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Marklund, Stellan
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Publications (10 of 41) Show all publications
Weidemann, E., Andersson, P. L., Bidleman, T., Boman, C., Carlin, D. J., Collina, E., . . . Jansson, S. (2016). 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources. Environmental science and pollution research international, 23(8), 8141-8159
Open this publication in new window or tab >>14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources
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2016 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 8141-8159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in UmeAyen, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

Keywords
Products of incomplete combustion, Human health, Soot, Particles, Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated dibenzofurans, Congress paper
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121585 (URN)10.1007/s11356-016-6308-y (DOI)000374994600105 ()26906006 (PubMedID)
Projects
Bio4Energy
Available from: 2016-06-27 Created: 2016-06-03 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Weidemann, E., Marklund, S., Bristav, H. & Lundin, L. (2014). In-filter PCDF and PCDD formation at low temperature during MSWI combustion. Chemosphere, 102, 12-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-filter PCDF and PCDD formation at low temperature during MSWI combustion
2014 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 102, p. 12-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This case study investigated PCDF and PCDD emissions from a 65 MW waste-to-energy plant to identify why an air pollution control system remodeling to accommodate increased production resulted in increased TEQ concentrations. Pre- and post-filter gases were collected simultaneously in four sample sets with varying filter temperatures and with/without activated carbon injection. Samples were analyzed to determine total PCDF and PCDD concentrations, as well as homologue profiles, and concentrations of individual congeners (some remained co-eluted). The total post filter PCDD concentrations where found to increase while the concentrations of PCDF and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners declined. An investigation of the individual congener concentrations revealed that the increase of PCDD concentrations were due to a few congeners, suggesting a single formation route. The study also concludes that vital information about the formation could be obtained by not restricting the analysis to just the 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
full scale, MSWI, PCDD, PCDF, fabric filters, case study
National Category
Chemical Sciences Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-88378 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.11.068 (DOI)000333496800003 ()
Available from: 2014-05-05 Created: 2014-05-05 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Phan, D. N., Jansson, S. & Marklund, S. (2013). Effects of regional differences in waste composition on the thermal formation of polychlorinated aromatics during incineration. Chemosphere, 93(8), 1586-1592
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of regional differences in waste composition on the thermal formation of polychlorinated aromatics during incineration
2013 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 93, no 8, p. 1586-1592Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two artificial wastes (A and B) whose contents reflect regional differences in municipal solid waste composition, were used to investigate the thermal formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), and naphthalenes (PCNs) during incineration. Flue gas samples were simultaneously collected at three ports in the post-combustion zone corresponding to flue gas temperatures of 400, 300, and 200 °C. The combustion of Waste B, which had a higher chlorine and metal content than Waste A, produced greater levels of highly-chlorinated homologues, as demonstrated by a higher degree of chlorination. The total concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, and PCNs formed in the combustion of both wastes increased as temperature decreased along the convector. There were no significant differences in total concentrations between Waste A and Waste B combustion at specific temperatures, with exception of PCDFs at 400 °C. Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) modeling, used to evaluate the data for all compound groups, suggest that during flue gas quenching at temperatures of 400 °C low-chlorinated homologues are preferentially formed in the presence of copper, which is known to be a very active catalyst for this process. At 300 and 200 °C, the formation of highly-chlorinated homologues is favored.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, Polychlorinated dibenzofuran, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polychlorinated naphthalene, Chlorination, OPLS-DA
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-80179 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.08.012 (DOI)000327003100019 ()24007615 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-09-11 Created: 2013-09-11 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Lundin, L., Gullett, B., Carroll, W. F. ., Touati, A., Marklund, S. & Fiedler, H. (2013). The effect of developing nations' municipal waste composition on PCDD/PCDF emissions from open burning. Atmospheric Environment, 79, 433-441
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of developing nations' municipal waste composition on PCDD/PCDF emissions from open burning
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2013 (English)In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 79, p. 433-441Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Open burning tests of municipal waste from two countries, Mexico and China, showed composition-related differences in emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Twenty-six burn tests were conducted, comparing results from two laboratory combustion facilities. Waste was shredded to isolate composition-specific effects from those due to random waste orientation. Emissions ranged from 5 to 780 ng toxic equivalent/kg carbon burned (ng TEQ (kg C-b)(-1)) with an average of 140 ng TEQ (kg C-b)(-1) (stdev = 170). The waste from Mexico (17 ng TEQ (kg C-b)(-1)) had a statistically lower average emission factor than waste from China (240 ng TEQ (kg C-b)(-1). This difference was attributed primarily to waste composition differences, although one time-integrated combustion quality measure, Delta CO/Delta CO2, showed statistical significance between laboratories. However, waste composition differences were far more determinant than which laboratory conducted the tests, illustrated using both statistical techniques and comparison of cross-over samples (wastes tested at both facilities). Comparison of emissions from previous waste combustion tests in Sweden and the U.S.A, showed emission factors within the range of those determined for Mexico and China waste. For laboratory-scale combustion, existing emission factors and test methodologies are generally applicable to both developed and developing countries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
PCDD/PCDF, Emission, Waste, Open burning, Composition
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-83081 (URN)10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.06.040 (DOI)000325834700048 ()
Available from: 2013-11-18 Created: 2013-11-18 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Duong Phan, N. C., Weidemann, E., Lundin, L., Marklund, S. & Jansson, S. (2012). Accurate sampling of PCDD/F in high temperature flue-gas using cooled sampling probes. Chemosphere, 88(7), 832-836
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accurate sampling of PCDD/F in high temperature flue-gas using cooled sampling probes
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2012 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, no 7, p. 832-836Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a laboratory-scale combustion reactor, flue-gas samples were collected at two temperatures in the post-combustion zone, 700 °C and 400 °C, using two different water-cooled sampling probes. The probes were the cooled probe described in the European Standard method EN-1948:1, referred to as the original probe, and a modified probe that contained a salt/ice mixture to assist the cooling, referred to as the sub-zero probe. To determine the efficiency of the cooling probes, internal temperature measurements were recorded at 5 cm intervals inside the probes. Flue-gas samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Samples collected at 700 °C using the original cooling probe showed higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs compared to samples collected using the sub-zero probe. No significant differences were observed between samples collected at 400 °C. The results indicated that artifact formation of PCDD/Fs readily occurs during flue-gas sampling at high temperatures if the cooling within the probe is insufficient, as found for the original probe at 700 °C. It was also shown that this problem could be alleviated by using probes with an enhanced cooling capacity, such as the sub-zero probe.

