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Rönnlund, Michael
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Ekström, I., Josefsson, M., Larsson, M., Rönnlund, M., Nordin, S. & Olofsson, J. K. (2019). Subjective olfactory loss in older adults concurs with long-term odor identification decline. Chemical Senses, 44(2), 105-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subjective olfactory loss in older adults concurs with long-term odor identification decline
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2019 (English)In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Olfactory impairments may provide early indications of future health outcomes in older adults. Thus, an important question concerns whether these impairments can be self-assessed. Previous findings of cross-sectional studies indicate low correlations between self-reported olfactory function and objective olfactory performance. On the other hand, subjective olfactory impairments predict future dementia and mortality in longitudinal settings. No previous study has assessed the relationship between subjectively and objectively measured decline in olfaction over time. Based on data for 903 older adults derived from the Betula Study, a Swedish population-based prospective study, we tested whether rate-of-change in odor identification could be predicted from subjective olfactory decline over a time span of 10 years during which subjective and objective odor functions were assessed on 2 or 3 test occasions. Indeed, we found that participants who experienced subjective olfactory decline over the study period also had significantly steeper rates of decline in odor identification, even after adjusting for demographic, cognitive, and genetic factors that previously have been associated with performance in odor identification. This association was, however, not present in a subsample with baseline cognitive impairment. We interpret these results as evidence that when asked about whether they have an olfactory impairment or not, older persons are assessing intraindividual olfactory changes, rather than interindividual differences. Our results indicate that subjective olfactory loss reflects objective olfactory decline in cognitively intact older adults. This association might be harnessed to predict health outcomes and highlights the need to develop effective olfactory self-assessments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019
Keywords
decline, longitudinal studies, odor identification, self-reported olfaction, smell, subjective
National Category
Neurosciences Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157657 (URN)10.1093/chemse/bjy079 (DOI)000461508600004 ()30544138 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-27 Created: 2019-03-27 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Nyström, M., Eriksson Sörman, D., Kormi-Nouri, R. & Rönnlund, M. (2019). To what extent is subjective well-being in late adulthood related to subjective and objective memory functioning?: Five-year cross-lagged panel analyses. Aging & Mental Health, 23(1), 92-99
Open this publication in new window or tab >>To what extent is subjective well-being in late adulthood related to subjective and objective memory functioning?: Five-year cross-lagged panel analyses
2019 (English)In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 92-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Population aging motivated a focus in contemporary research on factors, e.g. cognitive functioning, that contribute to ‘aging well.’ However, something that has been overlooked is relation between memory functioning, determined by objective tests as well as subjective memory ratings, and subjective well-being (SWB).

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal (cross-lagged) relationships between episodic memory (both subjective and objective) and SWB.

Method: A total of 586 older individuals (60–90 years) were assessed on multiple measures of the targeted constructs at baseline (Time 1) as part of the Betula cohort study. Five years later (Time 2), 354 of the participants returned for follow-up measurements and were included in cross-lagged panel analyses.

Results: As expected, objective memory and subjective memory showed a pattern of cross-sectional age deficits and a mean level longitudinal decline was observed for objective memory. By contrast, SWB showed stable mean levels both across age and time. No cross-sectional or cross-lagged associations were observed between SWB and objective memory, whereas subjective memory and SWB showed a cross-sectional association.

Conclusion: The results underscore that successful aging is a multifaceted construct with no or only weak associations between the investigated components. However, SWB and rate of change at the individual level should be considered to define successful aging.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Successful aging, episodic memory, cross-sectional, longitudinal
National Category
Applied Psychology Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142047 (URN)10.1080/13607863.2017.1394439 (DOI)000461682000013 ()29086589 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 345-2003-3883Swedish Research Council, 315-2004-6977Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0205
Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Åström, E., Rönnlund, M., Adolfsson, R. & Carelli, M. G. (2018). Depressive symptoms and time perspective in older adults:: associations beyond personality and negative life events. Aging & Mental Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depressive symptoms and time perspective in older adults:: associations beyond personality and negative life events
2018 (English)In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To examine the extent to which time perspective, an individual’s habitual way of relating to the past, the present, and the future time frames, accounts for variations in self-reported depressive symptoms among older adults.

Method: Four hundred two participants (60–90 years) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and the Swedish Zimbardo Time perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI). The influence of personality as reflected by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and self-reported negative life events (NLEs) were controlled for in hierarchic regression analyses.

Results: The six S-ZTPI dimensions accounted for 24.5% of the variance in CES-D scores beyond age and gender. Half of the variance remained when the TCI factors and NLEs were controlled for. Past Negative, Future Negative, and Past Positive (inverse association) were the significant unique predictors. Significant age interactions were observed for two S-ZTPI dimensions, with a diminished association to depressive symptoms for Future Negative and a magnified association for Present Fatalistic with higher age.

