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Evengård, Birgitta
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Bonebrake, T. C., Brown, C. J., Bell, J. D., Blanchard, J. L., Chauvenet, A., Champion, C., . . . Pecl, G. T. (2018). Managing consequences of climate-driven species redistribution requires integration of ecology, conservation and social science. Paper presented at ARK TD, 2013, THE JOURNAL OF EXPER, V216, P2771 e, E., 2016, Square Brackets, V10, P22 ans Tyler G., 2015, CONSERVATION PHYSIOLOGY, V3, nnegan Seth, 2015, SCIENCE, V348, P567 hr Jason R., 2008, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES. Biological Reviews, 93(1), 284-305
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing consequences of climate-driven species redistribution requires integration of ecology, conservation and social science
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2018 (English)In: Biological Reviews, ISSN 1464-7931, E-ISSN 1469-185X, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 284-305Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. We highlight that species redistribution has manifest implications across multiple temporal and spatial scales and from genes to ecosystems. Understanding range shifts from ecological, physiological, genetic and biogeographical perspectives is essential for informing changing paradigms in conservation science and for designing conservation strategies that incorporate changing population connectivity and advance adaptation to climate change. Species redistributions present challenges for human well-being, environmental management and sustainable development. By synthesising recent approaches, theories and tools, our review establishes an interdisciplinary foundation for the development of future research on species redistribution. Specifically, we demonstrate how ecological, conservation and social research on species redistribution can best be achieved by working across disciplinary boundaries to develop and implement solutions to climate change challenges. Future studies should therefore integrate existing and complementary scientific frameworks while incorporating social science and human-centred approaches. Finally, we emphasise that the best science will not be useful unless more scientists engage with managers, policy makers and the public to develop responsible and socially acceptable options for the global challenges arising from species redistributions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
Keywords
adaptive conservation, climate change, food security, health, managed relocation, range shift, stainable development, temperature
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144343 (URN)10.1111/brv.12344 (DOI)000419965700015 ()28568902 (PubMedID)
Conference
ARK TD, 2013, THE JOURNAL OF EXPER, V216, P2771 e, E., 2016, Square Brackets, V10, P22 ans Tyler G., 2015, CONSERVATION PHYSIOLOGY, V3, nnegan Seth, 2015, SCIENCE, V348, P567 hr Jason R., 2008, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES
Available from: 2018-02-01 Created: 2018-02-01 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Pecl, G. T., Araujo, M. B., Bell, J. D., Blanchard, J., Bonebrake, T. C., Chen, I.-C., . . . Williams, S. E. (2017). Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well-being. Science, 355(6332), Article ID eaai9214.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well-being
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2017 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 355, no 6332, article id eaai9214Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Distributions of Earth's species are changing at accelerating rates, increasingly driven by human-mediated climate change. Such changes are already altering the composition of ecological communities, but beyond conservation of natural systems, how and why does this matter? We review evidence that climate-driven species redistribution at regional to global scales affects ecosystem functioning, human well-being, and the dynamics of climate change itself. Production of natural resources required for food security, patterns of disease transmission, and processes of carbon sequestration are all altered by changes in species distribution. Consideration of these effects of biodiversity redistribution is critical yet lacking in most mitigation and adaptation strategies, including the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals.

