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Wagner, Ryan G.
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Publications (10 of 42) Show all publications
Kilburn, K., Hughes, J. P., MacPhail, C., Wagner, R. G., Gómez-Olivé, F. X., Kahn, K. & Pettifor, A. (2019). Cash Transfers, Young Women's Economic Well-Being, and HIV Risk: Evidence from HPTN 068. Aids and Behavior, 23(5), 1178-1194
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cash Transfers, Young Women's Economic Well-Being, and HIV Risk: Evidence from HPTN 068
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2019 (English)In: Aids and Behavior, ISSN 1090-7165, E-ISSN 1573-3254, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1178-1194Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the large interest in economic interventions to reduce HIV risk, little research has been done to show whether there are economic gains of these interventions for younger women and what intermediary role economic resources play in changing participants' sexual behavior. This paper contributes to this gap by examining the impacts of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) for young women in South Africa on young women's economic resources and the extent to which they play a role in young women's health and behavior. We used data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 068 study, which provided transfers to young women (in addition to their parents) conditional on the young woman attending at least 80% of school days in the previous month. We found that the CCT increased young women's economic wellbeing in terms of having savings, spending money, being unindebted, and food secure. We also investigated heterogeneous effects of the program by household economic status at baseline because the program was not specifically poverty targeted and found that the results were driven by young women from the poorest families. From these results, we examined heterogeneity by baseline poverty for other outcomes related to HIV risk including sexual behavior and psychosocial well-being. We found psychosocial well-being benefits in young women from the poorest families and that economic wellbeing gains explained much these impacts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag New York, 2019
Keywords
Adolescent girls and young women, South Africa, Economic empowerment, Cash transfers, Psychosocial well-being
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159618 (URN)10.1007/s10461-018-2329-5 (DOI)000467642000008 ()30415429 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Kobayashi, L. C., Mateen, F. J., Montana, L., Wagner, R. G., Kahn, K., Tollman, S. M. & Berkman, L. F. (2019). Cognitive Function and Impairment in Older, Rural South African Adults: Evidence from "Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in Rural South Africa". Neuroepidemiology, 52(1-2), 32-40
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive Function and Impairment in Older, Rural South African Adults: Evidence from "Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in Rural South Africa"
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2019 (English)In: Neuroepidemiology, ISSN 0251-5350, E-ISSN 1423-0208, Vol. 52, no 1-2, p. 32-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background/Aims: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of cognitive impairment, and the sociodemographic and comorbid predictors of cognitive function among older, rural South African adults.

Methods: Data were from a population-based study of 5,059 adults aged >= 40 years in rural South Africa in 2015. Cognitive impairment was defined as scoring <= 1.5 SDs below the mean composite time orientation and memory score, or requiring a proxy interview with "fair" or "poor" proxy-reported memory. Multiple linear regression estimated the sociodemographic and comorbid predictors of cognitive score, with multiplicative statistical interactions between each of age and sex with education.