Conclusions: The results demonstrate a substantial relation between facets of time perspective and depressive symptoms in old age. They also indicate an age-related shift in the relative importance from concerns about of the future (Future Negative) to the present (Present Fatalistic) with increased age. In young old-age, when the future is more ‘open’, future worries (Future Negative) may be a more frequent source of distress. In late senescence, perceived threats to autonomy (e.g. physical health problems and cognitive deficits), as reflected by higher scores on Present Fatalistic, may instead have more bearing on mood state.

Keywords
Depressive symptoms, time perspective, older adults, personality, negative life events
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153376 (URN)10.1080/13607863.2018.1506743 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-11-19 Created: 2018-11-19 Last updated: 2019-04-05
Rönnlund, M. & Carelli, M. G. (2018). Deviations from a balanced time perspective in late adulthood: associations with current g and g in youth. Intelligence, 71, 8-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deviations from a balanced time perspective in late adulthood: associations with current g and g in youth
2018 (English)In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 71, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated relations between general cognitive ability (g) and aspects of time perspective, i.e. habitual ways of relating to the past, present, and future, in a sample of older adults (60-90 years, N = 438). In main focus was a measure of deviations from a balanced time perspective (DBTP), reflecting the differences between proposed ideal and observed score profile on the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI). A current g factor reflecting four cognitive markers was negatively related to DBTP (beta = -0.31), with a higher estimate (beta = -0.40) for a latent DBTP factor. For a subset of male participants (n = 129), cognitive test score from age 18 were retrieved. In that sample the g factor in youth predicted DBTP scores obtained around 52 years later (beta = -0.31, p < .01) nearly as well as current g (beta = -0.39). In line with prior studies, the Present Fatalistic dimension was a main source of the covariation of g and DBTP, but deviation scores for each of the three temporal frames (past, present, future) were significantly associated with g as well. Variations in recent stress did not account for these associations. Multi-group latent level analyses revealed a magnified g-DBTP association in old-old age (beta = -0.57 and beta = -0.81 in the old-old group for a latent DBTP factor), with a similar pattern for Present Fatalistic and Past Negative. Together, the results demonstrate a substantial association between g and time perspective in late adulthood, a relationship that may have been established early as judged from a relation to the age 18 g factor. A magnified association in in old-old age might reflect a more noticeable impact of age-related cognitive deficits on everyday functioning and thereby aspects of time perspective (e.g. increase present fatalism). Impairments in cognitive processes that allow for a flexible shift between temporal frames could also be factor, something which needs to be evaluated in future studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Aging, General intelligence, Time perspective, Present fatalism
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153045 (URN)10.1016/j.intell.2018.09.002 (DOI)000450289200002 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 345-2003-3883Swedish Research Council, 315-2004-6977
Available from: 2018-11-03 Created: 2018-11-03 Last updated: 2018-12-18Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, T., Germundsjö, L., Åström, E. & Rönnlund, M. (2018). Mindful self-compassion training reduces stress and burnout symptoms among practicing psychologists: a randomized controlled trial of a brief web-based intervention. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 2340.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mindful self-compassion training reduces stress and burnout symptoms among practicing psychologists: a randomized controlled trial of a brief web-based intervention
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 2340Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The aims of this study were (a) to examine the effects of a 6 weeks web-based mindful self-compassion program on stress and burnout symptoms in a group of practicing psychologists, and (b) to examine relationships between changes in self-compassion and self-coldness and changes in stress and burnout symptoms.

Method: In a randomized controlled trial, 101 practicing psychologists were assigned to a training group (n = 51) or a wait-list control group (n = 49). The training encompassed 15min exercises per day, 6 days a week, for 6 weeks. The participants completed the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) pre and post intervention.

Results: Eighty-one participants (n = 40 in the training group, n = 41 in the control group) took part in the pre and post intervention assessments. Selective gains for the intervention group were observed for SCS total scores (d = 0.86; d = 0.94 for the SCS), FFMQ scores (d = 0.60), while levels of self-coldness was reduced (d = 0.73). Critically, levels of perceived stress (d = 0.59) and burnout symptoms (d = 0.44 for SMBQ total) were additionally lowered post intervention. Finally, the results confirmed the hypothesis that the measures of distress would be more strongly related to self-coldness than self-compassion, a pattern seen in cross-sectional analyses and, for burnout, also in the longitudinal analyses.

