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Boraxbekk, Carl-JohanORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4458-6475
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Publications (10 of 64) Show all publications
Bangsbo, J., Blackwell, J., Boraxbekk, C.-J., Caserotti, P., Dela, F., Evans, A. B., . . . Viña, J. (2019). Copenhagen Consensus statement 2019: physical activity and ageing. British Journal of Sports Medicine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Copenhagen Consensus statement 2019: physical activity and ageing
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2019 (English)In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

From 19th to 22nd November 2018, 26 researchers representing nine countries and a variety of academic disciplines met in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity and older adults. It was recognised that the term ‘older adults’ represents a highly heterogeneous population. It encompasses those that remain highly active and healthy throughout the life-course with a high intrinsic capacity to the very old and frail with low intrinsic capacity. The consensus is drawn from a wide range of research methodologies within epidemiology, medicine, physiology, neuroscience, psychology and sociology, recognising the strength and limitations of each of the methods. Much of the evidence presented in the statements is based on longitudinal associations from observational and randomised controlled intervention studies, as well as quantitative and qualitative social studies in relatively healthy community-dwelling older adults. Nevertheless, we also considered research with frail older adults and those with age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, and in a few cases molecular and cellular outcome measures from animal studies. The consensus statements distinguish between physical activity and exercise. Physical activity is used as an umbrella term that includes both structured and unstructured forms of leisure, transport, domestic and work-related activities. Physical activity entails body movement that increases energy expenditure relative to rest, and is often characterised in terms of intensity from light, to moderate to vigorous. Exercise is defined as a subset of structured physical activities that are more specifically designed to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, cognitive function, flexibility balance, strength and/or power. This statement presents the consensus on the effects of physical activity on older adults’ fitness, health, cognitive functioning, functional capacity, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion. It also covers the consensus on physical activity implementation strategies. While it is recognised that adverse events can occur during exercise, the risk can be minimised by carefully choosing the type of activity undertaken and by consultation with the individual’s physician when warranted, for example, when the individual is frail, has a number of co-morbidities, or has exercise-related symptoms, such as chest pain, heart arrhythmia or dizziness. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with the presentation of the state-of-the-science in each domain, followed by group and plenary discussions. Ultimately, the participants reached agreement on the 30-item consensus statements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2019
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157555 (URN)10.1136/bjsports-2018-100451 (DOI)30792257 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061964640 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-26 Created: 2019-03-26 Last updated: 2019-04-01
Hedlund, M., Lindelöf, N., Johansson, B., Boraxbekk, C.-J. & Rosendahl, E. (2019). Development and Feasibility of a Regulated, Supramaximal High-Intensity Training Program Adapted for Older Individuals. Frontiers in Physiology, 10, Article ID 590.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and Feasibility of a Regulated, Supramaximal High-Intensity Training Program Adapted for Older Individuals
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 590Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: High-intensity training (HIT) with extremely short intervals (designated here as supramaximal HIT) is a time-efficient training method for health and performance. However, a protocol for regulation and control of intensity is missing, impeding implementation in various groups, such as older individuals.

Methods: This study presents the development and characteristics of a novel training protocol with regulated and controlled supramaximal intervals adapted for older people. Using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, we explored the feasibility of the program, performed in a group training setting, with physically active older individuals (aged 65–75, n = 7; five women). The developed supramaximal HIT program consisted of 10 × 6 s cycle sprint intervals with ∼1 min of active recovery with the following key characteristics: (1) an individual target power output was reached and maintained during all intervals and regulated and expressed as the percentage of the estimated maximum mean power output for the duration of the interval (i.e., 6 s); (2) pedaling cadence was standardized for all participants, while resistance was individualized; and (3) the protocol enabled controlled and systematic adjustments of training intensity following standardized escalation criteria.

Aim: Our aim was to test the feasibility of a novel training regimen with regulated and controlled supramaximal HIT, adapted for older people. The feasibility criteria for the program were to support participants in reaching a supramaximal intensity (i.e., power output > 100% of estimated VO2 max), avoid inducing a negative affective response, and have participants perceive it as feasible and acceptable.

