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Lundstedt, Staffan
Publications (10 of 45) Show all publications
Nyström, R., Lindgren, R., Avagyan, R., Westerholm, R., Lundstedt, S. & Boman, C. (2017). Influence of Wood Species and Burning Conditions on Particle Emission Characteristics in a Residential Wood Stove. Energy & Fuels, 31(5), 5514-5524
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Wood Species and Burning Conditions on Particle Emission Characteristics in a Residential Wood Stove
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2017 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 5514-5524Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emissions from small-scale residential biomass combustion are a major source of indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution, and the performance of stoves, boilers, and fireplaces have been shown to be influenced both by fuel properties, technology, and user behavior (firing procedures). Still, rather scarce information is available regarding the relative importance of these variables for the particle characteristics and emissions of different particulate components, e.g., soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxy-PAH, and metals. In particular, the behavior of different wood fuels under varying firing procedures and combustion conditions has not been studied thoroughly. Therefore, the objective of this work was to elucidate the influence of wood species and combustion conditions on particle emission characteristics in a typical Nordic residential wood stove. The emissions from four different wood species were investigated at two controlled combustion conditions, including nominal and high burn rates, with a focus on physical and chemical properties of the fine particulate matter. Considerably elevated carbonaceous particle emissions (soot and organics) were found during high burn rate conditions, which were associated with a shift in particle number size distribution toward a higher fraction of larger particles. In some cases, as here seen for pine, the specific fuel properties can affect the combustion performance and thereby also influence particle and PAH emissions. For the inorganic ash particles, the content in the fuel, and not burning conditions, was found to be the main determining factor, as seen by the increased emissions of alkali salts for aspen. Wood stove emission data on 11 specific oxy-PAHs, together with 45 PAHs, were combined with controlled variations of burning conditions and fuels. The oxy-PAH/PAH ratio during a high burn rate was observed to increase, suggesting an enrichment of particulate oxy-PAH. Accordingly, the main influence on emission performance and particle characteristics was seen between different burn rates, and this study clearly illustrates the major importance of proper operation to avoid unfavorable burning condition, regardless of the wood species used.

National Category
Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-136337 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b02751 (DOI)000402023600098 ()
Projects
Bio4Energy
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2012-3802
Available from: 2017-06-19 Created: 2017-06-19 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Weidemann, E., Andersson, P. L., Bidleman, T., Boman, C., Carlin, D. J., Collina, E., . . . Jansson, S. (2016). 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources. Environmental science and pollution research international, 23(8), 8141-8159
Open this publication in new window or tab >>14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources
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2016 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 8141-8159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in UmeAyen, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

Keywords
Products of incomplete combustion, Human health, Soot, Particles, Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated dibenzofurans, Congress paper
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121585 (URN)10.1007/s11356-016-6308-y (DOI)000374994600105 ()26906006 (PubMedID)
Projects
Bio4Energy
Available from: 2016-06-27 Created: 2016-06-03 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Enell, A., Lundstedt, S., Arp, H. P., Josefsson, S., Cornelissen, G., Wik, O. & Kleja, D. B. (2016). Combining Leaching and Passive Sampling To Measure the Mobility and Distribution between Porewater, DOC, and Colloids of Native Oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in Historically Contaminated Soil. Environmental Science and Technology, 50(21), 11797-11805
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Leaching and Passive Sampling To Measure the Mobility and Distribution between Porewater, DOC, and Colloids of Native Oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in Historically Contaminated Soil
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2016 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 21, p. 11797-11805Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Different methods to quantify soil porewater concentrations of contaminants will provide different types of information. Passive sampling measurements give freely dissolved porewater concentrations (C-pw,C-free), while leaching tests provide information on the mobile concentration (C-pw,C-leach), including contaminants associated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles/colloids in the porewater. This study presents a novel combination of these two measurements, to study the sorption and mobility of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) in 10 historically contaminated soils. The PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated-PAHs, and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs. Observed C-pw,C-leach was up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than C-pw,C-free; implying large biases when C-pw,C-leach is used to assess bioavailability or soil partitioning. Sorption of PACs to DOC and POC was important for the mobility of compounds with log K-OW > 4. Average DOC/water-partitioning coefficients (K-DOC) correlated well with KOW (log K-DOC = 0.89 x log K-OW +1.03 (r(2) = 0.89)). This relationship is likely more accurate for historically contaminated soils than previously published data, which suffer from artifacts caused by problems in measuring C-pw,C-free correctly or not using historically contaminated soils. POC/water-partitioning coefficients (K-POC) were orders of magnitude larger than corresponding K-DOC, suggesting sorption to mobile particles/colloids is the dominant mechanism for PAC mobility.

