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Rönnlund, Michael
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Publications (10 of 47) Show all publications
Åström, E., Rönnlund, M., Adolfsson, R. & Carelli, M. G. (2018). Depressive symptoms and time perspective inolder adults: associations beyond personality andnegative life events. Aging & Mental Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depressive symptoms and time perspective inolder adults: associations beyond personality andnegative life events
2018 (English)In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863 (Print) 1364-6915 (OnlineArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

ABSTRACT

Objectives:To examine the extent to which time perspective, an individual’s habitual way of relating to the past, the present, and the future time frames, accounts for variations in self-reported depressive symptoms among older adults.

Method:Four hundred two participants (60–90 years) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and the Swedish Zimbardo Time perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI).The influence of personality as reflected by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) andself-reported negative life events (NLEs) were controlled for in hierarchic regression analyses.Results:The six S-ZTPI dimensions accounted for 24.5% of the variance in CES-D scores beyondage and gender. Half of the variance remained when the TCI factors and NLEs were controlled for. Past Negative, Future Negative, and Past Positive (inverse association) were the significant uniquepredictors. Significant age interactions were observed for two S-ZTPI dimensions, with a diminishedassociation to depressive symptoms for Future Negative and a magnified association for PresentFatalistic with higher age.Conclusions:The results demonstrate a substantial relation between facets of time perspectiveand depressive symptoms in old age. They also indicate an age-related shift in the relative import-ance from concerns about of the future (Future Negative) to the present (Present Fatalistic) withincreased age. In young old-age, when the future is more‘open’, future worries (Future Negative)may be a more frequent source of distress. In late senescence, perceived threats to autonomy (e.g.physical health problems and cognitive deficits), as reflected by higher scores on Present Fatalistic,may instead have more bearing on mood state