Results: All feasibility criteria were met. The standardized escalation procedure provided safe escalation of training load up to a supramaximal intensity (around three times the power output at estimated VO2 max). The participants never reported negative affective responses, and they perceived the program as fun and feasible.

Conclusion: This novel program offers a usable methodology for further studies on supramaximal HIT among older individuals with different levels of physical capacity. Future research should explore the effects of the program in various populations of older people and their experiences and long-term adherence compared with other forms of training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
sprint interval training, high-intensity interval training, affective state, perceived exertion, training intensity, aging
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159855 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2019.00590 (DOI)000468572300001 ()
Available from: 2019-06-10 Created: 2019-06-10 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Wheeler, M., Green, D., Ellis, K., Cerin, E., Heinonen, I., Naylor, L., . . . Dunstan, D. (2019). Distinct effects of acute exercise and breaks in sitting on working memory and executive function in older adults: a three-arm, randomised cross-over trial to evaluate the effects of exercise with and without breaks in sitting on cognition. British Journal of Sports Medicine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distinct effects of acute exercise and breaks in sitting on working memory and executive function in older adults: a three-arm, randomised cross-over trial to evaluate the effects of exercise with and without breaks in sitting on cognition
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2019 (English)In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Background

Sedentary behaviour is associated with impaired cognition, whereas exercise can acutely improve cognition.

Objective

We compared the effects of a morning bout of moderate-intensity exercise, with and without subsequent light-intensity walking breaks from sitting, on cognition in older adults.

Methods

Sedentary overweight/obese older adults with normal cognitive function (n=67, 67±7 years, 31.2±4.1 kg/m2 ) completed three conditions (6-day washout): SIT (sitting): uninterrupted sitting (8 hours, control); EX+SIT (exercise + sitting): sitting (1 hour), moderate-intensity walking (30min), uninterrupted sitting (6.5 hours); and EX+BR (exercise + breaks): sitting (1 hour), moderate-intensity walking (30min), sitting interrupted every 30min with 3min of light-intensity walking (6.5 hours). Cognitive testing (Cogstate) was completed at four time points assessing psychomotor function, attention, executive function, visual learning and working memory. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF) was assessed at six time points. The 8-hour net area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each outcome.

Results

Working memory net AUC z-score·hour (95%CI) was improved in EX+BR with a z-score of +28 (−26 to +81), relative to SIT, −25 (−79 to +29, p=0.04 vs EX+BR). Executive function net AUC was improved in EX+SIT, −8 (− 71 to +55), relative to SIT, −80 (−142 to −17, p=0.03 vs EX+SIT). Serum BDNF net AUC ng/mL·hour (95%CI) was increased in both EX+SIT, +171 (−449 to +791, p=0.03 vs SIT), and EX+BR, +139 (−481 to +759, p=0.045 vs SIT), relative to SIT, −227 (−851 to +396).

