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Quam, Mikkel Brandon
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 25) Show all publications
Kien, V. D., Minh, H. V., Ngoc, N. B., Phuong, T. B., Ngan, T. T. & Quam, M. B. (2017). Inequalities in Household Catastrophic Health Expenditure and Impoverishment Associated With Noncommunicable Diseases in Chi Linh, Hai Duong, Vietnam. Asia-Pacific journal of public health, 29, 35S-44S
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inequalities in Household Catastrophic Health Expenditure and Impoverishment Associated With Noncommunicable Diseases in Chi Linh, Hai Duong, Vietnam
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2017 (English)In: Asia-Pacific journal of public health, ISSN 1010-5395, Vol. 29, p. 35S-44SArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A costly modern-day double burden, the expenses of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are becoming a devastating epidemic. The World Health Organization estimates $7 trillion in economic losses from NCDs in 2011-2025. Although regarded as affluent diseases, the burden of NCDs is shifting into poorer groups. In this study, we assessed the socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment associated with NCDs in Northern Vietnam. We also identified associated factors for catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment. Households self-reporting NCD diagnoses had the highest association with both catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment, followed by those in urban areas. Such households were likely poorer according to our calculations estimating socioeconomic inequalities. Households with at least 1 member older than 60 years were also more likely to suffer catastrophic health expenditures. These findings suggest that targeted policy to prevent or subsidize care for NCDs could prevent catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment among those already most disadvantaged.

Keywords
inequality, noncommunicable diseases, catastrophic health expenditure, impoverishment, Vietnam
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138037 (URN)10.1177/1010539517712919 (DOI)000405878500006 ()
Available from: 2017-08-14 Created: 2017-08-14 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Kien, V. D., Van Minh, H., Giang, K. B., Mai, V. Q., Tuan, N. T. & Quam, M. B. (2017). Trends in childhood measles vaccination highlight socioeconomic inequalities in Vietnam. International Journal of Public Health, 62, S41-S49
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trends in childhood measles vaccination highlight socioeconomic inequalities in Vietnam
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 62, p. S41-S49Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in measles vaccine coverage rates and their association with socioeconomic characteristics among children from age 12 to 23 months in Vietnam from the year 2000 to 2014.

METHODS: Data were drawn from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in years 2000, 2006, 2011, and 2014. Concentration indices were used to determine the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in measles vaccine coverage. Associations between measles vaccine coverage and relevant social factors were assessed using logistic regression.

RESULTS: Socioeconomic inequalities in measles vaccine coverage rates decreased during 2000-2014. Children belonging to ethnic minority groups, having mothers with lower education, and belonging to the poorest group were less likely to receive measles vaccine; although, their vaccine coverage rates did increase with time. Measles vaccine coverage declined among children of mothers with more education and belonging to the wealthiest socioeconomic group.

CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the social factors influencing adherence to recommend childhood vaccination protocols is essential. Attempts to regain and retain herd immunity must be guided by an understanding of these social factors if they are to succeed.

Keywords
Socioeconomic inequality, Measles, Vaccine coverage, Children, Vietnam
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126979 (URN)10.1007/s00038-016-0899-4 (DOI)000396886800007 ()27695901 (PubMedID)
Note

Supplement 1: Health and social determinants of health in Vietnam: local evidence and international implications’