Conclusions: This training program appeared effective to increase self-compassion/reduce self-coldness, and to alleviate stress and symptoms of burnout and provide support of the distinction between self-compassion and self-coldness. Additional studies, preferably three-armed RCTs with long-term follow-up, are warranted to further evaluate the effectiveness of the program.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
self-compassion, stress, burnout, intervention, web-based
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154042 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02340 (DOI)000451487300001 ()
Available from: 2018-12-19 Created: 2018-12-19 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Rönnlund, M., Åström, E., Adolfsson, R. & Carelli, M. G. (2018). Perceived stress in adults aged 65 to 90: Relations to facets of time perspective and COMT Val158Met polymorphism. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 378.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceived stress in adults aged 65 to 90: Relations to facets of time perspective and COMT Val158Met polymorphism
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 378Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined the relation between perceived stress and time perspective (views of past, present, future) in a population-based sample of older adults (65-90 years, N = 340). The Perceived Questionnaire (PSQ index) was used to measure stress and the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) was used to operationalize time perspective. Unlike the original inventory, S-ZTPI separates positive and negative aspects of a future time perspective and we hypothesized that the Future Negative (FN) scale would be important to account for variations in stress. Additionally, associations with Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism were examined, motivated by prior associations of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with stress (or "anxiety") related personality traits. In line with the hypotheses, FN was the strongest predictor of PSQ index scores in multiple regression analyses. In a related vein, the dichotomization of the unitary Future scale increased the association between PSQ scores and a measure of deviations from a balanced time perspective, i.e., the difference between a proposed optimal and observed ZTPI profile. Finally, higher levels of stress as well as higher scores on FN were observed in COMT Val/Val carriers, at least among men. This suggests a shared dopaminergic genetic influence on these variables. Collectively, the results demonstrate that perceived stress is closely linked to time perspective and highlight the need to take negative aspects of a future temporal orientation into account to understand this relation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
perceived stress,  time perspective,  Catechol-O-Methyltransferase,  older adults,  Val(158)Met polymorphsim
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145694 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00378 (DOI)000428077500002 ()29623060 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-14 Created: 2018-03-14 Last updated: 2018-08-07Bibliographically approved
Eriksson Sörman, D., Körning Ljungberg, J. & Rönnlund, M. (2018). Reading Habits Among Older Adults in Relation to Level and 15-Year Changes in Verbal Fluency and Episodic Recall. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 1872.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reading Habits Among Older Adults in Relation to Level and 15-Year Changes in Verbal Fluency and Episodic Recall
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1872Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main objective of this study was to investigate reading habits in older adults in relation to level and 15-year changes in verbal fluency and episodic recall. We examined a sample of 1157 participants (55 years at baseline) up to 15 years after the baseline assessment using latent growth curve modeling of cognitive measures with baseline reading frequency (books, weekly magazines) as a predictor of cognitive level (intercept) and rate of change (slope). Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the role of an early adult g factor in the association between reading habits and cognitive ability in midlife. Frequent reading of books, but not of magazines, was associated with higher levels of verbal fluency and recall but unrelated to rate of longitudinal decline. Subgroup analyses indicated that the g factor in early adulthood predicted reading and cognitive level in midlife and this factor removed the current association between reading habits and level of cognitive ability (both cognitive factors). The results indicate an enduring relationship between book reading and level of cognitive ability across the adult life span and provide little support of the hypothesis that frequent reading protects against latelife cognitive decline. The extent to which book reading promotes cognitive functioning in childhood/youth remains to be demonstrated. Intervention studies may be useful in this regard.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
reading habits, cognitive aging, longitudinal analyses, verbal fluency, episodic recall, early adult intelligence
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152931 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01872 (DOI)000445805800001 ()30319520 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054073636 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
Pudas, S. & Rönnlund, M. (2018). School Performance and Educational Attainment as Early-Life Predictors of Age-Related Memory Decline: Protective Influences in Later-Born Cohorts. The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, Article ID gby137.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>School Performance and Educational Attainment as Early-Life Predictors of Age-Related Memory Decline: Protective Influences in Later-Born Cohorts
2018 (English)In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, article id gby137Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Evidence is accumulating that early-life characteristics and experiences contribute significantly to differences in cognitive aging. This study investigated whether school performance at age 12 predicted late-life level and rate of memory change over 15–25 years, and whether its potential protective influence on memory change was mediated by educational attainment or income.

Methods: Latent growth curve models were fitted to 15–25 year longitudinal memory data from a population-based sample, stratified on age cohorts (n = 227, born 1909–1935; n = 301, born 1938–1954).

