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Haeler, E., Bolte, A., Buchacher, R., Hänninen, H., Jandl, R., Juutinen, A., . . . Schueler, S. (2023). Forest subsidy distribution in five European countries. Forest Policy and Economics, 146, Article ID 102882.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forest subsidy distribution in five European countries
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2023 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 146, article id 102882Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Forest subsidies are widely used to achieve policy objectives aimed at maintaining and supporting the provision of the various ecosystem services provided by forests. In the European Union, an important instrument is the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) within the EU's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), but countries also have national subsidy systems. In both cases, individual countries determine which objectives they want to achieve with the subsidy schemes and which measures are supported. In this comparative study, we investigate which forest-related measures are subsidized across Europe and which forest owners, representing a very heterogeneous group, are involved in the activities of the subsidy systems. We collected data on subsidies paid out for forest-related measures from Austria, Finland, Germany, Slovenia and Sweden from the EAFRD funding period 2014–2020 for a comparison of the funded activities. Further, we analysed how subsidies were distributed among private forest owners with forest holdings of different sizes by performing G-tests to compare the observed with the expected subsidies received by forest owners in the different size categories. The results show that through the flexibility given by the CAP for countries to adjust their subsidy programmes to the specific national needs, EAFRD funds and equivalent national subsidies are indeed used for a wide range of activities instead of only a few following one common European goal. Reflecting the different needs and various forest functions, the subsidized activities range from the more ecology-oriented "investment to increase resistance and the ecological value of forests" to the more management-oriented "purchase of new machinery and new equipment for forestry operations". In all five countries, small-scale forest owners with holdings smaller than 200 ha are the largest owner group and manage a large share of the forest area in private hands (from 47% in Austria to 97% in Slovenia). However, especially owners of the smallest holdings (< 20 ha) rarely use the funding scheme of the EAFRD framework and thus receive a disproportionately low share of subsidies. There might be several reasons for this. Small-scale forest owners are generally less involved regarding policy issues (including subsidy schemes) than owners of larger forest holdings and may not be aware of all funding opportunities. In addition, the considerable effort to apply, including project preparation, administration and documentation may be perceived as a barrier. It became clear that the current subsidy systems of the countries focus on different forest policy objectives. Our study further revealed that the documentation of subsidy distribution is partly unclear and inconsistent across countries hampering European comparisons. However, understanding current subsidy distribution is urgently needed for increasing the effectiveness of subsidy systems to achieve European policy goals of vital multifunctional forests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Bioeconomy, European agricultural fund for rural development (EAFRD), Incentives, Multifunctional forests, Policy, Small-scale forest owners
National Category
Forest Science Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-213403 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2022.102882 (DOI)000912016200001 ()2-s2.0-85142697184 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Research Council FormasSwedish Energy AgencyEU, Horizon 2020, 773324
Available from: 2023-09-08 Created: 2023-09-08 Last updated: 2023-09-08Bibliographically approved
Westin, K., Bolte, A., Haeler, E., Haltia, E., Jandl, R., Juutinen, A., . . . Schueler, S. (2023). Forest values and application of different management activities among small-scale forest owners in five EU countries. Forest Policy and Economics, 146, Article ID 102881.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forest values and application of different management activities among small-scale forest owners in five EU countries
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2023 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 146, article id 102881Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Forests are important for the transition to a bioeconomy. With 60% of Europe's forest area owned and managed by small-scale owners, these owners' management behaviour is key. Identifying commonalities and differences between owners in different EU countries promotes effective implementation of EU strategies for a sustainable transition to a wood-based bioeconomy. This study examines the value orientations and management behaviour of private small-scale forest owners in five EU countries. Based on a questionnaire survey in Austria, Finland, Germany, Slovenia, and Sweden (n = 2524), we analysed these owners' values, and how various management activities are perceived in relation to management strategies. Respondents rated the importance of economic, environmental, and social values regarding their forest holdings, and were divided into groups based on their value orientation. Overall, the largest value group was ‘All values very important’; more so in Austria, Finland, and Germany than in Slovenia and Sweden. In Finland and Sweden the proportion of respondents in the ‘Economic and environmental values’ value group was low. This suggets that small-scale forest owners in these countries rarely consider economics and the environment together. Forest management activities were applied to varying degrees in the five countries. However, respondents in all countries who considered all values to be very important were the most active in all management activities compared to those who considered all values to be somewhat important. Our analysis highlighted the importance of context, showing that the propensity to use a particular activity was explained to a lesser extent by owner characteristics and value orientation and, in the case of most activities, more strongly by country. The way objectives of policies and management strategies are communicated may need to be adapted to the specific conditions of each country.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Economic values, Environmental values, Logistic regression, Small-scale forestry, Social values, Survey
