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Hernell, Olle
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Publications (10 of 196) Show all publications
He, X., Parenti, M., Grip, T., Domellöf, M., Lonnerdal, B., Hernell, O., . . . Slupsky, C. M. (2019). Metabolic phenotype of breast-fed infants, and infants fed standard formula or bovine MFGM supplemented formula: a randomized controlled trial. Scientific Reports, 9, Article ID 339.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metabolic phenotype of breast-fed infants, and infants fed standard formula or bovine MFGM supplemented formula: a randomized controlled trial
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2019 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Formula-fed (FF) infants exhibit a different metabolic profile than breast-fed (BF) infants. Two potential mechanisms are the higher protein level in formula compared with breast milk and the removal of the milk fat and associated milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) during production of infant formula. To determine whether MFGM may impact metabolism, formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either an MFGM isolate-supplemented experimental formula (EF) or a standard formula (SF) from 2 until 6 months and compared with a BF reference group. Infants consuming EF had higher levels of fatty acid oxidation products compared to infants consuming SF. Although the protein level in the study formula was approximately 12 g/L (lower than most commercial formulas), a metabolic difference between FF and BF remained such that FF infants had higher levels of amino acid catabolism by-products and a low efficiency of amino acid clearance (preference for protein metabolism). BF infants had higher levels of fatty acid oxidation products (preference for fat metabolism). These unique, energy substrate-driven metabolic outcomes did not persist after diet was shifted to weaning foods and appeared to be disrupted by complementary feeding. Our results suggest that MFGM may have a role in directing infant metabolism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156312 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-36292-5 (DOI)000456392400020 ()30674917 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-02-21 Created: 2019-02-21 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Simonyté Sjödin, K., Hammarström, M.-L., Rydén, P., Sjödin, A., Hernell, O., Engstrand, L. & West, C. E. (2019). Temporal and long-term gut microbiota variation in allergic disease: a prospective study from infancy to school age. Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 74(1), 176-185
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal and long-term gut microbiota variation in allergic disease: a prospective study from infancy to school age
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2019 (English)In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 176-185Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Compositional changes in the early‐life gut microbiota have been implicated in IgE‐associated allergic diseases, but there is lack of longitudinal studies. We examined gut microbiota development from infancy to school age in relation to onset of IgE‐associated allergic diseases. At 8 years of age, we also examined the relationship between gut microbiota and T‐cell regulation, estimated as responses to polyclonal T‐cell activation.

Methods: Stool samples were collected from 93 children at 4, 6, 13 months, and 8 years of age. The gut microbiota was profiled using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Peripheral blood was drawn from all children, and mononuclear cells were polyclonally activated. Levels of IL‐10 and FOXP3 mRNA copies were determined using real‐time quantitative reverse transcriptase‐PCR.

Results: At 8 years of age, 21 children were diagnosed with IgE‐associated allergic disease and 90% displayed allergic comorbidity. Seventy‐two children were nonallergic and nonsensitized. Statistical tests with multiple testing corrections demonstrated temporal underrepresentation of Ruminococcus and consistent underrepresentation of Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Coprococcus in allergic compared to nonallergic children from infancy to school age. The gut microbiota of the allergic 8‐year‐olds was enriched in Bifidobacteriumand depleted of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Lachnospira. In allergic 8‐year-olds, Faecalibacterium correlated with IL‐10 mRNA levels (rs = 0.49, Padj = 0.02) with the same trend for FOXP3 (rs = 0.39, Padj = 0.08).