National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133738 (URN)10.1126/science.aai9214 (DOI)000397809500032 ()
Available from: 2017-05-05 Created: 2017-05-05 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Tokarevich, N., Tronin, A., Gnativ, B., Revich, B., Blinova, O. & Evengård, B. (2017). Impact of air temperature variation on the ixodid ticks habitat and tick-borne encephalitis incidence in the Russian Arctic: the case of the Komi Republic. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 76, Article ID 1298882.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of air temperature variation on the ixodid ticks habitat and tick-borne encephalitis incidence in the Russian Arctic: the case of the Komi Republic
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 76, article id 1298882Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The causes of the recent rise of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) incidence in Europe are discussed. Our objective was to estimate the impact of air temperature change on TBE incidence in the European part of the Russian Arctic. Methods: We analysed the TBE incidence in the Komi Republic (RK) over a 42-year period in relation to changes in local annual average air temperature, air temperature during the season of tick activity, tick abundance, TBE-prevalence in ticks, tick-bite incidence rate, and normalised difference vegetation index within the area under study. Results: In 1998-2011 in RK a substantial growth of TBE virus (TBEV) prevalence both in questing and feeding ticks was observed. In 1992-2011 there was 23-fold growth of the tick-bite incidence rate in humans, a northward shift of the reported tick bites, and the season of tick bites increased from 4 to 6 months. In 1998-2011 there was more than 6-fold growth of average annual TBE incidence compared with 1970-1983 and 1984-1997 periods. This resulted both from the northward shift of TBE, and its growth in the south. In our view it was related to local climate change as both the average annual air temperature, and the air temperature during the tick activity season grew substantially. We revealed in RK a strong correlation between the change in the air temperature and that in TBE incidence. The satellite data showed NDVI growth within RK, i.e. alteration of the local ecosystem under the influence of climate change. Conclusions: The rise in TBE incidence in RK is related considerably to the expansion of the range of Ixodes persulcatus. The territory with reported TBE cases also expanded northward. Climate change is an important driver of TBE incidence rate growth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
Tick-borne encephalitis, climate change, I. persulcatus, NDVI, Arctic, Komi Republic
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133913 (URN)10.1080/22423982.2017.1298882 (DOI)000397947400001 ()
Available from: 2017-05-02 Created: 2017-05-02 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Forsell, J., Bengtsson-Palme, J., Angelin, M., Johansson, A., Evengård, B. & Granlund, M. (2017). The relation between Blastocystis and the intestinal microbiota in Swedish travellers. BMC Microbiology, 17, Article ID 231.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relation between Blastocystis and the intestinal microbiota in Swedish travellers
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2017 (English)In: BMC Microbiology, ISSN 1471-2180, E-ISSN 1471-2180, Vol. 17, article id 231Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Blastocystis sp. is a unicellular eukaryote that is commonly found in the human intestine. Its ability to cause disease is debated and a subject for ongoing research. In this study, faecal samples from 35 Swedish university students were examined through shotgun metagenomics before and after travel to the Indian peninsula or Central Africa. We aimed at assessing the impact of travel on Blastocystis carriage and seek associations between Blastocystis and the bacterial microbiota.

Results: We found a prevalence of Blastocystis of 16/35 (46%) before travel and 15/35 (43%) after travel. The two most commonly Blastocystis subtypes (STs) found were ST3 and ST4, accounting for 20 of the 31 samples positive for Blastocystis. No mixed subtype carriage was detected. All ten individuals with a typable ST before and after travel maintained their initial ST. The composition of the gut bacterial community was not significantly different between Blastocystis-carriers and non-carriers. Interestingly, the presence of Blastocystis was accompanied with higher abundances of the bacterial genera Sporolactobacillus and Candidatus Carsonella. Blastocystis carriage was positively associated with high bacterial genus richness, and negatively correlated to the Bacteroides-driven enterotype. These associations were both largely dependent on ST4 – a subtype commonly described from Europe – while the globally prevalent ST3 did not show such significant relationships.

Conclusions: The high rate of Blastocystis subtype persistence found during travel indicates that long-term carriage of Blastocystis is common. The associations between Blastocystis and the bacterial microbiota found in this study could imply a link between Blastocystis and a healthy microbiota as well as with diets high in vegetables. Whether the associations between Blastocystis and the microbiota are resulting from the presence of Blastocystis, or are a prerequisite for colonization with Blastocystis, are interesting questions for further studies.

Keywords
Blastocystis; subtype; persistence; travel; microbiota; Sporolactobacillus; Candidatus Carsonella; transmission
National Category
Infectious Medicine Microbiology in the medical area
Research subject
Clinical Bacteriology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-132437 (URN)10.1186/s12866-017-1139-7 (DOI)000418138200001 ()29228901 (PubMedID)
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form

Available from: 2017-03-14 Created: 2017-03-14 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Forsell, J., Granlund, M., Samuelsson, L., Koskiniemi, S., Edebro, H. & Evengård, B. (2016). High occurrence of Blastocystis sp subtypes 1-3 and Giardia intestinalis assemblage B among patients in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Parasites & Vectors, 9, Article ID 370.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High occurrence of Blastocystis sp subtypes 1-3 and Giardia intestinalis assemblage B among patients in Zanzibar, Tanzania
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2016 (English)In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 9, article id 370Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Blastocystis is a common intestinal parasite with worldwide distribution but the distribution of Blastocystis and its subtypes in East Africa is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the distribution of Blastocystis subtypes in Zanzibar, Tanzania and report the prevalence of intestinal parasites using both molecular methods and microscopy.

Methods: Stool samples were collected from both diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic outpatients in Zanzibar. In addition to microscopy, real-time PCR for Blastocystis, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Dientamoeba fragilis was used. Blastocystis subtypes were determined by a conventional PCR followed by partial sequencing of the SSU-rRNA gene. Genetic assemblages of Giardia were determined by PCR with assemblage specific primers.