Results: Cognitive impairment increased with age, from 2% of those aged 40-44 (11/516) to 24% of those aged >= 75 years (214/899). The independent predictors of lower cognitive score were being older, female, unmarried, not working, having low education, low household wealth, and a history of cardiovascular conditions. Education modified the negative associations between female sex, older age, and cognitive function score. Conclusions: The prevalence of cognitive impairment increased with age and is comparable to rates of dementia reported in other sub-Saharan African countries. Age and sex differences in cognitive function scores were minimized as education increased, potentially reflecting the power of even poor-quality education to improve cognitive reserve.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
S. Karger, 2019
Keywords
Africa, Age factors, Education, Cross-sectional studies, Epidemiology, Prevalence, Sex, sociodemographic characteristics, Cognitive function, Cognitive impairment
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157232 (URN)10.1159/000493483 (DOI)000459515400004 ()30476911 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-20 Created: 2019-03-20 Last updated: 2019-03-20Bibliographically approved
Kobayashi, L. C., Berkman, L. F., Wagner, R. G., Kahn, K., Tollman, S. M. & Subramanian, S. V. (2019). Education modifies the relationship between height and cognitive function in a cross-sectional population-based study of older adults in Rural South Africa. European Journal of Epidemiology, 34(2), 131-139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Education modifies the relationship between height and cognitive function in a cross-sectional population-based study of older adults in Rural South Africa
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 131-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We aimed to estimate the relationship between height (a measure of early-life cumulative net nutrition) and later-life cognitive function among older rural South African adults, and whether education modified this relationship. Data were from baseline in-person interviews with 5059 adults40years in the population-based Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI) study in Agincourt sub-district, South Africa, in 2015. Linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between height quintile and latent cognitive function z-score (representing episodic memory, time orientation, and numeracy), with adjustment for life course covariates and a height-by-education interaction. Mean (SD) height was 162.7 (8.9) cm. Nearly half the sample had no formal education (46%; 2307/5059). Mean age- and sex-adjusted cognitive z-scores increased from -0.68 (95% CI: -0.76 to -0.61) in those with no education in the shortest height quintile to 0.62 (95% CI: 0.52-0.71) in those with at least 8years of education in the tallest height quintile. There was a linear height disparity in cognitive z-scores for those with no formal education (adjusted =0.10; 95% CI: 0.08-0.13 per height quintile), but no height disparity in cognitive z-scores in those with any level of education. Short stature is associated with poor cognitive function and may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment among older adults living in rural South Africa. The height disparity in cognitive function was negated for older adults who had any level of education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Cognitive function, Older adults, Education, Height, South Africa
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156891 (URN)10.1007/s10654-018-0453-1 (DOI)000458429900005 ()30306424 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-20Bibliographically approved
Basu, S., Wagner, R. G., Sewpaul, R., Reddy, P. & Davies, J. (2019). Implications of scaling up cardiovascular disease treatment in South Africa: a microsimulation and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Lancet Global Health, 7(2), E270-E280
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implications of scaling up cardiovascular disease treatment in South Africa: a microsimulation and cost-effectiveness analysis
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2019 (English)In: The Lancet Global Health, E-ISSN 2214-109X, Vol. 7, no 2, p. E270-E280Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors-particularly hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and diabetes-have become an increasing concern for middle-income countries. Using newly available, nationally representative data, we assessed how cardiovascular risk factors are distributed across subpopulations within South Africa and identified which cardiovascular treatments should be prioritised.

Methods: We created a demographically representative simulated population for South Africa and used data from 17 743 respondents aged 15 years or older of the 2012 South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES) to assign information on cardiovascular risk factors to each member of the simulated population. We created a microsimulation model to estimate the health and economic implications of two globally recognised treatment recommendations: WHO's package of essential non-communicable disease interventions (PEN) and South Africa's Primary Care 101 (SA PC 101) guidelines. The primary outcome was total disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted through treatment of all cardiovascular disease or microvascular type 2 diabetes complications per 1000 population. We compared outcomes at the aspirational level of achieving access to treatment among 70% of the population.

Findings: Based on the SANHANES data, South Africans had a high prevalence of hypertension (24.8%), dyslipidaemia (17.5%), and diabetes (15.3%). Prevalence was disproportionately high and treatment low among male, black, and poor populations. Our simulated population experienced a burden of 40.0 DALYs (95% CI 29.5-52.0) per 1000 population per year from cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes complications at current treatment levels, which lowered to 32.9 DALYs (24.4-44.7) under WHO PEN implementation and to 32.5 (24.4-44.8) under SA PC 101 implementation. Under both guidelines, there were increases in blood pressure treatment (4.2 percentage points under WHO PEN vs 12.6 percentage points under SA PC 101), lipid treatment (16.0 vs 14.9), and glucose control medications (1.2 vs 0.6). The incremental cost-effectiveness of implementing SA PC 101 over current treatment would be a saving of US$ 24 902 (95% CI 14 666-62 579) per DALY averted compared with a saving of $ 17 587 (1840-42 589) under WHO PEN guidelines.