Conclusions: We identified both temporal and long‐term variation in the differential abundance of specific bacterial genera in children developing IgE‐associated allergic disease. Improved dietary interventions aiming at expanding immune‐modulatory taxa could be studied for prevention of allergic disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
allergy, diversity, intestinal colonization, microbiome, T-cell response
National Category
Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157612 (URN)10.1111/all.13485 (DOI)000459664100017 ()29786876 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-27 Created: 2019-03-27 Last updated: 2019-03-27Bibliographically approved
Hernell, O., Aggett, P., Fewtrell, M., Koletzko, B. & Rey, J. (2018). Chapter 7. The Contributions of the ESPGHAN Committees on Nutrition to Paediatric Nutrition. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, 66, S144-S153
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chapter 7. The Contributions of the ESPGHAN Committees on Nutrition to Paediatric Nutrition
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 66, p. S144-S153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The first Committee on Nutrition (CoN) was founded in 1974. Two years later nutrition (N) was added to the society's name, which then became ESPGAN. The Committee systematised compositional and quality criteria for breast milk substitutes and food for special medical purposes, the first of many examples on how recommendations and comments published by the Committees on Nutrition (CsoN) were adopted by the European Economic Community, later the European Union and also influenced the World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Codex standards. A second CoN focusing on preterm infants was established in 1979 and its recommendations on nutrition of these infants were widely implemented. The third and standing CoN, established 1986, started to organise high-quality symposia at the annual meetings appreciating the need to enhance the expertise in nutritional research. From 1991 the CoN has organised Summer Schools in paediatric nutrition for young colleagues further emphasising its educational interest and more recently an annual, more specialised Nutrition Masterclass. Successively the interest of the CoN has expanded to other areas, such as highlighting dilemmas and uncertainties in the field of nutrition including the design, choice of outcomes and statistical analysis of trials in infant nutrition. The work of the CsoN have had great impact on paediatric nutrition and the committee will continue its important role by writing commentaries and systematic reviews and revising guidelines when required to inform and stimulate discussion among colleagues as well as stimulate training in paediatric nutrition by organising workshops and scientific meetings, training courses, and other approaches, and by interaction with other expert groups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018
Keywords
children, feeding practice, infants, nutrition
National Category
Gastroenterology and Hepatology Nutrition and Dietetics Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147331 (URN)10.1097/MPG.0000000000001918 (DOI)000429442500029 ()29596188 (PubMedID)
Note

Supplement: 1

Available from: 2018-05-17 Created: 2018-05-17 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Lee, H., Padhi, E., Hasegawa, Y., Larke, J., Parenti, M., Wang, A., . . . Slupsky, C. (2018). Compositional dynamics of the milk fat globule and its role in infant development. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 6, Article ID 313.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compositional dynamics of the milk fat globule and its role in infant development
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Pediatrics, ISSN 2296-2360, Vol. 6, article id 313Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Human milk is uniquely optimized for the needs of the developing infant. Its composition is complex and dynamic, driven primarily by maternal genetics, and to a lesser extent by diet and environment. One important component that is gaining attention is the milk fat globule (MFG). The MFG is composed of a triglyceride-rich core surrounded by a tri-layer membrane, also known as the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) that originates from mammary gland epithelia. The MFGM is enriched with glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol, and proteins, some of which are glycosylated, and are known to exert numerous biological roles. Mounting evidence suggests that the structure of the MFG and bioactive components of the MFGM may benefit the infant by aiding in the structural and functional maturation of the gut through the provision of essential nutrients and/or regulating various cellular events during infant growth and immune education. Further, antimicrobial peptides and surface carbohydrate moieties surrounding the MFG might have a pivotal role in shaping gut microbial populations, which in turn may promote protection against immune and inflammatory diseases early in life. This review seeks to: (1) understand the components of the MFG, as well as maternal factors including genetic and lifestyle factors that influence its characteristics; (2) examine the potential role of this milk component on the intestinal immune system; and (3) delineate the mechanistic roles of the MFG in infant intestinal maturation and establishment of the microbiota in the alimentary canal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
milk fat globule, milk fat globule membrane, infant development, gut maturation, microbiota, immune system
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153702 (URN)10.3389/fped.2018.00313 (DOI)000448124200001 ()
Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Grip, T., Dyrlund, T. S., Ahonen, L., Domellöf, M., Hernell, O., Hyötyläinen, T., . . . Timby, N. (2018). Serum, plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipidomes in infants fed formula supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membranes. Pediatric Research, 84(5), 726-732
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serum, plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipidomes in infants fed formula supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membranes
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2018 (English)In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 84, no 5, p. 726-732Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Supplementation of formula with bovine milk fat globule membranes has been shown to narrow the gap in immunological and cognitive development between breast-fed and formula-fed infants.