Results: Intestinal parasites were detected in 85 % of the 174 participants, with two or more parasites present in 56 %. Blastocystis sp. and Giardia intestinalis were the most common parasites, identified by PCR in 61 and 53 % of the stool samples respectively, but no correlation between carriage of Blastocystis and Giardia was found. The Blastocystis subtype distribution was ST1 34.0 %, ST2 26.4 %, ST3 25.5 %, ST7 0.9 %, and 13.2 % were positive only by qPCR (non-typable). The Giardia genetic assemblages identified were A 6.5 %, B 85 %, A + B 4.3 %, and non-typable 4.3 %. The detection rate with microscopy was substantially lower than with PCR, 20 % for Blastocystis and 13.8 % for Giardia. The prevalence of Blastocystis increased significantly with age while Giardia was most prevalent in children two to five years old. No correlation between diarrhoea and the identification of Giardia, Blastocystis, or their respective genetic subtypes could be shown and, as a possible indication of parasite load, the mean cycle threshold values in the qPCR for Giardia were equal in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic patients.

Conclusions: Carriage of intestinal parasites was very common in the studied population in Zanzibar. The most commonly detected parasites, Blastocystis and Giardia, had different age distributions, possibly indicating differences in transmission routes, immunity, and/or other host factors for these two species. In the Blastocystis subtype analysis ST1-3 were common, but ST4, a subtype quite common in Europe, was completely absent, corroborating the geographical differences in subtype distributions previously reported.

Keywords
Zanzibar, Tanzania, Blastocystis, Subtype, Giardia, Assemblage, Real-time PCR, Genotyping
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124236 (URN)10.1186/s13071-016-1637-8 (DOI)000378838200001 ()27356981 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-07-28 Created: 2016-07-28 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Pauchard, A., Milbau, A., Albihn, A., Alexander, J., Burgess, T., Daehler, C., . . . Kueffer, C. (2016). Non-native and native organisms moving into high elevation and high latitude ecosystems in an era of climate change: new challenges for ecology and conservation. Biological Invasions, 18(2), 345-353
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-native and native organisms moving into high elevation and high latitude ecosystems in an era of climate change: new challenges for ecology and conservation
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2016 (English)In: Biological Invasions, ISSN 1387-3547, E-ISSN 1573-1464, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cold environments at high elevation and high latitude are often viewed as resistant to biological invasions. However, climate warming, land use change and associated increased connectivity all increase the risk of biological invasions in these environments. Here we present a summary of the key discussions of the workshop 'Biosecurity in Mountains and Northern Ecosystems: Current Status and Future Challenges' (Flen, Sweden, 1-3 June 2015). The aims of the workshop were to (1) increase awareness about the growing importance of species expansion-both non-native and native-at high elevation and high latitude with climate change, (2) review existing knowledge about invasion risks in these areas, and (3) encourage more research on how species will move and interact in cold environments, the consequences for biodiversity, and animal and human health and wellbeing. The diversity of potential and actual invaders reported at the workshop and the likely interactions between them create major challenges for managers of cold environments. However, since these cold environments have experienced fewer invasions when compared with many warmer, more populated environments, prevention has a real chance of success, especially if it is coupled with prioritisation schemes for targeting invaders likely to have greatest impact. Communication and co-operation between cold environment regions will facilitate rapid response, and maximise the use of limited research and management resources.

Keywords
Alien species, Arctic, Exotic species, Biosecurity, Migration, Range expansion, Risk, Sub-polar
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117825 (URN)10.1007/s10530-015-1025-x (DOI)000370066200003 ()
Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-03-04 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Forsell, J., Koskiniemi, S., Hedberg, I., Edebro, H., Evengård, B. & Granlund, M. (2015). Evaluation of factors affecting real-time PCR performance for diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar in clinical stool samples. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 64, 1053-1062
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of factors affecting real-time PCR performance for diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar in clinical stool samples
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0022-2615, E-ISSN 1473-5644, Vol. 64, p. 1053-1062Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although PCR offers the potential for sensitive detection of parasites:there are several pitfalls for optimal performance, especially when DNA is extracted from a complex sample material such as stool. With the aid of a sensitive inhibitor control in a duplex real-time PCR (qPCR) for identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar we have evaluated factors that influenced the performance of the qPCR and have suggested a rationale to be used in the analysis of clinical samples. Pre-PCR processing was found to be of outmost importance for an optimal amplification since inhibitors caused false-negative results when higher amounts of sample were used. Stool sampling with a flocked swab (ESwab, Copan), yielding on average 173 mg, gave positive qPCR results in samples with cysts of E. dispar that were negative in serially diluted stool samples. The degree of inhibition found varied between samples and was not an on-off phenomenon. Even low-grade inhibition, shown as an increase of two cycles in the qPCR for the inhibitor control, could lead to false negativity in samples with low amounts of parasites. Lack of amplification in the qPCR due to inhibition could be overcome by dilution of the extracted DNA by 1/10-1/20. We also describe the use of guanidinium thiocyanate buffer for transport and storage of samples as well as a time-saving semi-automated DNA extraction method in an Arrow instrument (Nordiag) preceded by bead beating.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Microbiology Society, 2015
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111507 (URN)10.1099/jmm.0.000129 (DOI)000363356800016 ()26296348 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-12-01 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, L. M. & Evengård, B. (2015). Food security or food sovereignty: what is the main issue in the Arctic? (1ed.). In: Birgitta Evengård, Joan Nymand Larsen, Øyvind Paasche (Ed.), The new Arctic: (pp. 213-223). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Food security or food sovereignty: what is the main issue in the Arctic?
2015 (English)In: The new Arctic / [ed] Birgitta Evengård, Joan Nymand Larsen, Øyvind Paasche, Springer, 2015, 1, p. 213-223Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Food security and food sovereignty have been highlighted as a priority issues in the Arctic, since climate change and industrial processes likely will have a severe effect on living conditions in the north in the near future. Food security can be defined as situations where people have both physical and economic access to food that meets their dietary needs as well as their food preferences. Food sovereignty describes situations when local peoples are in control of the processes leading to food security. Of 12 previously suggested measurements of food security indicators for the Arctic, three were related to food sovereignty. In this chapter we discuss the concepts of food security and food sovereignty, and their interrelations and relevance from an Arctic perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015 Edition: 1
Keywords
Food security, Food sovereignty, Arctic, Climate change, Sustainability
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102905 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-17602-4_16 (DOI)978-3-319-17601-7 (ISBN)978-3-319-17602-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-05-09 Created: 2015-05-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Angelin, M., Evengård, B. & Palmgren, H. (2015). Illness and risk behaviour in health care students studying abroad. Medical Education, 49(7), 684-691
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Illness and risk behaviour in health care students studying abroad
2015 (English)In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 684-691Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: The numbers of university students studying abroad increase every year. These students are not tourists as their studies require different types of travel that expose them to different risks. Moreover, health care students (HCSs) may be exposed to even greater risks according to their travel destinations and itineraries. Clearly, research-based pre-travel advice is needed.

