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Backman, Ludvig J.
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Publications (10 of 33) Show all publications
El-Habta, R., Kingham, P. J. & Backman, L. J. (2018). Adipose stem cells enhance myoblast proliferation via acetylcholine and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling. Muscle and Nerve, 57(2), 305-311
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adipose stem cells enhance myoblast proliferation via acetylcholine and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling
2018 (English)In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 305-311Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: In this study we investigated the interaction between adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and myoblasts in co-culture experiments. Methods: Specific inductive media were used to differentiate ASCs in vitro into a Schwann cell-like phenotype (differentiated adipose tissuederived stem cells, or dASCs) and, subsequently, the expression of acetylcholine (ACh)-related machinery was determined. In addition, the expression of muscarinic ACh receptors was examined in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscles. Results: In contrast to undifferentiated ASCs, dASCs expressed more choline acetyltransferase and vesicular acetylcholine transporter. When co-cultured with myoblasts, dASCs enhanced the proliferation rate, as did ACh administration alone. Western blotting and pharmacological inhibitor studies showed that phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling mediated these effects. In addition, denervated muscle showed higher expression of muscarinic ACh receptors than control muscle. Discussion: Our findings suggest that dASCs promote proliferation of myoblasts through paracrine secretion of ACh, which could explain some of their regenerative capacity in vivo.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
Keywords
adipose-derived stem cells, denervation, myoblasts, nonneuronal acetylcholine, proliferation
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144336 (URN)10.1002/mus.25741 (DOI)000419964700026 ()28686790 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-08 Created: 2018-02-08 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Chen, J., Zhang, W., Backman, L. J., Kelk, P. & Danielson, P. (2018). Mechanical stress potentiates the differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells into keratocytes. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 102(4), 562-569
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical stress potentiates the differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells into keratocytes
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2018 (English)In: British Journal of Ophthalmology, ISSN 0007-1161, E-ISSN 1468-2079, Vol. 102, no 4, p. 562-569Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims To explore the role of corneal-shaped static mechanical strain on the differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) into keratocytes and the possible synergistic effects of mechanics and inducing medium. Methods PDLSCs were exposed to 3% static dome-shaped mechanical strain in a Flexcell Tension System for 3 days and 7 days. Keratocyte phenotype was determined by gene expression of keratocyte markers. Keratocyte differentiation (inducing) medium was introduced in the Flexcell system, either continuously or intermittently combined with mechanical stimulation. The synergistic effects of mechanics and inducing medium on keratocyte differentiation was evaluated by gene and protein expression of keratocyte markers. Finally, a multilamellar cell sheet was assembled by seeding PDLSCs on a collagen membrane and inducing keratocyte differentiation. The transparency of the cell sheet was assessed, and typical markers of native human corneal stroma were evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. Results Dome-shaped mechanical stimulation promoted PDLSCs to differentiate into keratocytes, as shown by the upregulation of ALDH3A1, CD34, LUM, COL I and COL V. The expression of integrins were also upregulated after mechanical stimulation, including integrin alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1 and non-muscle myosin II B. A synergistic effect of mechanics and inducing medium was found on keratocyte differentiation. The cell sheets were assembled under the treatment of mechanics and inducing medium simultaneously. The cell sheets were transparent, multilamellar and expressed typical markers of corneal stroma. Conclusion Dome-shaped mechanical stimulation promotes differentiation of PDLSCs into keratocytes and has synergistic effects with inducing medium. Multilamellar cell sheets that resemble native human corneal stroma show potential for future clinical applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2018
Keywords
PDLSCs, corneal stroma, mechanics, inducing medium, differentiation, cell-sheet
National Category
Ophthalmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147334 (URN)10.1136/bjophthalmol-2017-311150 (DOI)000429732500026 ()29306866 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-17 Created: 2018-05-17 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
El-Habta, R., Chen, J., Pingel, J. & Backman, L. J. (2018). Tendinosis-like changes in denervated rat Achilles tendon. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 19, Article ID 426.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tendinosis-like changes in denervated rat Achilles tendon
2018 (English)In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, article id 426Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Tendon disorders are common and lead to significant disability and pain. Our knowledge of the ‘tennis elbow’, the ‘jumpers knee’, and Achilles tendinosis has increased over the years, but changes in denervated tendons is yet to be described in detail. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphological and biochemical changes in tendon tissue following two weeks of denervation using a unilateral sciatic nerve transection model in rat Achilles tendons.