National Category
Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-129902 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.6b02774 (DOI)000386991100042 ()27696834 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-01-13 Created: 2017-01-10 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Wincent, E., Jonsson, M. E., Bottai, M., Lundstedt, S. & Dreij, K. (2015). Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation and Developmental Toxicity in Zebrafish in Response to Soil Extracts Containing Unsubstituted and Oxygenated PAHs. Environmental Science and Technology, 49(6), 3869-3877
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation and Developmental Toxicity in Zebrafish in Response to Soil Extracts Containing Unsubstituted and Oxygenated PAHs
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2015 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 3869-3877Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many industrial sites are polluted by complex mixtures of polycydic aromatic compounds (PACs). Besides polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), these mixtures often contain significant amounts of more polar PACs including oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs). The effects of oxy-PAHs are, however, poorly known. Here we used zebrafish embryos to examine toxicities and transcriptional changes induced by PAC containing soil extracts from three different industrial sites: a gasworks (GAS), a former wood preservation site (WOOD), and a coke oven (COKE), and to PAR and oxy-PAH containing fractions of these. All extracts induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr)-regulated mRNAs, malformations, and mortality. The WOOD extract was most toxic and the GAS extract least toxic. The extracts induced glutathione transferases and heat shock protein 70, suggesting that the toxicity also involved oxidative stress. With all extracts, Ahr2-knock-down reduced the toxicity, indicating a significant Ahr2-dependence on the effects. Ahr2-knock-down was most effective with the PAH fraction of the WOOD extract and with the oxy-PAH fraction of the COKE extract. Our results indicate that oxy-PAH containing mixtures can be as potent Ahr activators and developmental toxicants as PAHs. In addition to Ahr activating potency, the profile of cytochrome P4501 inhibitors may also determine the toxic potency of the extracts.

National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102364 (URN)10.1021/es505588s (DOI)000351324400071 ()25715055 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-04-23 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lemieux, C. L., Long, A. S., Lambert, I. B., Lundstedt, S., Tysklind, M. & White, P. A. (2015). Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils Determined Using Bioassay-Derived Levels of Benzo[a]pyrene Equivalents. Environmental Science and Technology, 49(3), 1797-1805
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils Determined Using Bioassay-Derived Levels of Benzo[a]pyrene Equivalents
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2015 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1086-931X, E-ISSN 1520-6912, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 1797-1805Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Here we evaluate the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) posed by 10 PAH-contaminated soils using (i) the currently advocated, targeted chemical-specific approach that assumes dose additivity for carcinogenic PAHs and (ii) a bioassay-based approach that employs the in vitro mutagenic activity of the soil fractions to determine levels of benzo[a]pyrene equivalents and, by extension, ELCR. Mutagenic activity results are presented in our companion paper.1 The results show that ELCR values for the PAH-containing fractions, determined using the chemical-specific approach, are generally (i.e., 8 out of 10) greater than those calculated using the bioassay-based approach; most are less than 5-fold greater. Only two chemical-specific ELCR estimates are less than their corresponding bioassay-derived values; differences are less than 10%. The bioassay-based approach, which permits estimation of ELCR without a priori knowledge of mixture composition, proved to be a useful tool to evaluate the chemical-specific approach. The results suggest that ELCR estimates for complex PAH mixtures determined using a targeted, chemical-specific approach are reasonable, albeit conservative. Calculated risk estimates still depend on contentious PEFs and cancer slope factors. Follow-up in vivo mutagenicity assessments will be required to validate the results and their relevance for human health risk assessment of PAH-contaminated soils