Interpretation: Cardiovascular risk factors are common and disproportionate among disadvantaged populations in South Africa. Treatment with blood pressure agents and statins might need greater prioritisation than blood glucose therapies, which contrasts with observed treatment levels despite a lower monthly cost of blood pressure or statin treatment than of sulfonylurea or insulin treatment.

Funding: Stanford University. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156299 (URN)10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30450-9 (DOI)000456441300030 ()30528531 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2019-02-25Bibliographically approved
Price, J., Pettifor, A., Selin, A., Wagner, R. G., MacPhail, C., Agyei, Y., . . . Kahn, K. (2019). The association between perceived household educational support and HIV risk in young women in a rural South African community (HPTN 068): A cross sectional study. PLoS ONE, 14(1), Article ID e0210632.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The association between perceived household educational support and HIV risk in young women in a rural South African community (HPTN 068): A cross sectional study
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2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 1, article id e0210632Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To characterise perceived household support for female education and the associations between educational support and HIV prevalence, HSV-2 prevalence and sexual risk behaviours.

Methods: This cross-sectional study used baseline survey data from the Swa Koteka HPTN 068 trial undertaken in Mpumalanga, South Africa. The study included 2533 young women aged 13-20, in grades 8-11 at baseline. HIV and HSV-2 status were determined at baseline. Information about patterns of sexual behaviour and household support for education was collected during the baseline survey. Linear regression and binary logistic regression were used to determine associations between household support for education and both biological and behavioural outcomes.

Results: High levels of educational support were reported across all measures. HIV prevalence was 3.2% and HSV-2 prevalence was 4.7%, both increasing significantly with age. Over a quarter (26.6%) of young women reported vaginal sex, with 60% reporting condom use at last sex. The median age of sexual debut was 16 years. Household educational support was not significantly associated with HIV or HSV-2; however, the odds of having had vaginal sex were significantly lower in those who reported greater homework supervision (OR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.94), those who engaged in regular discussion of school marks with a caregiver (OR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.71-0.95) and when caregivers had greater educational goals for the young woman (OR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.71-0.96). In contrast, greater caregiver disappointment at dropout was significantly associated with reported vaginal sex (OR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.14-1.46).

Conclusion: Young women in rural South Africa report experiencing high levels of household educational support. This study suggests that greater household educational support is associated with lower odds of having vaginal sex and engaging in risky sexual behaviour, though not with HIV or HSV-2 prevalence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Libarary Science, 2019
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156321 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0210632 (DOI)000456015500057 ()30653540 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-02-20 Created: 2019-02-20 Last updated: 2019-02-20Bibliographically approved
Gómez-Olivé, F. X., Montana, L., Wagner, R. G., Kabudula, C. W., Rohr, J. K., Kahn, K., . . . Berkman, L. (2018). Cohort Profile: Health and Ageing in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI). International Journal of Epidemiology, 47(3), 689-690j
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cohort Profile: Health and Ageing in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI)
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 689-690jArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2018
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150393 (URN)10.1093/ije/dyx247 (DOI)000438342200005 ()29325152 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2018-08-06Bibliographically approved
Kilburn, K. N., Pettifor, A., Edwards, J. K., Selin, A., Twine, R., MacPhail, C., . . . Kahn, K. (2018). Conditional cash transfers and the reduction in partner violence for young women: an investigation of causal pathways using evidence from a randomized experiment in South Africa (HPTN 068). Journal of the International AIDS Society, 21, Article ID e25043.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conditional cash transfers and the reduction in partner violence for young women: an investigation of causal pathways using evidence from a randomized experiment in South Africa (HPTN 068)
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2018 (English)In: Journal of the International AIDS Society, ISSN 1758-2652, E-ISSN 1758-2652, Vol. 21, article id e25043Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