Methods: Tendons were compared with respect to cell number, nuclear roundness, and fiber structure. The non-denervated contralateral tendon served as a control. Also, the expression of neuromodulators such as substance P and its preferred receptor neurokinin-1 receptor, NK-1R, was evaluated using real-time qRT-PCR.

Results: Our results showed that denervated tendons expressed morphological changes such as hypercellularity; disfigured cells; disorganization of the collagen network; increased production of type III collagen; and increased expression of NK-1R.

Conclusion: Taken together these data provide new insights into the histopathology of denervated tendons showing that denervation causes somewhat similar changes in the Achilles tendon as does tendinosis in rats.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMC, 2018
Keywords
Collagen, Denervation, Rat, Substance P, Tendinosis
National Category
Orthopaedics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154940 (URN)10.1186/s12891-018-2353-7 (DOI)000451699800006 ()30497469 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85057541287 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Chen, J., Lan, J., Liu, D., Backman, L. J., Zhang, W., Zhou, Q. & Danielson, P. (2017). Ascorbic Acid Promotes the Stemness of Corneal Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells and Accelerates Epithelial Wound Healing in the Cornea. Stem Cells Translational Medicine, 6(5), 1356-1365
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ascorbic Acid Promotes the Stemness of Corneal Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells and Accelerates Epithelial Wound Healing in the Cornea
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2017 (English)In: Stem Cells Translational Medicine, ISSN 2157-6564, E-ISSN 2157-6580, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 1356-1365Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High concentration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has been found in corneal epithelium of various species. However, the specific functions and mechanisms of ascorbic acid in the repair of corneal epithelium are not clear. In this study, it was found that ascorbic acid accelerates corneal epithelial wound healing in vivo in mouse. In addition, ascorbic acid enhanced the stemness of cultured mouse corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells (TKE2) in vitro, as shown by elevated clone formation ability and increased expression of stemness markers (especially p63 and SOX2). The contribution of ascorbic acid on the stemness enhancement was not dependent on the promotion of Akt phosphorylation, as concluded by using Akt inhibitor, nor was the stemness found to be dependent on the regulation of oxidative stress, as seen by the use of two other antioxidants (GMEE and NAC). However, ascorbic acid was found to promote extracellular matrix (ECM) production, and by using two collagen synthesis inhibitors (AzC and CIS), the increased expression of p63 and SOX2 by ascorbic acid was decreased by around 50%, showing that the increased stemness by ascorbic acid can be attributed to its regulation of ECM components. Moreover, the expression of p63 and SOX2 was elevated when TKE2 cells were cultured on collagen I coated plates, a situation that mimics the in vivo situation as collagen I is the main component in the corneal stroma. This study shows direct therapeutic benefits of ascorbic acid on corneal epithelial wound healing and provides new insights into the mechanisms involved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2017
Keywords
Stem/progenitor cell, Colony formation, Proliferation, Microenvironment, Stem cell- croenvironment interactions, Tissue regeneration
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-136201 (URN)10.1002/sctm.16-0441 (DOI)000400596200009 ()28276172 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-07-03 Created: 2017-07-03 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Chen, J., Zhang, E., Zhang, W., Liu, Z., Lu, P., Zhu, T., . . . Ouyang, H. (2017). Fos Promotes Early Stage Teno-Lineage Differentiation of Tendon Stem/Progenitor Cells in Tendon. Stem Cells Translational Medicine, 6(11), 2009-2019
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fos Promotes Early Stage Teno-Lineage Differentiation of Tendon Stem/Progenitor Cells in Tendon
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2017 (English)In: Stem Cells Translational Medicine, ISSN 2157-6564, E-ISSN 2157-6580, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 2009-2019Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stem cells have been widely used in tendon tissue engineering. The lack of refined and controlled differentiation strategy hampers the tendon repair and regeneration. This study aimed to find new effective differentiation factors for stepwise tenogenic differentiation. By microarray screening, the transcript factor Fos was found to be expressed in significantly higher amounts in postnatal Achilles tendon tissue derived from 1 day as compared with 7-days-old rats. It was further confirmed that expression of Fos decreased with time in postnatal rat Achilles tendon, which was accompanied with the decreased expression of multiply tendon markers. The expression of Fos also declined during regular in vitro cell culture, which corresponded to the loss of tendon phenotype. In a cell-sheet and a three-dimensional cell culture model, the expression of Fos was upregulated as compared with in regular cell culture, together with the recovery of tendon phenotype. In addition, significant higher expression of tendon markers was found in Fos-overexpressed tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs), and Fos knock-down gave opposite results. In situ rat tendon repair experiments found more normal tendon-like tissue formed and higher tendon markers expression at 4 weeks postimplantation of Fos-overexpressed TSPCs derived nonscaffold engineering tendon (cell-sheet), as compared with the control group. This study identifies Fos as a new marker and functional driver in the early stage teno-lineage differentiation of tendon, which paves the way for effective stepwise tendon differentiation and future tendon regeneration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143601 (URN)10.1002/sctm.15-0146 (DOI)000416214500007 ()29024580 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-04 Created: 2018-01-04 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Spang, C., Backman, L. J., Le Roux, S., Chen, J. & Danielson, P. (2017). Glutamate signaling through the NMDA receptor reduces the expression of scleraxis in plantaris tendon derived cells. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 18, Article ID 218.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Glutamate signaling through the NMDA receptor reduces the expression of scleraxis in plantaris tendon derived cells
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2017 (English)In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, article id 218Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: A body of evidence demonstrating changes to the glutaminergic system in tendinopathy has recently emerged. This hypothesis was further tested by studying the effects of glutamate on the tenocyte phenotype, and the impact of loading and exposure to glucocorticoids on the glutamate signaling machinery.