Conclusion

A morning bout of moderate-intensity exercise improves serum BDNF and working memory or executive function in older adults, depending on whether or not subsequent sitting is also interrupted with intermittent light-intensity walking.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158792 (URN)10.1136/bjsports-2018-100168 (DOI)31036563 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-08 Created: 2019-05-08 Last updated: 2019-05-27
Jonasson, L. S., Nyberg, L., Axelsson, J., Kramer, A. F., Riklund, K. & Boraxbekk, C.-J. (2019). Higher striatal D2-receptor availability in aerobically fit older adults but non-selective intervention effects after aerobic versus resistance training. NeuroImage, 202, Article ID 116044.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Higher striatal D2-receptor availability in aerobically fit older adults but non-selective intervention effects after aerobic versus resistance training
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2019 (English)In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 202, article id 116044Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is much evidence that dopamine is vital for cognitive functioning in aging. Here we tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise and fitness influence dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum, and in turn performance on offline working-memory updating tasks. Dopaminergic neurotransmission was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) and the non-displacable binding potential (BPND) of [11C]raclopride, i.e. dopamine (DA) D2-receptor (D2R) availability. Fifty-four sedentary older adults underwent a six-months exercise intervention, performing either aerobic exercise or stretching, toning, and resistance active control training. At baseline, higher aerobic fitness levels (VO2peak) were associated with higher BPND in the striatum, providing evidence of a link between an objective measure of aerobic fitness and D2R in older adults. BPND decreased substantially over the intervention in both groups but the intervention effects were non-selective with respect to exercise group. The decrease was several times larger than any previously estimated annual decline in D2R, potentially due to increased endogenous DA. Working-memory was unrelated to D2R both at baseline and following the intervention. To conclude, we provide partial evidence for a link between physical exercise and DA. Utilizing a PET protocol able to disentangle both D2R and DA levels could shed further light on whether, and how, aerobic exercise impacts the dopaminergic system in older adults.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Aerobic exercise, Fitness, Dopamine, D2, Working memory, Raclopride
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162742 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116044 (DOI)31352122 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85069908673 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Mansson, K., Lindqvist, D., Yang, L., Wolkowitz, O., Nilsonne, G., Isung, J., . . . Furmark, T. (2018). Can Psychological Treatment Slow Down Cellular Aging in Social Anxiety Disorder?: An Intervention Study Evaluating Changes in Telomere Length and Telomerase Activity. Paper presented at 73rd Annual Scientific Convention and Meeting of the Society-of-Biological-Psychiatry (SOBP), MAY 10-12, 2017, New York, NY. Biological Psychiatry, 83(9), S351-S352
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can Psychological Treatment Slow Down Cellular Aging in Social Anxiety Disorder?: An Intervention Study Evaluating Changes in Telomere Length and Telomerase Activity
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2018 (English)In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 83, no 9, p. S351-S352Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Telomerase, Telomere, Social Anxiety Disorder, Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Cellular Aging
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148738 (URN)000433001900299 ()
Conference
73rd Annual Scientific Convention and Meeting of the Society-of-Biological-Psychiatry (SOBP), MAY 10-12, 2017, New York, NY
Note

Supplement: S, Meeting Abstract: S13

Available from: 2018-08-07 Created: 2018-08-07 Last updated: 2018-08-07
Bergman, F., Wahlström, V., Wennberg, P., Boraxbekk, C.-J., Sörlin, A., Öhberg, F. & Olsson, T. (2018). Increasing Physical Activity In Office Workers - An RCT Of Treadmill Workstations. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Sports-Medicine (ACSM), MAY 31, 2018, Minneapolis, MN. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 50(5), 47-47
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increasing Physical Activity In Office Workers - An RCT Of Treadmill Workstations
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2018 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 47-47Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: Our primary hypothesis was that an intervention with treadmill workstations would increase time spent walking. Secondary hypotheses were a decrease in time spent sitting with a concomitant increase in time spent standing and in light intensity physical activity (LPA) leading to positive effects on body measurements and body composition.

METHODS: The intervention group received a treadmill workstation at their office desk during 13 months. Daily time spent sitting, standing and walking and number of steps was measured with activPAL®. Daily time in LPA and MVPA was measured with Actigraph®. Body weight, BMI and waist circumference were measured according to standardized protocols. Dual X-ray Absorptiometry was used to estimate body composition. Mixed models was used for the statistical analysis, with group, day of week (weekday/ weekend), time point and gender as fixed effects and age as a covariate. p<0.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS: Eighty participants were included. The intervention group significantly increased their time spent walking at all follow-ups, with a difference at 13 months of 22 minutes (p<0.01) and 1645 steps per day (p<0.05), respectively, versus controls. Concomitantly, they decreased their MVPA with 13 minutes per day (p<0.001) at weekdays at 13 months versus baseline. We also found a decrease in LPA with 19 minutes per day (p<0.05), and of 17 minutes per day for MVPA (p<0.001) at 13 months versus baseline at weekends. The control group increased their time spent sitting with 25 minutes per day (p<0.05) and decreased the time spent standing with 35 minutes per day at weekdays (p<0.001) compared to baseline. There was also a decrease in LPA with 14 minutes per day (p<0.01) and in MVPA with 6 minutes per day (p<0.01) versus baseline during weekdays, with a decrease in sitting time with 36 minutes (p<0.05) at weekends. There were no significant changes in body measurements or body composition.