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
Depressive symptoms; time perspective;older adults;personality; negative life events
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153371 (URN)DOI: 10.1080/13607863.2018.1506743 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-11-18 Created: 2018-11-18 Last updated: 2018-11-18
Rönnlund, M. & Carelli, M. G. (2018). Deviations from a balanced time perspective in late adulthood:Associations with current g and g in youth.. Intelligence, 71, 8-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deviations from a balanced time perspective in late adulthood:Associations with current g and g in youth.
2018 (English)In: Intelligence, ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 71, p. 8-16-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
General intelligence, Time perspective, Present fatalism
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153045 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-11-03 Created: 2018-11-03 Last updated: 2018-11-03
Rönnlund, M., Åström, E., Adolfsson, R. & Carelli, M. G. (2018). Perceived stress in adults aged 65 to 90: Relations to facets of time perspective and COMT Val158Met polymorphism. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 378.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceived stress in adults aged 65 to 90: Relations to facets of time perspective and COMT Val158Met polymorphism
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 378Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined the relation between perceived stress and time perspective (views of past, present, future) in a population-based sample of older adults (65-90 years, N = 340). The Perceived Questionnaire (PSQ index) was used to measure stress and the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) was used to operationalize time perspective. Unlike the original inventory, S-ZTPI separates positive and negative aspects of a future time perspective and we hypothesized that the Future Negative (FN) scale would be important to account for variations in stress. Additionally, associations with Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism were examined, motivated by prior associations of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with stress (or "anxiety") related personality traits. In line with the hypotheses, FN was the strongest predictor of PSQ index scores in multiple regression analyses. In a related vein, the dichotomization of the unitary Future scale increased the association between PSQ scores and a measure of deviations from a balanced time perspective, i.e., the difference between a proposed optimal and observed ZTPI profile. Finally, higher levels of stress as well as higher scores on FN were observed in COMT Val/Val carriers, at least among men. This suggests a shared dopaminergic genetic influence on these variables. Collectively, the results demonstrate that perceived stress is closely linked to time perspective and highlight the need to take negative aspects of a future temporal orientation into account to understand this relation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
perceived stress,  time perspective,  Catechol-O-Methyltransferase,  older adults,  Val(158)Met polymorphsim
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145694 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00378 (DOI)000428077500002 ()29623060 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-14 Created: 2018-03-14 Last updated: 2018-08-07Bibliographically approved
Eriksson Sörman, D., Körning Ljungberg, J. & Rönnlund, M. (2018). Reading Habits Among Older Adults in Relation to Level and 15-Year Changes in Verbal Fluency and Episodic Recall. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 1872.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reading Habits Among Older Adults in Relation to Level and 15-Year Changes in Verbal Fluency and Episodic Recall
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1872Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main objective of this study was to investigate reading habits in older adults in relation to level and 15-year changes in verbal fluency and episodic recall. We examined a sample of 1157 participants (55 years at baseline) up to 15 years after the baseline assessment using latent growth curve modeling of cognitive measures with baseline reading frequency (books, weekly magazines) as a predictor of cognitive level (intercept) and rate of change (slope). Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the role of an early adult g factor in the association between reading habits and cognitive ability in midlife. Frequent reading of books, but not of magazines, was associated with higher levels of verbal fluency and recall but unrelated to rate of longitudinal decline. Subgroup analyses indicated that the g factor in early adulthood predicted reading and cognitive level in midlife and this factor removed the current association between reading habits and level of cognitive ability (both cognitive factors). The results indicate an enduring relationship between book reading and level of cognitive ability across the adult life span and provide little support of the hypothesis that frequent reading protects against latelife cognitive decline. The extent to which book reading promotes cognitive functioning in childhood/youth remains to be demonstrated. Intervention studies may be useful in this regard.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
reading habits, cognitive aging, longitudinal analyses, verbal fluency, episodic recall, early adult intelligence
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152931 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01872 (DOI)000445805800001 ()30319520 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054073636 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
Rönnlund, M. & Carelli, M. G. (2018). Time Perspective Biases Are Associated With Poor Sleep Quality, Daytime Sleepiness, and Lower Levels of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Adults. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 1356.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time Perspective Biases Are Associated With Poor Sleep Quality, Daytime Sleepiness, and Lower Levels of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Adults
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1356Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined the extent to which individual differences in time perspective, i.e., habitual way of relating to the personal past, present, and future, are associated with sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in a sample of older adults. The participants (N = 437, 60-90 years) completed the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ), a the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), and two ratings of subjective well-being (SWB) (life satisfaction, happiness). Based on established relationships between dimension of time perspective and other variables (e.g., depression) and relations between negative retrospection (rumination) and negative prospection (worry) in prior studies, we expected higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative to be linked to poor sleep quality and (indirectly) increased daytime sleepiness. Moreover, we examined the possibility that variations in perceived sleep and sleepiness during the day mediates the expected association between an aggregate measure of deviations from a so called balanced time perspective (DBTP) and SWB. In regression analyses controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, and work status), higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative predicted poorer sleep quality and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Additionally, most of the association between time perspective and daytime sleepiness was accounted for by individual differences in sleep quality. Finally, structural equation modeling yielded results consistent with the hypothesis that variations in sleep mediate part of the negative relationship between DBTP and SWB. Given that good sleep is essential to multiple aspects of health, future studies evaluating relationships between time perspective and adverse health outcomes should consider sleep quality as a potentially contributing factor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
time perspective, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, deviations from a balanced time perspective, older adults
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151552 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01356 (DOI)000442665400001 ()
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, 1988-0082:17Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, J2001-0682Swedish Research Council, F377/1988-2000Swedish Research Council, 2015-02199Swedish Research Council, 345-2003-3883Swedish Research Council, 315-2004-6977
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-11Bibliographically approved
Rönnlund, M., Sundström, A. & Pudas, S. (2017). Midlife level and 15-year changes in general cognitive ability in a sample of men: the role of education, early adult ability, BMI, and pulse pressure. Intelligence, 61, 78-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Midlife level and 15-year changes in general cognitive ability in a sample of men: the role of education, early adult ability, BMI, and pulse pressure
2017 (English)In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 61, p. 78-84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of the study was to examine determinants of midlife level and long-term changes in a general cog-nitive ability (g) factor. The data were from a Swedish sample of men (n=262;M=49.9years,SD=4.0)forwhich cognitive (conscript) test scores at age 18 were retrieved. In midlife the men completed a battery of cog-nitive tests that was re-administered atfive-year intervals up to 15 years after the baseline assessment. Second-order latent growth curve models were used to examine predictors of midlife level and longitudinal changes in agfactor reflecting four cognitive measures (WAIS-R Block Design, vocabulary, action recall, and wordfluency).The results showed education (years of schooling) to be related to ability level (intercept) before (β= 0.71),but not after (β= 0.09), adjustment of an early adult (age 18)gfactor (reflecting three different cognitive mea-sures)that washighly predictive of midlifeglevel (adjustedβ= 0.89). Neither education norgat age 18 (or mid-lifeglevel) was related to long-term changes ing, though. Conversely,baseline age, BMI, and pulse pressure wereunrelated to midlife ability level, but higher baseline age, higher BMI and higher pulse pressure in midlife werepredictive of cognitive decline. Thus, whereas higher levels of initial ability or educational attainment do not ap-pear to buffer against onset of age-related decline ingin midlife and young-old age, maintenance of lower levelsof pulse pressure and body weight could possibly have such an effect. However, further research is required toevaluate the mechanisms behind the observed relationships of the targeted variables and cognitive decline.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
g factor, Early cognitive ability, Midlife, Longitudinal, BMI, Pulse pressure
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131941 (URN)10.1016/j.intell.2017.01.007 (DOI)000395606300012 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-02-24 Created: 2017-02-24 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Sörman Eriksson, D., Rönnlund, M., Sundström, A., Norberg, M. & Nilsson, L.-G. (2017). Social network size and cognitive functioning in middle-aged adults: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. Journal of Adult Development, 24(2), 77-88
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social network size and cognitive functioning in middle-aged adults: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Adult Development, ISSN 1068-0667, E-ISSN 1573-3440, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 77-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of the present study was to examine relations between social network size and three cognitive abilities (episodic memory, semantic memory, visuospatial ability) in middle-aged adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data on social network size and cognitive functioning that were available for 804 participants aged 40–60 years. In addition, we examined 5- and 10-year follow-up measurements of cognitive functioning that were available for 604 and 255 participants, respectively. Cross-sectional analyses revealed a positive association between social network size and each of the three cognitive abilities. Baseline network size was positively related to 5-year changes in semantic memory, and to 10-year changes in semantic as well as episodic memory, but was unrelated to changes in visuospatial performance. A minor portion of the sample (n = 131) had 10-year follow-up data on network size. Cross-lagged panel correlations revealed that baseline network size was associated with follow-up measurement in cognitive functioning (episodic memory, semantic memory), whereas baseline cognitive performance was unrelated to future network size. Together, the results demonstrate a small but positive relation between network size and declarative memory abilities, in line with models proposing a cognitive reserve built up by factors such as the increased cognitive stimulation associated with a more extensive social network.