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2015
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100344 (URN)10.1021/es504466b (DOI)000349060300068 ()
Available from: 2015-03-01 Created: 2015-03-01 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Josefsson, S., Arp, H. P., Kleja, D. B., Enell, A. & Lundstedt, S. (2015). Determination of polyoxymethylene (POM) - water partition coefficients for oxy-PAHs and PAHs. Chemosphere, 119, 1268-1274
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of polyoxymethylene (POM) - water partition coefficients for oxy-PAHs and PAHs
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2015 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 119, p. 1268-1274Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) are a class of ubiquitously occurring pollutants of which little is known. They can be co-emitted with PAHs or formed from PAHs in the environment. The environmental fate and risk of oxy-PAHs are difficult to assess due to a lack of methods to quantify their pore water concentrations. One sampler that can be used to determine freely dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants is polyoxymethylene (POM). In this study, POM - water partition coefficients (K-POM) were determined for 11 oxy-PAHs. K-POM values of 8 PAHs with similar hydrophobicities as the oxy-PAHs were determined for comparison. Results showed that log K-POM values ranged from 2.64 to 4.82 for the PAHs (2-4 rings), similar to previously determined values. LogK(pom) values for investigated oxy-PAHs ranged from 0.96 to 5.36. The addition of carbonylic oxygen on a parent PAH generally lowered K-POM by 0.5 to 1.0 log units, which is attributable to the presence of carbonylic oxygens increasing water solubility. The K-POM values presented here will facilitate simultaneous assessments of freely dissolved water concentrations of oxy-PAHs and PAHs in environmental media.

Keywords
Oxy-PAHs, PAHs, Pore water concentrations, Passive samplers, Polyoxymethylene
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100979 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.102 (DOI)000347739600172 ()25460771 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-03-16 Created: 2015-03-16 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Ortuno, N., Lundstedt, S. & Lundin, L. (2015). Emissions of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and PBDEs from flame-retarded high-impact polystyrene under thermal stress. Chemosphere, 123, 64-70
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emissions of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and PBDEs from flame-retarded high-impact polystyrene under thermal stress
2015 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 123, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The emissions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and their chlorinated analogues (PCDD/Fs) during the thermal treatment of a high impact polystyrene (HIPS) TV casing were investigated. The halogenated compounds were analyzed in the original material and in the gases emitted during its treatment at temperatures between 50 degrees C and 250 degrees C. DecaBDE was the primary PBDE in the TV casing, which also contained high levels of PBDFs (ppm range). At the lower treatment temperatures, non-modified PBDEs evaporated from the samples. Conversely, at 200 degrees C or above, debromination reactions led to the formation of additional tri- through nonaBDE. The formation of new PBDD/Fs was also detected in the gas phase when the plastic was heated to 200 degrees C or 250 degrees C, with higher yields of furans than dioxins. This appreciably increased the toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels of the gas phase relative to those seen in the untreated sample. In all cases, the levels and TEQ contributions from PCDD/Fs were negligible compared to those for brominated analogues. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Thermal transformation, HIPS, BFRs, PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100749 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.10.085 (DOI)000349271800009 ()25550110 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-04-26 Created: 2015-03-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lemieux, C. L., Long, A. S., Lambert, I. B., Lundstedt, S., Tysklind, M. & White, P. A. (2015). In Vitro Mammalian Mutagenicity of Complex Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures in Contaminated Soils. Environmental Science and Technology, 49(3), 1787-1796
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In Vitro Mammalian Mutagenicity of Complex Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures in Contaminated Soils
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2015 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 1787-1796Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study employed an in vitro version of the lacZ transgenic rodent mutation assay to assess the mutagenicity of nonpolar neutral and semipolar aromatic soil fractions from 10 PAH-contaminated sites, and evaluated the assumption of dose additivity that is routinely employed to calculate the risk posed by PAH mixtures. Significant mutagenic activity was detected in all nonpolar neutral fractions, and 8 of 10 semipolar aromatic fractions (nonpolar > semipolar). Mutagenic activity of synthetic PAH mixtures that mimic the PAH content of the soils (i.e., 5-PAH or 16-PAH mix) were greater than that of the PAH-containing soil fractions, with 5-PAH mix >16-PAH-mix. Predictions of mutagenic activity, calculated as the sum of the contributions from the mutagenic mixture components, were all within 2-fold of the observed activity of the nonpolar neutral fractions, with one exception. Observed differences in mutagenic activity are likely the result of dynamic metabolic processes, involving a complex interplay of AhR agonsim and saturation of metabolic machinery by competitive inhibition of mixture components. The presence of hitherto unidentified polar compounds present in PAH-contaminated soils may also contribute to overall hazard; however, these compounds are generally not included in current contaminated site risk assessment protocols