Methods: This study reports on a prospective survey conducted from April 2010 to January 2014 of health care and non-health care students from Swedish universities in Umeå, Stockholm and Gothenburg studying abroad.

Results: Of the 393 students included in the study, 85% responded. Over half (55%) were HCSs. Pre-travel health information was received by 79% and information on personal safety by 49% of HCSs. The rate of illness during travel was 52%. Health care students more often travelled to developing regions and were at increased risk for travellers' diarrhoea. One in 10 experienced theft and 3% were involved in traffic accidents. One in five met a new sexual partner during travel and 65% of these practised safe sex. Half of all participants increased their alcohol consumption while abroad; high alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk for being a victim of theft, as well as for meeting a new sexual partner during travel.

Conclusions: University authorities are responsible for the safety and well-being of students studying abroad. This study supplies organisers and students with epidemiological data that will help improve pre-travel preparation and increase student awareness of the potential risks associated with studying abroad.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106313 (URN)10.1111/medu.12753 (DOI)000356388100008 ()26077216 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-07-17 Created: 2015-07-10 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Parkinson, A., Koch, A. & Evengård, B. (2015). Infectious disease in the Arctic: a panorama in transition. In: Birgitta Evengård, Joan Nymand Larsen, Øyvind Paasche (Ed.), The new Arctic: (pp. 239-257). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infectious disease in the Arctic: a panorama in transition
2015 (English)In: The new Arctic / [ed] Birgitta Evengård, Joan Nymand Larsen, Øyvind Paasche, Cham: Springer, 2015, p. 239-257Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Many interconnected factors are responsible for the continuing and growing importance of infectious diseases in the Arctic. Many of these factors not only contribute to the risk of infectious diseases but also are broad determinants of the populations overall health. In the last part of the nineteenth and first part of the twentieth centuries, infectious diseases were major causes of mortality in Arctic communities. However the health of indigenous peoples of the circumpolar region has improved over the last 50 years. Despite these improvements, rates of viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, respiratory tract infections, invasive bacterial infections, sexually transmitted diseases, infections caused by Helicobacter pylori, and certain zoonotic and parasitic infections are higher in the Arctic indigenous peoples when compared to their respective national population rates. More recently the climate and ecosystem driven emergence of climate sensitive infectious diseases and disease patterns in the Arctic region presents an emerging challenge to those living in the Arctic. As in other parts of the world, a key component of prevention and control of infectious diseases is surveillance. The use of circumpolar health networks, together with effective coordinated surveillance can facilitate timely control of infectious disease outbreaks, inform public health officials’ decisions on resource allocation, provide data to adjust prevention and control strategies to maximize their effects, and inform future research needs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2015
Keywords
Arctic, Circumpolar health, Infectious diseases, Indigenous peoples, Climate change
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114152 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-17602-4_18 (DOI)978-3-319-17601-7 (ISBN)978-3-319-17602-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-01-14 Created: 2016-01-14 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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