Methods: Plantaris tendon tissue and cultured plantaris tendon derived cells were immunohisto-/cytochemically stained for glutamate, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1) and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2). Primary cells were exposed to glutamate or receptor agonist NMDA. Cell death/viability was measured via LDH/MTS assays, and Western blot for cleaved caspase 3 (c-caspase 3) and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (c-PARP). Scleraxis mRNA (Scx)/protein(SCX) were analyzed by qPCR and Western blot, respectively. A FlexCell system was used to apply cyclic strain. The effect of glucocorticoids was studies by adding dexamethasone (Dex). The mRNA of the glutamate synthesizing enzymes Got1 and Gls, and NMDAR1 protein were measured. Levels of free glutamate were determined by a colorimetric assay.

Results: Immunoreactions for glutamate, VGluT2, and NMDAR1 were found in tenocytes and peritendinous cells in tissue sections and in cultured cells. Cell death was induced by high concentrations of glutamate but not by NMDA. Scleraxis mRNA/protein was down-regulated in response to NMDA/glutamate stimulation. Cyclic strain increased, and Dex decreased, Gls and Got1 mRNA expression. Free glutamate levels were lower after Dex exposure.

Conclusions: In conclusion, NMDA receptor stimulation leads to a reduction of scleraxis expression that may be involved in a change of phenotype in tendon cells. Glutamate synthesis is increased in tendon cells in response to strain and decreased by glucocorticoid stimulation. This implies that locally produced glutamate could be involved in the tissue changes observed in tendinopathy.