METHOD: In a double-blinded randomized controlled trial 160 formula-fed infants received an experimental formula (EF), supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membranes, or standard formula until 6 months of age. A breast-fed reference group was recruited. Lipidomic analyses were performed on plasma and erythrocyte membranes at 6 months and on serum at 4 and 12 months of age.

RESULTS: At 6 months of age, we observed a significant separation in the plasma lipidome between the two formula groups, mostly due to differences in concentrations of sphingomyelins (SM), phosphatidylcholines (PC), and ceramides, and in the erythrocyte membrane lipidome, mostly due to SMs, PEs and PCs. Already at 4 months, a separation in the serum lipidome was evident where SMs and PCs contributed. The separation was not detected at 12 months.

CONCLUSIONS: The effect of MFGM supplementation on the lipidome is likely part of the mechanisms behind the positive cognitive and immunological effects of feeding the EF previously reported in the same study population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155120 (URN)10.1038/s41390-018-0130-9 (DOI)000453019100031 ()30120403 (PubMedID)
Funder
Västerbotten County CouncilVINNOVA
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-02-20Bibliographically approved
Åkeson, P. K., Åkesson, K. E., Lind, T., Hernell, O., Silfverdal, S.-A. & Öhlund, I. (2018). Vitamin D Intervention and Bone: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Fair- and Dark-skinned Children at Northern Latitudes. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, 67(3), 388-394
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vitamin D Intervention and Bone: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Fair- and Dark-skinned Children at Northern Latitudes
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 388-394Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate vitamin D status and effects of vitamin D intervention on bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) in children with fair and dark skin in Sweden during winter.

Methods: In a 2-center prospective double-blinded randomized intervention study 5- to 7-year-old children (n = 206) with fair and dark skin in Sweden (55 degrees N-63 degrees N) received daily vitamin D supplements of 25 mu g, 10 mu g, or placebo (2 mu g) during 3 winter months. We measured BMD and BMC for total body (TB), total body less head (TBLH), femoral neck (FN), and spine at baseline and 4 months later. Intake of vitamin D and calcium, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (S-25 [OH]D), and related parameters were analyzed.

Results: Despite lower S-25(OH)D in dark than fair-skinned children, BMD of TB (P = 0.012) and TBLH (P = 0.002) and BMC of TBLH (P = 0.04) were higher at baseline and follow-up in those with dark skin. Delta (Delta) BMD and BMC of TB and TBLH did not differ between intervention and placebo groups, but FN-BMC increased more among dark-skinned children in the 25 mu g (P = 0.038) and 10 mu g (P = 0.027) groups compared to placebo. We found no associations between Delta S-25(OH)D, P-parathyroid hormone, P-alkaline phosphatase, and Delta BMD and BMC, respectively.