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-201457 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2022.102881 (DOI)000912016200004 ()2-s2.0-85142735263 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 773324Vinnova, 2018-04978
Available from: 2022-12-06 Created: 2022-12-06 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Westin, K., Wood, C., Vilhar, U. & Marcus, H. (2023). Survey questionnaires: data collection for understanding management conditions. In: Anna Allard; E. Carina H. Keskitalo; Alan Brown (Ed.), Monitoring biodiversity: combining environmental and social data (pp. 247-260). London: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Survey questionnaires: data collection for understanding management conditions
2023 (English)In: Monitoring biodiversity: combining environmental and social data / [ed] Anna Allard; E. Carina H. Keskitalo; Alan Brown, London: Routledge, 2023, p. 247-260Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter focuses on the use of questionnaire surveys to quantitatively assess how people's attitudes and behaviours affect land use and land management. Questionnaires are an established method of improving our knowledge of how different land users (e.g. small-scale forest owners or farmers) and the public think about, respond to, and potentially evade issues of interest. The chapter defines questionnaires, describes their design, and discusses how questionnaires from different countries or from a regional context can be compared. In common with other chapters in this book, the goal is to clarify the extent to which the methodology can capture varying contexts and deliver an understanding of information about differences in the areas for which the studies are designed. Figures and tables contain examples from multi-national questionnaires about land management and how questionnaires can be used in monitoring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2023
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Miljöövervakning, Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206547 (URN)10.4324/9781003179245-13 (DOI)978-1-032-01594-1 (ISBN)978-1-032-01593-4 (ISBN)978-1-003-17924-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-04-11 Created: 2023-04-11 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Lidestav, G. & Westin, K. (2023). The impact of Swedish forest owners’ values and objectives on management practices and forest policy accomplishment. Small-scale Forestry, 22(3), 435-456
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of Swedish forest owners’ values and objectives on management practices and forest policy accomplishment
2023 (English)In: Small-scale Forestry, ISSN 1873-7617, E-ISSN 1873-7854, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 435-456Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Swedish forestry policy principles rest on voluntarism and a mutual interest among forest owners, the industry, and the state that timber production continuously be kept at a high level at the same time as environmental goals are achieved. An estimated 313,000 small-scale forest owners own half of Sweden’s forestland, and thus their objectives and values, and how these impact their management behavior, are matters of national policy interest. From a survey targeting a random sample of small-scale Swedish forest owners (n = 652), we found that overall forest owners found consumption objectives to be more important than production objectives. In line with this, they perceived social values, such as recreation, to be more important than economic values. Yet, on an aggregate level, timber production goals were fulfilled. Further, most forest owners left some of their productive forest untouched and applied restoration management, which could be interpreted as either intentional or unintentional considerations of the environmental goals. However, the environmental goals were not met on a national level. It can therefore be concluded that the voluntariness of the current forest policy seems to work when supported by the market’s interest in and mechanism for timber production but fails when only “soft” instruments such as information campaigns, advisory services, and education are at hand to promote environmental goals. Additional economic incentives, such as payment schemes, might be required.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Survey, Forest policy, Forestry activities, Forest production, Environmental consideration
National Category
Forest Science Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-202706 (URN)10.1007/s11842-022-09538-4 (DOI)000909509100001 ()2-s2.0-85145726965 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2018-04978EU, Horizon 2020
Available from: 2023-01-12 Created: 2023-01-12 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Juutinen, A., Haeler, E., Jandl, R., Kuhlmey, K., Kurttila, M., Mäkipää, R., . . . Schueler, S. (2022). Common preferences of European small-scale forest owners towards contract-based management. Forest Policy and Economics, 144, Article ID 102839.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Common preferences of European small-scale forest owners towards contract-based management