Although this may not affect samples collected for regulatory purposes in exit gases, it is of great importance for research conducted in the high-temperature region of the post-combustion zone. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated dibenzofurans, Quenching, Sub-zero cooling probe, Waste combustion
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-54601 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.03.090 (DOI)
Note

Available online 28 April 2012

Available from: 2012-05-02 Created: 2012-05-02 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Zhang, T., Fiedler, H., Yu, G., Ochoa, G. S., Carroll, W. F., Gullett, B. K., . . . Touati, A. (2011). Emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from open burning of municipal solid waste from developing countries. Chemosphere, 84(7), 994-1001
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from open burning of municipal solid waste from developing countries
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2011 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 84, no 7, p. 994-1001Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Open burning of waste is the most significant source of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in many national inventories prepared pursuant to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. This is particularly true for developing countries. Emission factors for POPs such as PCDD/PCDF, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) and penta- and hexachlorobenzenes (PeCBz/HCB) from open burning of municipal solid waste in China and Mexico are reported herein. Six different waste sources were studied varying from urban-industrial to semi-urban to rural. For PCDD/PCDF, the emission factors to air ranged from 3.0 to 650ngTEQkg(-1)waste and for dl-PCB from 0.092 to 54ngTEQkg(-1)waste. Emission factors for PeCBz (17-1200ngkg(-1)waste) and HCB (24-1300ngkg(-1)waste) spanned a wide but similar range. Within the datasets there is no indication of significant waste composition effect on emission factor with the exception of significantly higher Mexico rural samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Science, 2011
Keywords
PCDD/F, ash, degradation, thermal treatment, ash composition
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-45038 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.04.070 (DOI)21624634 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-06-20 Created: 2011-06-20 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Lundin, L., Aurell, J. & Marklund, S. (2011). The behavior of PCDD and PCDF during thermal treatment of waste incineration ash. Chemosphere, 84(3), 305-310
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The behavior of PCDD and PCDF during thermal treatment of waste incineration ash
2011 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 305-310Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) content of three fly ash samples with different elemental compositions from different municipal waste incinerators were analyzed before and after thermal treatment at 300°C or 500°C. Gas phase emissions during the treatments were also collected and analyzed. Substantial reductions in the total PCCD/F content of the ashes were observed after treatment at 500°C, seemingly due to degradation rather than dechlorination. Treatment at 300°C resulted in an increase in the PCDD/F content of the three ashes. Initial concentration of PCDD/F in the untreated ashes did not reflect the outcome of the treatment at the different temperatures. In addition, the composition of the ash was found to influence the rate of decomposition and formation of PCDD and PCDF during thermal treatment; the results showed that Cu, Fe, Ca and S play important roles in these processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
Keywords
PCDD/F, ash, degradation, thermal treatment, ash composition
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-44408 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.04.014 (DOI)21546056 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-06-08 Created: 2011-06-08 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Mikkola, J.-P., Jönsson, L. & Marklund, S. (2010). Bio4Energy – The Swedish Quest for Sustainable Society:  FUEL, ENERGY and CHEMICALS. Paper presented at INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE in CATALYSIS FOR RENEWABLE SOURCES: FUEL, ENERGY, CHEMICALS, Tsars Village, St.Petersburg, June 28 – July 2, 2010 Russia (Keynote talk).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio4Energy – The Swedish Quest for Sustainable Society:  FUEL, ENERGY and CHEMICALS
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-36719 (URN)
Conference
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE in CATALYSIS FOR RENEWABLE SOURCES: FUEL, ENERGY, CHEMICALS, Tsars Village, St.Petersburg, June 28 – July 2, 2010 Russia (Keynote talk)