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2015
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100343 (URN)10.1021/es504465f (DOI)000349060300067 ()25419852 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-03-01 Created: 2015-03-01 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Sindiku, O., Babayemi, J. O., Tysklind, M., Osibanjo, O., Weber, R., Watson, A., . . . Lundstedt, S. (2015). Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs)in e-waste plastic in Nigeria. Environmental science and pollution research international, 22(19), 14515-14529
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs)in e-waste plastic in Nigeria
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2015 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 19, p. 14515-14529Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plastics from cathode ray tube (CRT) casings weresampled in Nigeria and analysed for their polybrominateddibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PBDD/F) content.PBDD/Fs, consisting mainly of PBDFs, were detected inBFR containing plastic with a median (mean) concentrationof 18,000 ng/g (41,000 ng/g). The PBDD/Fs levels werehighest in samples containing PBDEs, but the levels ofPBDFs were two orders of magnitude higher than the levelsreported in the technical PBDE mixtures and where frequentlyexceeding 1000 μg/g of PBDE content. These higher levelsare likely to arise from additional transformation of PBDEsduring production, use, recycling, or storage, but the processesresponsible were not identified in this study. PBDD/Fs in CRTcasings containing1,2-bistribromophenoxyethane (TBPE)were dominated by tetrabrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin(TBDDs) with concentrations around 10 μg/g of the TBPEcontent. The PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containingtetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were found at concentrationsaround 0.1 μg/g of TBBPA levels. Casings treated withTBPE or TBBPA often contained PBDEs (and PBDF) as impurities—probably originating from recycled e-waste plastics.It was estimated that the 237,000 t of CRT casings stockpiledin Nigeria contain between 2 and 8 t of PBDD/Fs. The totalPBDD/F contamination in polymers arising from total historicPBDE production/use is estimated in the order of 1000 t. TEQvalues of CRT samples frequently exceeded the Basel Convention’sprovisional low POPs content of 15 ng TEQ/g. Dueto the significant risks to health associated with PBDD/Fs,more detailed studies on the exposure routes from PBDD/Fsin stockpiles are needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
Keywords
PBDD, PBDF, Brominated flame retardants, WEEE, PBDEs, Stockholmconvention, Basel convention, BFR
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-108830 (URN)10.1007/s11356-015-5260-6 (DOI)000362329300013 ()26347415 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-09-15 Created: 2015-09-15 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lundstedt, S., Bandowe, B. A., Wilcke, W., Boll, E., Christensen, J. H., Vila, J., . . . Ricci, M. (2014). First intercomparison study on the analysis of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PACs) in contaminated soil. TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, 57, 83-92
Open this publication in new window or tab >>First intercomparison study on the analysis of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PACs) in contaminated soil
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2014 (English)In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 57, p. 83-92Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PACs) are toxic, highly leachable and often abundant at sites that are also contaminated with PAHs. However, due to lack of regulations and standardized methods for their analysis, they are seldom included in monitoring and risk-assessment programs. This intercomparison study constitutes an important step in the harmonization of the analytical methods currently used, and may also be considered a first step towards the certification of reference materials for these compounds. The results showed that the participants were able to determine oxy-PAHs with accuracy similar to PAHs, with average determined mass fractions agreeing well with the known levels in a spiked soil and acceptable inter- and intra-laboratory precisions for all soils analyzed. For the N-PACs, the results were less satisfactory, and have to be improved by using analytical methods more specifically optimized for these compounds.

Keywords
Analytical method, Contaminated soil, Intercomparison study, Nitrogen heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic compound, N-PAC, Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Oxy-PAH, Polar polycyclic aromatic compound, Polycyclic aromatic compound, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-90865 (URN)10.1016/j.trac.2014.01.007 (DOI)000336711700026 ()
Available from: 2014-07-15 Created: 2014-07-01 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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