Conclusions: BMD and BMC remained higher in dark- than fair-skinned children despite lower vitamin D status. Even though no difference in general was found in BMD or BMC after vitamin D intervention, the increase in FN-BMC in dark-skinned children may suggest an influence on bone in those with initially insufficient vitamin D status.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018
Keywords
bone mineral content, bone mineral density, child, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, skin color
National Category
Orthopaedics Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152216 (URN)10.1097/MPG.0000000000002031 (DOI)000442252100024 ()29851760 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-10-25 Created: 2018-10-25 Last updated: 2018-10-25Bibliographically approved
Söderberg, L., Lind, T., Åkeson, P. K., Sandström, A.-K., Hernell, O. & Öhlund, I. (2017). A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children. Nutrients, 9(7), Article ID 682.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children
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2017 (English)In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, no 7, article id 682Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients with a range of biological effects of public health relevance. This study aimed to validate a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) against a three-day food record (3D record), assessing the intake of vitamin D and calcium in Swedish children during wintertime. In a double-blinded, randomized food-based intervention study on the effect of feeding different daily doses of vitamin D supplement to 5-7-year-old children (n = 85), 79 (93%) participants completed SFFQ1 at baseline and SFFQ2 after the intervention, and 72 were informed to fill in a 3D record. The 28 (39%) children who completed the 3D record were included in this validation study. The baseline level of serum-25 hydroxy vitamin D [S-25(OH)D] was used as a biomarker. The correlation between all three instruments were moderate to strong. SFFQ2 and the 3D record correlated moderately to S-25(OH)D. Bland-Altman analysis showed that SFFQ2 overestimated vitamin D intake by on average 0.6 mu g/day, (limits of agreement (LOA) 5.7 and -4.6 mu g/day), whereas the intake of calcium was underestimated by on average 29 mg/day, (LOA 808 and -865 mg/day). Finally, the validity coefficient calculated for vitamin D using the method of triad was high (0.75). In conclusion, this SFFQ, assessed by a dietician, is a valid tool to assess dietary vitamin D and calcium intake in groups of young children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2017
Keywords
dietary assessments, three-day food record, child, 25-hydroxy vitamin D
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138608 (URN)10.3390/nu9070682 (DOI)000406679700039 ()
Available from: 2017-09-07 Created: 2017-09-07 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Szajewska, H., Ruszczynski, M., Szymanski, H., Sadowska-Krawczenko, I., Piwowarczyk, A., Rasmussen, P. B., . . . Hernell, O. (2017). Effects of infant formula supplemented with prebiotics compared with synbiotics on growth up to the age of 12 mo: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatric Research, 81(5), 752-758
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of infant formula supplemented with prebiotics compared with synbiotics on growth up to the age of 12 mo: a randomized controlled trial
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2017 (English)In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 81, no 5, p. 752-758Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Growth is an essential outcome measure for evaluating the safety of infant formulas (IF). We investigated the effects of consumption of IF supplemented with prebiotics (fructooligosaccharides, FOS, and galactooligosaccharides, GOS) compared with synbiotics (FOS/GOS and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei strain F19) on the growth of healthy infants. METHODS: 182 full-term infants who were weaned completely from breast milk to IF at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive prebiotic- or synbiotic-supplemented, otherwise identical, IF until 6 mo of age (intervention period). RESULTS: A total of 146 (80%) infants were included in the intention-to-treat analysis at 6 mo. Anthropometric parameters were similar in the two groups during the intervention and follow-up period until 12 mo of age. Compared with the prebiotic group, a significant reduction in the cumulative incidence of lower respiratory tract infections was found in the synbiotic group; however, the confidence interval of the estimate was wide, resulting in uncertainty. CONCLUSION: The lack of a significant difference between the formula-fed groups in growth, or the occurrence of serious adverse events, supports the safety of using IF supplemented with synbiotics. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of such formula on lower-respiratory tract infections.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-136195 (URN)10.1038/pr.2017.5 (DOI)000400800600007 ()28060791 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-07-07 Created: 2017-07-07 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Pietz, G., De, R., Hedberg, M., Sjöberg, V., Sandström, O., Hernell, O., . . . Hammarström, M.-L. (2017). Immunopathology of childhood celiac disease: Key role of intestinal epithelial cells. PLoS ONE, 12(9), Article ID e0185025.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Immunopathology of childhood celiac disease: Key role of intestinal epithelial cells
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2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 9, article id e0185025Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Celiac disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the small intestine mucosa due to permanent intolerance to dietary gluten. The aim was to elucidate the role of small intestinal epithelial cells in the immunopathology of celiac disease in particular the influence of celiac disease-associated bacteria.