CONCLUSION: It is possible to increase daily walking time by introducing treadmill workstations at offices. A decreased MVPA within the intervention group may contribute to lack of effects on body measurements and body composition. It is therefore important that future interventions aim at both reducing sedentary time as well as increasing, or at least remaining, MVPA levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156624 (URN)000456870500144 ()
Conference
Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Sports-Medicine (ACSM), MAY 31, 2018, Minneapolis, MN
Note

Supplement: 1

Meeting Abstract: 256

Available from: 2019-02-20 Created: 2019-02-20 Last updated: 2019-02-20Bibliographically approved
Boraxbekk, C.-J. (2018). Non-invasive brain stimulation and neuro-enhancement in aging. Clinical Neurophysiology, 9, 464-465
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-invasive brain stimulation and neuro-enhancement in aging
2018 (English)In: Clinical Neurophysiology, ISSN 1388-2457, E-ISSN 1872-8952, Vol. 9, p. 464-465Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143795 (URN)10.1016/j.clinph.2017.12.001 (DOI)000425876000020 ()29279190 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85039550037 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-09 Created: 2018-01-09 Last updated: 2018-06-14Bibliographically approved
Malmberg Gavelin, H., Eskilsson, T., Boraxbekk, C.-J., Josefsson, M., Stigsdotter Neely, A. & Slunga Järvholm, L. (2018). Rehabilitation for improved cognition in patients with stress-related exhaustion disorder: RECO – a randomized clinical trial. Stress, 21(4), 279-291
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rehabilitation for improved cognition in patients with stress-related exhaustion disorder: RECO – a randomized clinical trial
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2018 (English)In: Stress, ISSN 1025-3890, E-ISSN 1607-8888, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 279-291Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stress-related exhaustion has been associated with selective and enduring cognitive impairments. However, little is known about how to address cognitive deficits in stress rehabilitation and how this influences stress recovery over time. The aim of this open-label, parallel randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03073772) was to investigate the long-term effects of 12 weeks cognitive or aerobic training on cognitive function, psychological health and work ability for patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED). One-hundred-and-thirty-two patients (111 women) participating in multimodal stress rehabilitation were randomized to receive additional cognitive training (n = 44), additional aerobic training (n = 47) or no additional training (n = 41). Treatment effects were assessed before, immediately after and one-year post intervention. The primary outcome was global cognitive function. Secondary outcomes included domain-specific cognition, self-reported burnout, depression, anxiety, fatigue and work ability, aerobic capacity and sick-leave levels. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed a small but lasting improvement in global cognitive functioning for the cognitive training group, paralleled by a large improvement on a trained updating task. The aerobic training group showed improvements in aerobic capacity and episodic memory immediately after training, but no long-term benefits. General improvements in psychological health and work ability were observed, with no difference between interventional groups. Our findings suggest that cognitive training may be a viable method to address cognitive impairments for patients with ED, whereas the effects of aerobic exercise on cognition may be more limited when performed during a restricted time period. The implications for clinical practice in supporting patients with ED to adhere to treatment are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
burnout, stress rehabilitation, cognitive training, aerobic training, exhaustion disorder, randomized controlled trial
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147074 (URN)10.1080/10253890.2018.1461833 (DOI)000442694000001 ()29693483 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009-0772Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2013-2056Swedish Social Insurance Agency, 99368-2009/RS09Västerbotten County Council
Available from: 2018-04-26 Created: 2018-04-26 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Pantzar, A., Jonasson, L. S., Ekblom, O., Boraxbekk, C.-J. & Ekblom, M. M. (2018). Relationships Between Aerobic Fitness Levels and Cognitive Performance in Swedish Office Workers. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 2612.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationships Between Aerobic Fitness Levels and Cognitive Performance in Swedish Office Workers
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 2612Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Aerobic exercise influence cognition in elderly, children, and neuropsychiatric populations. Less is known about the influence of aerobic exercise in healthy samples (particularly working age), and of different fitness levels on cognition. Two hypotheses were posed: (1) low fitness levels, compared to moderate and high, will be related to poorer cognitive performance, and (2) breakpoints for the beneficial relationship between VO2 and cognition will be observed within the moderate-to-high fitness span.