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2022 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 144, article id 102839Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The societal demands on forest management are becoming increasingly diverse, which will be reflected in decisions made by forest owners. We examined the willingness of private forest owners in Austria, Finland, Germany, Slovenia, and Sweden to participate in a contract-based payment scheme in which they were asked to apply a specific management strategy to promote either timber production or environmental goals. The preferences for the contract-based management and associated consequences in terms of profitability, biodiversity, carbon stock, and climate change-induced damages were addressed within a choice experiment. A majority of respondents across all countries agreed to participate in a payment scheme to promote environmental goals, while schemes purely targeted to increase wood production were found less attractive. Forest owners liked improvements in profitability and environmental attributes and disliked deterioration of these attributes. Differences among countries were found in the level of expected contract payments, and commonalities were found with respect to preferences towards environmental goals, including biodiversity and carbon stocks. Hence, new policies to target European forest subsidy to promote the provision of environmental goals would likely be acceptable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Choice experiment, Ecosystem services, Forest policy, Incentives, Private forest owners
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-199832 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2022.102839 (DOI)000864690100006 ()2-s2.0-85138047250 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Energy AgencyEU, Horizon 2020
Available from: 2022-10-03 Created: 2022-10-03 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Lieberherr, E., Deuffic, P., Jandl, R., Foldal, C., Lidestav, G., Westin, K., . . . Wilkes-Allemann, J. (2021). Communication campaigns to engage (non-traditional) forest owners: A European perspective. Forest Policy and Economics, 133, Article ID 102621.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communication campaigns to engage (non-traditional) forest owners: A European perspective
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2021 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 133, article id 102621Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Europe, private forest owners play an important role in achieving sustainability goals, such as those set by the European Green Deal. Efficient communication and coordination with these actors is therefore central. However, ongoing structural changes in forest ownership have in many cases silenced traditional communication channels, especially those involving owners of small forests. Their economic performance is often negligible at an individual level, yet collectively their forests play a pivotal role in a context of increasing demand for wood products. In this article, we analyse and compare forest campaigns in nine European countries. Specifically, we assess one-way and two-way communication models applying different techniques to engage (non-traditional) forest owners. Our analysis of 34 campaigns shows that (i) one-way communication models are still more widely used in the forest sector to engage non-traditional forest owners than two-way communication models; (ii) one-way communication aims at informing and is effective for short-term awareness raising, while two-way communication aims at persuading and is essential to trigger forest management activities over the long-term, (iii) interactive learning tools can play a crucial role for reaching and engaging (non-traditional) forest owners. We further conclude that campaigns could be improved by having 1) joint campaigns with public and private actors, 2) convincing narratives developed based on a good understanding of forest owners' motivations, 3) adapting the timing of campaigns to windows of opportunities and 4) developing intermediary associations (e.g. non-traditional forest owner associations) as connectors and trust builders between different actors as they play a crucial role in providing information to forest owners and supporting their engagement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Campaigns, Communication channels, Small-scale forest owners
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-189561 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2021.102621 (DOI)000718844300004 ()2-s2.0-85118360636 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-11-22 Created: 2021-11-22 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Juutinen, A., Kurttila, M., Pohjanmies, T., Tolvanen, A., Kuhlmey, K., Skudnik, M., . . . Mäkipää, R. (2021). Forest owners' preferences for contract-based management to enhance environmental values versus timber production. Forest Policy and Economics, 132, Article ID 102587.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forest owners' preferences for contract-based management to enhance environmental values versus timber production
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2021 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 132, article id 102587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Forests are sources of multiple ecosystem services (ESs) essential for human wellbeing. Forest owners are critical actors to decide which benefits they produce from their forests. To support the uptake of alternative forest management strategies in a way that is beneficial from the perspective of society as whole, new incentive schemes could be implemented in the future. We applied the choice experiment method to investigate Finnish forest owners' potential participation in an incentive scheme in which they were asked to practice a ‘Timber Oriented’ or a ‘Nature Oriented’ management strategy according to the terms of a hypothetical contract. We found that the majority forest owners are willing to participate in the considered contract-based payment scheme, especially those supporting biodiversity and non-market ESs. Non-profitability attributes including biodiversity, carbon stock, and probability of climate change induced damage were highly valued. Forest owners prefer the management contract with the Nature Oriented strategy. Forest owners' preferences for the contract-based management and associated effects are heterogenous.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Biodiversity, Choice experiment, Ecosystem services, Forest management, Forest policy, Incentives