Keywords
Cognition, Longitudinal, Cross-sectional, Social network, Cognitive reserve
National Category
Psychology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Sociology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-101832 (URN)10.1007/s10804-016-9248-3 (DOI)000399825300001 ()
Note

Originally published in manuscript form.

Available from: 2015-04-14 Created: 2015-04-14 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Rönnlund, M., Åström, E. & Carelli, M. G. (2017). Time Perspective in Late Adulthood: aging patterns in past, present and future dimensions, deviations from balance, and associations with subjective well-being. Timing & Time Perception, 5, 77-98
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time Perspective in Late Adulthood: aging patterns in past, present and future dimensions, deviations from balance, and associations with subjective well-being
2017 (English)In: Timing & Time Perception, ISSN 2213-445X, E-ISSN 2213-4468, Vol. 5, p. 77-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We examined cross-sectional aging patterns for subscales of the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in a population-based sample of older adults (60–90 years; N = 447). Alternative methods to assess time perspective balance (DBTP, involving a single Future dimension; S-BTP; and DBTP-E, including in addition, Future Negative), were compared and their relations to subjective well-being (SWB) were examined. Significant negative age relations were observed for Past Negative and Future Negative with a clear age-related increase in Present Fatalistic, while Past Positive, Present Hedonistic, and Future Positive were relatively stable across age. A significant age-related increase in deviation from balance was observed across methods (Cohen’s ds 0.28–0.57), with the highest value for DBTP-E. Overall, S-BTP and DBTP-E were more strongly associated with SWB than DBTP (r = −0.40), with the highest value for DBTP-E (r = −0.53). Analyses of separate age groups (60–65 vs. 70–75 vs. 80–90 years) revealed a trend of weakened association with balance in old-old age, for S-BTP and DBTP-E in particular. This seemed to reflect the fact that negative views of the future are strongly related to SWB in young-old adults but diminish in importance in late senescence (80–90 years). Potential factors behind the observed patterns of results, including deficits in cognitive functioning and physical health to account for the age-related increase in present fatalism, and the potential role of a self-transcendent future time perspective for well-being in old-old age, are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Brill Academic Publishers, 2017
Keywords
Time perspective, aging, balanced time perspective, cross-sectional, subjective well-being
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131737 (URN)10.1163/22134468-00002081 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2012-650Swedish Research Council, 2015–02199
Available from: 2017-02-20 Created: 2017-02-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Nyström, M., Eriksson Sörman, D., Kormi-Nouri, R. & Rönnlund, M. (2017). To what extent is subjective well-being in late adulthood related to subjective and objective memory functioning?: Five-year cross-lagged panel analyses. Aging & Mental Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>To what extent is subjective well-being in late adulthood related to subjective and objective memory functioning?: Five-year cross-lagged panel analyses
2017 (English)In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Keywords
Successful aging, episodic memory, cross-sectional, longitudinal
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142047 (URN)10.1080/13607863.2017.1394439 (DOI)29086589 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Eriksson Sörman, D., Hansson, P. & Rönnlund, M. (2016). Blood Pressure Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Relation to Social Network Factors. Psychological Topics, 25(1), 59-73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blood Pressure Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Relation to Social Network Factors
2016 (English)In: Psychological Topics, ISSN 1332-0742, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 59-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables and levels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. The participants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097) responded to questions concerning social relationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic) was measured. Blood pressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses to questions concerning social relationships as predictors and basic demographic factors (age, sex) as covariates, unexpectedly indicated that a more limited social network (no close friend, few visits, little contact with friends in other ways, not living with someone, and a composite index based on all questions) was associated with significantly lower diastolic blood pressure levels. For systolic blood pressure a similar result was observed for one of the variables (lack of a close friend). In general, these effects diminished over time, as indexed by the positive relationship between several of the social variables and slope. The results were little affected by inclusion of additional covariates (e.g. measures of psychological distress, smoking/alcohol habits, and BMI) suggesting that the origins of this unexpected pattern of findings must probably be sought for in other subjectrelated factors, such as, for example, increased help seeking. Future studies should consider qualitative aspects (e.g. feelings of loneliness, quality of social relationships) in addition to structural aspects to provide a better understanding of these associations.

Keywords
blood pressure, social network, cross-sectional, longitudinal
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120122 (URN)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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