Keywords
Glutamate, NMDAR1, Plantaris tendon, Tendinopathy, Scleraxis
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-136330 (URN)10.1186/s12891-017-1575-4 (DOI)000402332800006 ()28545490 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-06-21 Created: 2017-06-21 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Andersson, G., Backman, L. J., Christensen, J. & Alfredson, H. (2017). Nerve distributions in insertional Achilles tendinopathy - a comparison of bone, bursae and tendon. Histology and Histopathology, 32(3), 263-270
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nerve distributions in insertional Achilles tendinopathy - a comparison of bone, bursae and tendon
2017 (English)In: Histology and Histopathology, ISSN 0213-3911, E-ISSN 1699-5848, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 263-270Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background/Aim. In a condition of pain in the Achilles tendon insertion there are multiple structures involved, such as the Achilles tendon itself, the retrocalcaneal bursa and a bony protrusion at the calcaneal tuberosity called Haglund's deformity. The innervation patterns of these structures are scarcely described, and the subcutaneous calcaneal bursa is traditionally not considered to be involved in the pathology. This study aimed at describing the innervation patterns of the four structures described above to provide a better understanding of possible origins of pain at the Achilles tendon insertion.

Methods. Biopsies were taken from 10 patients with insertional Achilles tendinopathy, which had pathological changes in the subcutaneous and retrocalcaneal bursae, a Haglund deformity and Achilles tendon tendinopathy as verified by ultrasound. The biopsies were stained using immunohistochemistry in order to delineate the innervation patterns in the structures involved in insertional Achilles tendinopathy.

Results. Immunohistochemical examinations found that the subcutaneous bursa scored the highest using a semi-quantitative evaluation of the degree of innervation when compared to the retrocalcaneal bursa, the Achilles tendon, and the calcaneal bone.

Conclusions. These findings suggest that the subcutaneous bursa, which is traditionally not included in surgical treatment, may be a clinically important factor in insertional Achilles tendinopathy.

Keywords
Insertional Achilles tendinopathy, Innervation, Subcutaneous bursa, Retrocalcaneal bursa
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130214 (URN)10.14670/HH-11-790 (DOI)000390220000006 ()
Available from: 2017-02-02 Created: 2017-01-14 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Chen, J., Zhang, W., Kelk, P., Backman, L. J. & Danielson, P. (2017). Substance P and patterned silk biomaterial stimulate periodontal ligament stem cells to form corneal stroma in a bioengineered three-dimensional model. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 8, Article ID 260.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Substance P and patterned silk biomaterial stimulate periodontal ligament stem cells to form corneal stroma in a bioengineered three-dimensional model
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2017 (English)In: Stem Cell Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 1757-6512, Vol. 8, article id 260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: We aimed to generate a bioengineered multi-lamellar human corneal stroma tissue in vitro by differentiating periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) towards keratocytes on an aligned silk membrane.

Methods: Human PDLSCs were isolated and identified. The neuropeptide substance P (SP) was added in keratocyte differentiation medium (KDM) to evaluate its effect on keratocyte differentiation of PDLSCs. PDLSCs were then seeded on patterned silk membrane and cultured with KDM and SP. Cell alignment was evaluated and the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components of corneal stroma was detected. Finally, multi-lamellar tissue was constructed in vitro by PDLSCs seeded on patterned silk membranes, which were stacked orthogonally and stimulated by KDM supplemented with SP for 18 days. Sections were prepared and subsequently stained with hematoxylin and eosin or antibodies for immunofluorescence observation of human corneal stroma-related proteins.

Results: SP promoted the expression of corneal stroma-related collagens (collagen types I, III, V, and VI) during the differentiation induced by KDM. Patterned silk membrane guided cell alignment of PDLSCs, and important ECM components of the corneal stroma were shown to be deposited by the cells. The constructed multi-lamellar tissue was found to support cells growing between every two layers and expressing the main type of collagens (collagen types I and V) and proteoglycans (lumican and keratocan) of normal human corneal stroma.