IntroductionEvidence has shown that the experience of violence by a partner has important influences on women's risk of HIV acquisition. Using a randomized experiment in northeast South Africa, we found that a conditional cash transfer (CCT) targeted to poor girls in high school reduced the risk of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in the past 12months by 34%. The purpose of this analysis is to understand the pathways through which the CCT affects IPV. MethodsHPTN 068 was a phase 3, randomized controlled trial in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Eligible young women (aged 13-20) and their parents or guardians were randomly assigned (1:1) to either receive a monthly cash transfer conditional on monthly high school attendance or no cash transfer. Between 2011 and 2015, participants (N=2,448) were interviewed at baseline, then at annual follow-up visits at 12, 24 and 36months. The total effect of the CCT on IPV was estimated using a GEE log-binomial regression model. We then estimated controlled direct effects to examine mediation of direct effects through intermediate pathways. Mediators include sexual partnership measures, the sexual relationship power scale, and household consumption measures. ResultsWe found evidence that the CCT works in part through delaying sexual debut or reducing the number of sexual partners. The intervention interacts with these mediators leading to larger reductions in IPV risk compared to the total effect of the CCT on any physical IPV [RR 0.66, CI(95%):0.59-0.74]. The largest reductions are seen when we estimate the controlled direct effect under no sexual debut [RR 0.57, CI(95%):0.48-0.65] or under no sexual partner in the last 12months [RR 0.53, CI(95%):0.46-0.60]. ConclusionsResults indicate that a CCT for high school girls has protective effects on their experience of IPV and that the effect is due in part to girls choosing not to engage in sexual partnerships, thereby reducing the opportunity for IPV. As a lower exposure to IPV and safer sexual behaviours also protect against HIV acquisition, this study adds to the growing body of evidence on how cash transfers may reduce young women's HIV risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD, 2018
Keywords
intimate partner violence, cash transfers, gender, South Africa, HIV prevention
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145784 (URN)10.1002/jia2.25043 (DOI)000426267600003 ()
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Stoner, M. C. D., Edwards, J. K., Miller, W. C., Aiello, A. E., Halpern, C. T., Julien, A., . . . Pettifor, A. (2018). Does Partner Selection Mediate the Relationship Between School Attendance and HIV/Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women in South Africa: An Analysis of HIV Prevention Trials Network 068 Data. Paper presented at AIDS Conference, JUL 23-27, 2018, Amsterdam, NETHERLANDS. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 79(1), 20-27
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does Partner Selection Mediate the Relationship Between School Attendance and HIV/Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women in South Africa: An Analysis of HIV Prevention Trials Network 068 Data
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, ISSN 1525-4135, E-ISSN 1944-7884, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 20-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: School attendance prevents HIV and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) in adolescent girls and young women, but the mechanisms to explain this relationship remain unclear. Our study assesses the extent to which characteristics of sex partners, partner age, and number mediate the relationship between attendance and risk of infection in adolescent girls and young women in South Africa.

Design: We use longitudinal data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network 068 randomized controlled trial in rural South Africa, where girls were enrolled in early adolescence and followed in the main trial for more than 3 years. We examined older partners and the number of partners as possible mediators.

Methods: We used the parametric g-formula to estimate 4-year risk differences for the effect of school attendance on the cumulative incidence of HIV/HSV-2 overall and the controlled direct effect (CDE) for mediation. We examined mediation separately and jointly for the mediators of interest.

Results: We found that young women with high attendance in school had a lower cumulative incidence of HIV compared with those with low attendance (risk difference = -1.6%). Partner age difference (CDE = -1.2%) and the number of partners (CDE = -0.4%) mediated a large portion of this effect. In fact, when we accounted for the mediators jointly, the effect of schooling on HIV was almost removed, showing full mediation (CDE = -0.3%). The same patterns were observed for the relationship between school attendance and cumulative incidence of HSV-2 infection.