Available from: 2010-10-08 Created: 2010-10-08 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Aurell, J., Jansson, S. & Marklund, S. (2009). Effects of quench time profiles on PCDD/F formation in the postcombustion zone during municipal solid waste incineration. Environmental Engineering Science, 26(3), 541-550
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of quench time profiles on PCDD/F formation in the postcombustion zone during municipal solid waste incineration
2009 (English)In: Environmental Engineering Science, ISSN 1092-8758, E-ISSN 1557-9018, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 541-550Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Effects of postcombustion zone temperatures and flue gas residence times on monochlorinated to octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) in a laboratory-scale reactor combusting municipal solid waste were investigated. Four different quench time profiles were investigated, falling from 400°C to 200°C, 300°C to 100°C, 450°C to 200°C and 460°C to 260°C, with corresponding residence times of 1.4 to 4.4sec, 1.4 to 5.4sec, 1.3 to 4.3sec, and 1.3 to 4.0sec, respectively. Flue gas samples were collected simultaneously at three fixed sampling points, with an additional sampling of flue gas entering the postcombustion zone (640°C). The quench time profiles resulted in different total PCDD/F yields, as well as differences in homologue profiles and congener patterns. Thus, the formation pathways seem to be dependent on sufficient residence time within a specific temperature region. Formation of PCDD/F was shown to be rapid and mainly located to the 640°C to 400°C temperature region, with non-detectable levels at 640°C and concentrations at 400°C that did not increase or decrease significantly downstream. Furthermore, a prolonged residence time at and above 450°C/ 460°C showed low yields even downstream the postcombustion zone compared to the 400°C to 200°C and 300°C to 100°C profiles. The 460°C to 260°C profile resulted in increased abundance at the last two sampling points of PCDD congeners known to correlate with 2,4,6-trichlorophenols, suggesting that chlorophenol condensation reactions were promoted by this quench time profile.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mary Ann Liebert, 2009
Keywords
temperature, quench time, PCDD/F, waste incineration
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-21689 (URN)10.1089/ees.2008.0044 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-04-16 Created: 2009-04-16 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Aurell, J., Fick, J., Haglund, P. & Marklund, S. (2009). Effects of sulfur on PCDD/F formation under stable and transient combustion conditions during MSW incineration. Chemosphere, 76(6), 767-773
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of sulfur on PCDD/F formation under stable and transient combustion conditions during MSW incineration
2009 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 76, no 6, p. 767-773Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

SO2 levels in the flue gas from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor combusting artificial municipal solid waste (MSW) were varied (resulting in four different SO2:HCl ratios 0, 0.2, 0.7 and 2.7 (by mass)) to study the effects of sulfur on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (PCDTs). Sampling was performed simultaneously at three fixed points in the post-combustion zone with temperatures of 400, 300 and 200 °C, under normal combustion conditions and both during and after transient combustion conditions. The findings indicate that sulfur has a greater inhibitory effect on PCDF formation than on PCDD formation and that the PCDD/PCDF ratio in the flue gas depends on both the SO2:HCl ratio in the flue gas and memory effects arising from transient combustion conditions. The results also indicate that the relative importance of different pathways shifts in the post-combustion zone; condensation products increasing with reductions in temperature and increases in residence time. However, these changes appear to depend on the SO2:HCl ratio in the flue gas and combustion conditions. Sulfur seems to inhibit the chlorination of PCDFs. A tendency for increased SO2 levels in the flue gas to increase levels of PCDTs was also detected, but the increases were much less significant than the reductions in PCDF levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2009
Keywords
PCDD/F, PCDT, Waste incineration, SO2
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3338 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.04.065 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-09-01 Created: 2008-09-01 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
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