Conclusions: Multi-lamellar human corneal stroma-like tissue can be constructed successfully in vitro by PDLSCs seeded on orthogonally aligned, multi-layered silk membranes with SP supplementation, which shows potential for future corneal tissue engineering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2017
Keywords
PDLSCs, Corneal stroma, Substance P, Aligned silk membrane, Differentiation
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142239 (URN)10.1186/s13287-017-0715-y (DOI)000415012400001 ()
Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Zhang, W., Chen, J., Backman, L. J., Malm, A. D. & Danielson, P. (2017). Surface Topography and Mechanical Strain Promote Keratocyte Phenotype and Extracellular Matrix Formation in a Biomimetic 3D Corneal Model. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 6(5), Article ID UNSP 1601238.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface Topography and Mechanical Strain Promote Keratocyte Phenotype and Extracellular Matrix Formation in a Biomimetic 3D Corneal Model
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2017 (English)In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, Vol. 6, no 5, article id UNSP 1601238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The optimal functionality of the native corneal stroma is mainly dependent on the well-ordered arrangement of extracellular matrix (ECM) and the pressurized structure. In order to develop an in vitro corneal model, it is crucial to mimic the in vivo microenvironment of the cornea. In this study, the influence of surface topography and mechanical strain on keratocyte phenotype and ECM formation within a biomimetic 3D corneal model is studied. By modifying the surface topography of materials, it is found that patterned silk fibroin film with 600 grooves mm(-1) optimally supports cell alignment and ECM arrangement. Furthermore, treatment with 3% dome-shaped mechanical strain, which resembles the shape and mechanics of native cornea, significantly enhances the expression of keratocyte markers as compared to flat-shaped strain. Accordingly, a biomimetic 3D corneal model, in the form of a collagen-modified, silk fibroin-patterned construct subjected to 3% dome-shaped strain, is created. Compared to traditional 2D cultures, it supports a significantly higher expression of keratocyte and ECM markers, and in conclusion better maintains keratocyte phenotype, alignment, and fusiform cell shape. Therefore, the novel biomimetic 3D corneal model developed in this study serves as a useful in vitro 3D culture model to improve current 2D cultures for corneal studies.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-134745 (URN)10.1002/adhm.201601238 (DOI)000399716300010 ()
Available from: 2017-05-11 Created: 2017-05-11 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Fong, G., Backman, L. J., Alfredson, H., Scott, A. & Danielson, P. (2017). The Effects of Substance P and Acetylcholine on Human Tenocyte Proliferation Converge Mechanistically via TGF-β1. PLoS ONE, 12(3), Article ID e0174101.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effects of Substance P and Acetylcholine on Human Tenocyte Proliferation Converge Mechanistically via TGF-β1
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2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 3, article id e0174101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous in vitro studies on human tendon cells (tenocytes) have demonstrated that the exogenous administration of substance P (SP) and acetylcholine (ACh) independently result in tenocyte proliferation, which is a prominent feature of tendinosis. Interestingly, the possible link between SP and ACh has not yet been explored in human tenocytes. Recent studies in other cell types demonstrate that both SP and ACh independently upregulate TGF-β1 expression via their respective receptors, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) and muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs). Furthermore, TGF-β1 has been shown to downregulate NK-1R expression in human keratocytes. The aim of this study was to examine if TGF-β1 is the intermediary player involved in mediating the proliferative pathway shared by SP and ACh in human tenocytes. The results showed that exogenous administration of SP and ACh both caused significant upregulation of TGF-β1 at the mRNA and protein levels. Exposing cells to TGF-β1 resulted in increased cell viability of tenocytes, which was blocked in the presence of the TGFβRI/II kinase inhibitor. In addition, the proliferative effects of SP and ACh on tenocytes were reduced by the TGFβRI/II kinase inhibitor; this supports the hypothesis that the proliferative effects of these signal substances are mediated via the TGF-β axis. Furthermore, exogenous TGF-β1 downregulated NK-1R and mAChRs expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, and these effects were negated by simultaneous exposure to the TGFβRI/II kinase inhibitor, suggesting a negative feedback loop. In conclusion, the results indicate that TGF-β1 is the intermediary player through which the proliferative actions of both SP and ACh converge mechanistically.

National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131396 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0174101 (DOI)000396318300126 ()
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Originally published in manuscript form

Available from: 2017-02-13 Created: 2017-02-13 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
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