Design and Methods: The sample consisted of n=362 office workers. A submaximal cycle ergometer test estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, mL·kg−1·min−1). Based on estimated VO2max participants were split into tertiles; low (n = 121), moderate (n = 119), and high (n = 122). A cognitive test battery (9 tests), assessed processing speed, working memory, executive functions and episodic memory.

Results: Both hypotheses were confirmed. Groups of moderate (≈40) and high (≈49) fitness outperformed the group of low (≈31) fitness for inhibition and episodic recognition, whereas no significant differences between moderate and high fitness were observed (ANCOVAs). Breakpoints between benefits fromVO2maxfor inhibition and recognition were estimated to ≈44/43 mL·kg−1·min−1 (multivariate broken line regressions).

Conclusions: Results suggest that it is conceivable to expect a beneficial relationship between VO2max and some cognitive domains up to a certain fitness level. In a sample of healthy office workers, this level was estimated to 44 mL·kg−1·min−1. This has implications on organizational and societal levels; where incentives to improve fitness levels from low to moderate could yield desirable cognitive and health benefits in adults.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
cognition, aerobic fitness, office workers, broken line regression, exercise and cognition
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155096 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02612 (DOI)000453917400001 ()
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160040
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Sommer, M., Häger, C., Boraxbekk, C.-J. & Rönnqvist, L. (2018). Timing Training in Female Soccer Players: Effects on Skilled Movement Performance and Brain Responses. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12, Article ID 311.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Timing Training in Female Soccer Players: Effects on Skilled Movement Performance and Brain Responses
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 12, article id 311Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although trainers and athletes consider “good timing skills” critical for optimal sport performance, little is known in regard to how sport-specific skills may benefit from timing training. Accordingly, this study investigated the effects of timing training on soccer skill performance and the associated changes in functional brain response in elite- and sub-elite female soccer players. Twenty-five players (mean age 19.5 years; active in the highest or second highest divisions in Sweden), were randomly assigned to either an experimental- or a control group. The experimental group (n = 12) was subjected to a 4-week program (12 sessions) of synchronized metronome training (SMT). We evaluated effects on accuracy and variability in a soccer cross-pass task. The associated brain response was captured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while watching videos with soccer-specific actions. SMT improved soccer cross-pass performance, with a significant increase in outcome accuracy, combined with a decrease in outcome variability. SMT further induced changes in the underlying brain response associated with observing a highly familiar soccer-specific action, denoted as decreased activation in the cerebellum post SMT. Finally, decreased cerebellar activation was associated with improved cross-pass performance and sensorimotor synchronization. These findings suggest a more efficient neural recruitment during action observation after SMT. To our knowledge, this is the first controlled study providing behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that timing training may positively influence soccer-skill, while strengthening the action-perception coupling via enhanced sensorimotor synchronization abilities, and thus influencing the underlying brain responses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
timing training, neuroplasticity, fMRI, action observation, action perception, soccer
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150294 (URN)10.3389/fnhum.2018.00311 (DOI)000440612300001 ()
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, 140/10; P2011-0171
Available from: 2018-08-02 Created: 2018-08-02 Last updated: 2018-09-04Bibliographically approved
Projects
Be smart exercise your heart: Using PET/CT to study physical exercise effects on the dopaminergic system in relation to aging and cognition [2012-00530_VR]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4458-6475

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