METHODS: Duodenal biopsies were collected from children with active celiac disease, treated celiac disease, and clinical controls. Intestinal epithelial cells were purified and analyzed for gene expression changes at the mRNA and protein levels. Two in vitro models for human intestinal epithelium, small intestinal enteroids and polarized tight monolayers, were utilized to assess how interferon-γ, interleukin-17A, celiac disease-associated bacteria and gluten influence intestinal epithelial cells.

RESULTS: More than 25 defense-related genes, including IRF1, SPINK4, ITLN1, OAS2, CIITA, HLA-DMB, HLA-DOB, PSMB9, TAP1, BTN3A1, and CX3CL1, were significantly upregulated in intestinal epithelial cells at active celiac disease. Of these genes, 70% were upregulated by interferon-γ via the IRF1 pathway. Most interestingly, IRF1 was also upregulated by celiac disease-associated bacteria. The NLRP6/8 inflammasome yielding CASP1 and biologically active interleukin-18, which induces interferon-γ in intraepithelial lymphocytes, was expressed in intestinal epithelial cells.

CONCLUSION: A key factor in the epithelial reaction in celiac disease appears to be over-expression of IRF1 that could be inherent and/or due to presence of undesirable microbes that act directly on IRF1. Dual activation of IRF1 and IRF1-regulated genes, both directly and via the interleukin-18 dependent inflammasome would drastically enhance the inflammatory response and lead to the pathological situation seen in active celiac disease.

National Category
Immunology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139860 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0185025 (DOI)000411339900076 ()28934294 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-09-25 Created: 2017-09-25 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Öhlund, I., Lind, T., Hernell, O., Silfverdal, S.-A. & Karlsland Åkeson, P. (2017). Increased vitamin D intake differentiated according to skin color is needed to meet requirements in young Swedish children during winter: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 106(1), 105-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased vitamin D intake differentiated according to skin color is needed to meet requirements in young Swedish children during winter: a double-blind randomized clinical trial
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2017 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Dark skin and low exposure to sunlight increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency in children. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the amount of vitamin D needed to ascertain that most children >4 y of age attain sufficient serum25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH) D; i.e., >= 50 nmol/L] during winter regardless of latitude and skin color. Design: In a longitudinal, double-blind, randomized, food-based intervention study, 5- to 7-y-old children from northern (638 degrees N) and southern (558 degrees N) Sweden with fair (n = 108) and dark (n = 98) skin were included. Children, stratified by skin color by using Fitzpa-trick's definition, were randomly assigned to receive milk-based vitamin D-3 supplements that provided 2 (placebo), 10, or 25 mu g/d during 3 winter months. Results: Mean daily vitamin D intake increased from 6 to 17 mu g and 26 mu g in the intervention groups supplemented with 10 and 25 mu g, respectively. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 90.2% (95% CI: 81.1%, 99.3%) of fair-skinned children randomly assigned to supplementation of 10 mu g/d attained sufficient concentrations, whereas 25 mu g/d was needed in dark-skinned children to reach sufficiency in 95.1% (95% CI: 88.5%, 100%). In children adherent to the study product, 97% (95% CI: 91.3%, 100%) and 87.9% (95% CI: 76.8%, 99%) of fair-and dark-skinned children, respectively, achieved sufficient concentrations if supplemented with 10 mu g/d. By using 95% prediction intervals for 30 and 50 nmol S-25(OH) D/L, intakes of 6 and 20 mu g/d are required in fair-skinned children, whereas 14 and 28 mu g/d are required in children with dark skin. Conclusion: Children with fair and dark skin require vitamin D intakes of 20 and 28 mu g/d, respectively, to maintain S-25(OH) D >= 50 nmol/L, whereas intakes of 6 and 14 mu g/d, respectively, are required to maintain concentrations >= 30 nmol/L during winter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society for Nutrition, 2017
Keywords
serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, intervention, season, latitude, vitamin D, child
National Category
Pediatrics Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138554 (URN)10.3945/ajcn.116.147108 (DOI)000404593900015 ()28615261 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
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