential mechanisms behind the vegetation change in the Arctic
2018 (English)In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 101-110Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

During the last few decades, the Arctic has experienced large-scale vegetation changes. Understanding the mechanisms behind this vegetation change is crucial for our ability to predict future changes. This study tested the hypothesis that decreased cryogenic disturbances cause vegetation change in patterned ground study fields (non-sorted circles) in Abisko, Sweden during the last few decades. The hypothesis was tested by surveying the composition of plant communities across a gradient in cryogenic disturbance and by reinvestigating plant communities previously surveyed in the 1980s to scrutinise how these communities changed in response to reduced cryogenic disturbance. Whereas the historical changes in species occurrence associated with decreased cryogenic disturbances were relatively consistent with the changes along the contemporary gradient of cryogenic disturbances, the species abundance revealed important transient changes highly dependent on the initial plant community composition. Our results suggest that altered cryogenic disturbances cause temporal changes in vegetation dynamics, but the net effects on vegetation communities depend on the composition of initial plant species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Patterned ground, Plant abundance, Non-sorted circles, Freeze/thaw-index, Cryogenic disturbance, Differential heave
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112507 (URN)10.1007/s00300-017-2173-5 (DOI)000418839500009 ()
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form 2016 with title: Decreased cryogenic disturbance : one of the potential mechanisms behind the shrubification of non-sorted circles in subarctic Sweden.

Available from: 2015-12-15 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Lagesson, A., Saaristo, M., Brodin, T., Fick, J., Martin, J. M., Klaminder, J. & Wong, B. B. .. (2018). Fish on steroids: Temperature dependent effects of 17β-trenbolone on anti-predator, risk-taking and exploratory behaviours.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fish on steroids: Temperature dependent effects of 17β-trenbolone on anti-predator, risk-taking and exploratory behaviours
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2018 (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Hormonal growth promoters (HGPs), widely used in beef cattle production globally, make their way into the environment as agricultural effluent—with potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. One HPG of particular concern is 17β-trenbolone, which is persistent in freshwater habitats and can affect the development, morphology and reproductive behaviors of aquatic organisms. Despite this, few studies have investigated impacts of 17β-trenbolone on non-reproductive behaviors linked to growth and survival, like boldness and predator avoidance. None consider the interaction between 17β-trenbolone and other environmental stressors, such as temperature, although environmental challenges confronting animals in the wild seldom, if ever, occur in isolation. Accordingly, this study aimed to test the interactive effects of trenbolone and temperature on organismal behavior. To do this, eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were subjected to an environmentally-relevant concentration of 17β-trenbolone (≤ 5.1 ± 0.5 ng/L) or freshwater (i.e. control) for 21 days under one of two temperatures (20 and 30°C), after which the predator escape, boldness and exploration behavior of fish were tested. Predator escape behavior was assayed by subjecting fish to a simulated predator strike, while boldness and exploration were assessed in a separate maze experiment. We found that trenbolone exposure increased boldness behavior. Interestingly, some behavioural effects of trenbolone depended on temperature, sex, or both. Specifically, significant effects of trenbolone on male predator escape behavior were only noted at 30°C, with males becoming less reactive to the simulated threat. Further, in the maze experiment, trenbolone-exposed fish had a higher activity and explored the maze faster than control fish, but only at 20°C. We conclude that field detected concentrations of 17β-trenbolone can impact ecologically important behaviors of fish, and such effects can be temperature dependent. Such findings underscore the importance of considering the potentially interactive effects of other environmental stressors when investigating behavioural effects of environmental contaminants.

Keywords
Anti-predator behavior, Behavioural ecotoxicology, Endocrine disrupting chemicals, Synthetic androgenic anabolic steroid, Temperature
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151136 (URN)
Available from: 2018-08-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2018-08-28
Klaus, M., Geibrink, E., Jonsson, A., Bergström, A.-K., Bastviken, D., Laudon, H., . . . Karlsson, J. (2018). Greenhouse gas emissions from boreal inland waters unchanged after forest harvesting. Biogeosciences, 15(18), 5575-5594
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greenhouse gas emissions from boreal inland waters unchanged after forest harvesting
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2018 (English)In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, Vol. 15, no 18, p. 5575-5594Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Forestry practices often result in an increased export of carbon and nitrogen to downstream aquatic systems. Although these losses affect the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget of managed forests, it is unknown if they modify GHG emissions of recipient aquatic systems. To assess this question, air-water fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were quantified for humic lakes and their inlet streams in four boreal catchments using a before-after control-impact experiment. Two catchments were treated with forest clear-cuts followed by site preparation (18 % and 44 % of the catchment area). GHG fluxes and hydrological and physicochemical water characteristics were measured at multiple locations in lakes and streams at high temporal resolution throughout the summer season over a 4-year period. Both lakes and streams evaded all GHGs. The treatment did not significantly change GHG fluxes in streams or lakes within 3 years after the treatment, despite significant increases of CO2 and CH4 concentrations in hillslope groundwater. Our results highlight that GHGs leaching from forest clear-cuts may be buffered in the riparian zone-stream continuum, likely acting as effective biogeochemical processors and wind shelters to prevent additional GHG evasion via downstream inland waters. These findings are representative of low productive forests located in relatively flat landscapes where forestry practices cause only a limited initial impact on catchment hydrology and biogeochemistry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copernicus Gesellschaft, 2018
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152400 (URN)10.5194/bg-15-5575-2018 (DOI)000445040900002 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 210-2012-1461The Kempe Foundations, SMK-1240EU, European Research Council, 725546
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2018-10-05Bibliographically approved
Zale, R., Huang, Y.-T. -., Bigler, C., Wood, J. R., Dalén, L., Wang, X.-R., . . . Klaminder, J. (2018). Growth of plants on the Late Weichselian ice-sheet during Greenland interstadial-1?. Quaternary Science Reviews, 185, 222-229
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth of plants on the Late Weichselian ice-sheet during Greenland interstadial-1?
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2018 (English)In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 185, p. 222-229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Unglaciated forelands and summits protruding from ice-sheets are commonly portrayed as areas where plants first establish at the end of glacial cycles. But is this prevailing view of ice-free refugia too simplistic? Here, we present findings suggesting that surface debris supported plant communities far beyond the rim of the Late Weichselian Ice-sheet during Greenland interstadial 1 (GI-1 or Bolling-Altered interstadial). We base our interpretations upon findings from terrigenous sediments largely resembling 'plant-trash' deposits in North America (known to form as vegetation established on stagnant ice became buried along with glacial debris during the deglaciation). In our studied deposit, we found macrofossils (N = 10) overlapping with the deglaciation period of the area (9.5-10 cal kyr BP) as well as samples (N = 2) with ages ranging between 12.9 and 13.3 cal kyr BP. The latter ages indicate growth of at least graminoids during the GI-1 interstadial when the site was near the geographic center of the degrading ice-sheet. We suggest that exposure of englacial material during GI-1 created patches of supraglacial debris capable of supporting vascular plants three millennia before deglaciation. The composition and resilience of this early plant community remain uncertain. Yet, the younger group of macrofossils, in combination with pollen and ancient DNA analyses of inclusions, imply that shrubs (Salix sp., Betula sp. and Ericaceae sp) and even tree species (Larix) were present in the debris during the final deglaciation stage. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Holocene, Pleistocene, Glaciology, Paleolimnology, Scandinavia, Vegetation dynamics, MIS-3
National Category
Geology Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148634 (URN)10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.02.005 (DOI)000428830400015 ()
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationCarl Tryggers foundation
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-26 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8814-0013

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