Results: A latent-level school grade variable significantly predicted both memory level and slope in later-born cohorts. Higher grades were associated with higher level and reduced decline, measured between ages 45 and 70 years, on average. In the earlier-born cohorts, grades predicted memory level, but not slope, measured between ages 66 and 81 years. Follow-up analyses indicated that the protective influence of higher school grades in later-born cohorts was partially mediated by educational attainment, but independent of income.

Discussion: The results suggest that higher childhood school performance is protective against age-related cognitive decline in younger or later-born cohorts, for which further education has been more accessible. Education may exert such influence through increased cognitive reserve or more well-informed health- and lifestyle decisions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2018
Keywords
Individual differences, Life course and developmental change, Longitudinal change, Memory
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154279 (URN)10.1093/geronb/gby137 (DOI)30445430 (PubMedID)
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2019-04-05
Rönnlund, M. & Carelli, M. G. (2018). Time Perspective Biases Are Associated With Poor Sleep Quality, Daytime Sleepiness, and Lower Levels of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Adults. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 1356.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time Perspective Biases Are Associated With Poor Sleep Quality, Daytime Sleepiness, and Lower Levels of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Adults
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1356Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined the extent to which individual differences in time perspective, i.e., habitual way of relating to the personal past, present, and future, are associated with sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in a sample of older adults. The participants (N = 437, 60-90 years) completed the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ), a the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), and two ratings of subjective well-being (SWB) (life satisfaction, happiness). Based on established relationships between dimension of time perspective and other variables (e.g., depression) and relations between negative retrospection (rumination) and negative prospection (worry) in prior studies, we expected higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative to be linked to poor sleep quality and (indirectly) increased daytime sleepiness. Moreover, we examined the possibility that variations in perceived sleep and sleepiness during the day mediates the expected association between an aggregate measure of deviations from a so called balanced time perspective (DBTP) and SWB. In regression analyses controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, and work status), higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative predicted poorer sleep quality and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Additionally, most of the association between time perspective and daytime sleepiness was accounted for by individual differences in sleep quality. Finally, structural equation modeling yielded results consistent with the hypothesis that variations in sleep mediate part of the negative relationship between DBTP and SWB. Given that good sleep is essential to multiple aspects of health, future studies evaluating relationships between time perspective and adverse health outcomes should consider sleep quality as a potentially contributing factor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
time perspective, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, deviations from a balanced time perspective, older adults
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151552 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01356 (DOI)000442665400001 ()
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, 1988-0082:17Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, J2001-0682Swedish Research Council, F377/1988-2000Swedish Research Council, 2015-02199Swedish Research Council, 345-2003-3883Swedish Research Council, 315-2004-6977
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-11Bibliographically approved
Rönnlund, M., Sundström, A. & Pudas, S. (2017). Midlife level and 15-year changes in general cognitive ability in a sample of men: the role of education, early adult ability, BMI, and pulse pressure. Intelligence, 61, 78-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Midlife level and 15-year changes in general cognitive ability in a sample of men: the role of education, early adult ability, BMI, and pulse pressure
2017 (English)In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 61, p. 78-84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of the study was to examine determinants of midlife level and long-term changes in a general cog-nitive ability (g) factor. The data were from a Swedish sample of men (n=262;M=49.9years,SD=4.0)forwhich cognitive (conscript) test scores at age 18 were retrieved. In midlife the men completed a battery of cog-nitive tests that was re-administered atfive-year intervals up to 15 years after the baseline assessment. Second-order latent growth curve models were used to examine predictors of midlife level and longitudinal changes in agfactor reflecting four cognitive measures (WAIS-R Block Design, vocabulary, action recall, and wordfluency).The results showed education (years of schooling) to be related to ability level (intercept) before (β= 0.71),but not after (β= 0.09), adjustment of an early adult (age 18)gfactor (reflecting three different cognitive mea-sures)that washighly predictive of midlifeglevel (adjustedβ= 0.89). Neither education norgat age 18 (or mid-lifeglevel) was related to long-term changes ing, though. Conversely,baseline age, BMI, and pulse pressure wereunrelated to midlife ability level, but higher baseline age, higher BMI and higher pulse pressure in midlife werepredictive of cognitive decline. Thus, whereas higher levels of initial ability or educational attainment do not ap-pear to buffer against onset of age-related decline ingin midlife and young-old age, maintenance of lower levelsof pulse pressure and body weight could possibly have such an effect. However, further research is required toevaluate the mechanisms behind the observed relationships of the targeted variables and cognitive decline.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
g factor, Early cognitive ability, Midlife, Longitudinal, BMI, Pulse pressure
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131941 (URN)10.1016/j.intell.2017.01.007 (DOI)000395606300012 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-02-24 Created: 2017-02-24 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
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