Conclusion: Increasing school attendance reduces the risk of acquiring HIV and HSV-2. Our results indicate the importance of school attendance in reducing partner number and partner age difference in this relationship.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018
Keywords
South Africa, adolescent girls and young women, HIV, HSV-2, education, mediation
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152409 (URN)10.1097/QAI.0000000000001766 (DOI)000444639800014 ()29847479 (PubMedID)
Conference
AIDS Conference, JUL 23-27, 2018, Amsterdam, NETHERLANDS
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2018-10-05Bibliographically approved
Rosenberg, M., Pettifor, A., Twine, R., Hughes, J. P., Gomez-Olive, F. X., Wagner, R. G., . . . Kahn, K. (2018). Evidence for sample selection effect and Hawthorne effect in behavioural HIV prevention trial among young women in a rural South African community. BMJ Open, 8(1), Article ID e019167.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidence for sample selection effect and Hawthorne effect in behavioural HIV prevention trial among young women in a rural South African community
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2018 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 1, article id e019167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: We examined the potential influence of both sample selection effects and Hawthorne effects in the behavioural HIV Prevention Trial Network 068 study, designed to examine whether cash transfers conditional on school attendance reduce HIV acquisition in young South African women. We explored whether school enrolment among study participants differed from the underlying population, and whether differences existed at baseline (sample selection effect) or arose during study participation (Hawthorne effect).

Methods: We constructed a cohort of 3889 young women aged 11-20 years using data from the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System. We compared school enrolment in 2011 (trial start) and 2015 (trial end) between those who did (n=1720) and did not (11=2169) enrol in the trial. To isolate the Hawthorne effect, we restricted the cohort to those enrolled in school in 2011.

Results: In 2011, trial participants were already more likely to be enrolled in school (99%) compared with non-participants (93%). However, this association was attenuated with covariate adjustment (adjusted risk difference (aRD) (95% Cl): 2.9 (0.7 to 6.5)). Restricting to those enrolled in school in 2011, trial participants were also more likely to be enrolled in school in 2015 (aRD (95% Cl): 4.9 (1.5 to 8.3)). The strength of associations increased with age.

Conclusions: Trial participants across both study arms were more likely to be enrolled in school than nonparticipants. Our findings suggest that both sample selection and Hawthorne effects may have diminished the differences in school enrolment between study arms, a plausible explanation for the null trial findings. The Hawthorne-specific findings generate hypotheses for how to structure school retention interventions to prevent HIV.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2018
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148036 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019167 (DOI)000431743500200 ()29326192 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Rosenberg, M., Pettifor, A., Duta, M., Demeyere, N., Wagner, R. G., Selin, A., . . . Kahn, K. (2018). Executive function associated with sexual risk in young South African women: Findings from the HPTN 068 cohort. PLoS ONE, 13(4), Article ID e0195217.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Executive function associated with sexual risk in young South African women: Findings from the HPTN 068 cohort
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 4, article id e0195217Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose Heightened sexual risk in adolescence and young adulthood may be partially explained by deficits in executive functioning, the set of cognitive processes used to make reasoned decisions. However, the association between executive function and sexual risk is understudied among adolescent girls and young women, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Methods In a cohort of 853 young women age 18-25 in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa, we evaluated executive function with three non-verbal cognitive tests: I. a rule-finding test, II. a trail-making test, and III. a figure drawing test. Using log-binomial regression models, we estimated the association between lower executive function test scores and indicators of sexual risk (unprotected sex acts, concurrent partnerships, transactional sex, and recent HSV-2 infection). Results In general, young women with lower executive function scores reported higher frequencies of sexual risk outcomes, though associations tended to be small with wide confidence intervals. Testing in the lowest quintile of Test I was associated with more unprotected sex [aPR (95% CI): 1.4 (1.0, 1.8)]. Testing in the lowest quintile of Test II was associated with more concurrent relationships and transactional sex [aPR (95% CI): 1.6 (1.1, 2.5) and 1.7 (1.3, 2.4), respectively], and testing in the lowest four quintiles of Test III was associated with more concurrent relationships [aPR (95% CI): 1.7 (1.0, 2.7)]. Conclusions These results demonstrate an association between low executive function and sexual risk in South African young women. Future work should seek to understand the nature of this association and whether there is promise in developing interventions to enhance executive function to reduce sexual risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2018
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148633 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0195217 (DOI)000428988800039 ()29608615 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044856588 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-26 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
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