National Category
Forest Science Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-187636 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2021.102587 (DOI)000810908100004 ()2-s2.0-85114595749 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-09-16 Created: 2021-09-16 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Enlund, D., Westin, K. & Nordlund, A. (2020). Att flyga eller inte flyga?: En rapport om flygresor i Umeå kommun. Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att flyga eller inte flyga?: En rapport om flygresor i Umeå kommun
2020 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2020
Series
TRUM-Rapport, ISSN 1403-6924
Keywords
Resande, miljö
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-185673 (URN)
Available from: 2021-07-02 Created: 2021-07-02 Last updated: 2023-03-07Bibliographically approved
Westin, K., Nordlund, A., Jansson, J. & Nilsson, J. (2020). Goal Framing as a Tool for Changing People's Car Travel Behavior in Sweden. Sustainability, 12(9)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Goal Framing as a Tool for Changing People's Car Travel Behavior in Sweden
2020 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a study of car drivers' assessment of a sustainability policy involving increased car parking fees in Swedish city centers. The aim of the study was to investigate how framing of information in text and pictures influences acceptance of increasing car parking fees and how values, general beliefs and norms as well as measure-specific beliefs influence the acceptability of the measure. Drawing on Goal Framing Theory, the acceptance of a parking fee policy was tested using three different goal frames (hedonic, gain and normative); the frames were compared with each other and a control message. The study was based on a survey directed to residents (18 to 75 years of age) in 51 larger municipalities in Sweden. The survey had an experimental design. Respondents were presented with a scenario of an increase in parking fees to promote environmental sustainability. The scenario was presented in three ways (manipulations), highlighting hedonic (e.g., emotional), gain, and normative aspects, respectively, in text and pictures. The results showed that the three message frames had different effects and were overall more effective than the control message in engendering the desired reduction in private car use and, thus, the intended environmental impact. Further, the degree of acceptability of the increased parking fee influenced the expected behavioral change in the groups receiving a goal framed message in relation to the parking fee measure. Implications from a sustainability perspective concern the importance of how environmental policies are framed when communicated to the public in order to increase acceptance and support.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
daily travel, parking fees, experimental setting, goal framing, sustainability policy measures
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-172829 (URN)10.3390/su12093695 (DOI)000537476200193 ()2-s2.0-85085298948 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-06-29 Created: 2020-06-29 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Andersson, E., Keskitalo, E. C. & Westin, K. (2020). Managing place and distance: Restructuring sales and work relations to meet urbanisation-related challenges in Swedish forestry. Forest Policy and Economics, 118, Article ID 102267.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing place and distance: Restructuring sales and work relations to meet urbanisation-related challenges in Swedish forestry
2020 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 118, article id 102267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Drawing upon interviews with representatives of all the major forestry organisations in Sweden, this paper explores how, in their sales and services, they work to overcome the growing distance between forest owners and forests. The results indicate that increasing distance to forest owners in terms of sales and services work is largely dealt with by reorganisation of the sales process. Through trust-building activities such as modifying office structure and local work processes, and use of new technologies such as personalised forest websites/apps, previously local trust-building processes are being deliberately digitized and implemented through new technology and, in some cases, offices in cities. However, the results also suggest that these processes potentially affect the way in which forest as a resource and a place is constructed and interacted with. For example, it can be treated as an object of desire that is produced and marketed; as a place of knowledge and expertise that produces specific social and sales relations; and as a place of production to legitimize modern industrial forestry. Through this, forest management is constructed as an economic or technical issue that can be managed at a distance from the property.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-174346 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2020.102267 (DOI)000555744700004 ()2-s2.0-85088443946 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-08-20 Created: 2020-08-20 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Projects
Small foretsts - big players: Valorising small scale forestry for a bio-based economy (ValoFor): [2018-04978_Vinnova]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6539-7673

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