Available from: 2016-10-24 Created: 2016-10-24 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Liyanage, P., Tissera, H., Sewe, M., Quam, M., Amarasinghe, A., Palihawadana, P., . . . Rocklöv, J. (2016). A Spatial Hierarchical Analysis of the Temporal Influences of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Weather on Dengue in Kalutara District, Sri Lanka. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(11), Article ID 1087.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Spatial Hierarchical Analysis of the Temporal Influences of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Weather on Dengue in Kalutara District, Sri Lanka
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2016 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 13, no 11, article id 1087Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dengue is the major public health burden in Sri Lanka. Kalutara is one of the highly affected districts. Understanding the drivers of dengue is vital in controlling and preventing the disease spread. This study focuses on quantifying the influence of weather variability on dengue incidence over 10 Medical Officer of Health (MOH) divisions of Kalutara district. Weekly weather variables and data on dengue notifications, measured at 10 MOH divisions in Kalutara from 2009 to 2013, were retrieved and analysed. Distributed lag non-linear model and hierarchical-analysis was used to estimate division specific and overall relationships between weather and dengue. We incorporated lag times up to 12 weeks and evaluated models based on the Akaike Information Criterion. Consistent exposure-response patterns between different geographical locations were observed for rainfall, showing increasing relative risk of dengue with increasing rainfall from 50 mm per week. The strongest association with dengue risk centred around 6 to 10 weeks following rainfalls of more than 300 mm per week. With increasing temperature, the overall relative risk of dengue increased steadily starting from a lag of 4 weeks. We found similarly a strong link between the Oceanic Niño Index to weather patterns in the district in Sri Lanka and to dengue at a longer latency time confirming these relationships. Part of the influences of rainfall and temperature can be seen as mediator in the causal pathway of the Ocean Niño Index, which may allow a longer lead time for early warning signals. Our findings describe a strong association between weather, El Niño-Southern Oscillation and dengue in Sri Lanka.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2016
Keywords
dengue, vector control, Oceanic Niño Index, rainfall, temperature, weather, climate
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127286 (URN)10.3390/ijerph13111087 (DOI)000389571300046 ()
Projects
DengueTools ResearchLinks
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Available from: 2016-11-04 Created: 2016-11-04 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Rocklöv, J., Quam, M. B., Sudre, B., German, M., Kraemer, M. U. .., Brady, O., . . . Khan, K. (2016). Assessing Seasonal Risks for the Introduction and Mosquito-borne Spread of Zika Virus in Europe. EBioMedicine, 9, 250-256
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing Seasonal Risks for the Introduction and Mosquito-borne Spread of Zika Virus in Europe
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2016 (English)In: EBioMedicine, ISSN 0360-0637, E-ISSN 2352-3964, Vol. 9, p. 250-256Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The explosive Zika virus epidemic in the Americas is amplifying spread of this emerging pathogen into previously unaffected regions of the world, including Europe (Gulland, 2016), where local populations are immunologically naïve. As summertime approaches in the northern hemisphere, Aedes mosquitoes in Europe may find suitable climatic conditions to acquire and subsequently transmit Zika virus from viremic travellers to local populations. While Aedes albopictus has proven to be a vector for the transmission of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Europe (Delisle et al., 2015; ECDC, n.d.) there is growing experimental and ecological evidence to suggest that it may also be competent for Zika virus(Chouin-Carneiro et al., 2016; Grard et al., 2014; Li et al., 2012; Wong et al., 2013). Here we analyze and overlay the monthly flows of airline travellers arriving into European cities from Zika affected areas across the Americas, the predicted monthly estimates of the basic reproduction number of Zika virus in areas where Aedes mosquito populations reside in Europe (Aedes aegypti in Madeira, Portugal and Ae. albopictus in continental Europe), and human populations living within areas where mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus may be possible. We highlight specific geographic areas and timing of risk for Zika virus introduction and possible spread within Europe to inform the efficient use of human disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control, and public education resources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
ZIKV, Zika, Air travel, Globalization, mosquito, Climate, Aedes
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-122748 (URN)10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.06.009 (DOI)000381622500036 ()
Available from: 2016-06-21 Created: 2016-06-21 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Liu-Helmersson, J., Quam, M., Wilder-Smith, A., Stenlund, H., Ebi, K., Massad, E. & Rocklöv, J. (2016). Climate change and Aedes vectors: 21st century projections for dengue transmission in Europe. EBioMedicine, 7, 267-277
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate change and Aedes vectors: 21st century projections for dengue transmission in Europe
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2016 (English)In: EBioMedicine, ISSN 0360-0637, E-ISSN 2352-3964, Vol. 7, p. 267-277Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Warming temperatures may increase the geographic spread of vector-borne diseases into temperate areas. Although a tropical mosquito-borne viral disease, a dengue outbreak occurred in Madeira, Portugal, in 2012; the first in Europe since 1920s. This outbreak emphasizes the potential for dengue re-emergence in Europe given changing climates. We present estimates of dengue epidemic potential using vectorial capacity (VC) based on historic and projected temperature (1901–2099). VC indicates the vectors' ability to spread disease among humans. We calculated temperature-dependent VC for Europe, highlighting 10 European cities and three non-European reference cities. Compared with the tropics, Europe shows pronounced seasonality and geographical heterogeneity. Although low, VC during summer is currently sufficient for dengue outbreaks in Southern Europe to commence–if sufficient vector populations (either Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) were active and virus were introduced. Under various climate change scenarios, the seasonal peak and time window for dengue epidemic potential increases during the 21st century. Our study maps dengue epidemic potential in Europe and identifies seasonal time windows when major cities are most conducive for dengue transmission from 1901 to 2099. Our findings illustrate, that besides vector control, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions crucially reduces the future epidemic potential of dengue in Europe.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Dengue, Vectorial capacity, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Temperature, Climate change
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118643 (URN)10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.03.046 (DOI)000377459700039 ()27322480 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 282589
Note

This study is part of the DengueTools project funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement no. 282589.

Originally included in thesis 1 as submitted manuscript.

Available from: 2016-03-28 Created: 2016-03-28 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Quam, M., Kien, T. M., Hanh, T. T., Long, T. K., Rocklov, J., Quyen, N. H., . . . Minh, H. V. (2016). Climate Services For Infectious Disease Control: A Nexus Between Public Health Preparedness and Sustainable Development, Lessons Learned From Long-Term Multi Site Time Series Analysis of Dengue Fever in Vietnam. In: : . Paper presented at International Conference on Public Health: Solo, Indonesia.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate Services For Infectious Disease Control: A Nexus Between Public Health Preparedness and Sustainable Development, Lessons Learned From Long-Term Multi Site Time Series Analysis of Dengue Fever in Vietnam
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Climate Services provide valuable information for making actionable, data-driven decisions to protect public health in a myriad of manners. There is mounting global evidence of the looming threat climate change poses to human health, including the variability and intensity of infectious disease outbreaks in Vietnam and other low-resource and developing areas. In light of the Sustainable Development Goals, lessons learned from time-series analysis may inform public health preparedness strategies for sustainable urban development in terms of dengue epidemiology, surveillance, control, and early warnings.

Subjects and Methods: Nearly 40 years of spatial and temporal (times-series) dataset of meteorological records, including rainfall, temperature, and humidity (among others) which can be predictors of dengue were assembled for all provinces of Vietnam and associated with case data reported to General Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health of Vietnam during the same period. Time series of climate and disease variables was analyzed for trends and changing patterns of those variables over time. The time-series statistical analysis methods sought to identify spatial (when possible) and temporal trends, seasonality, cyclical patterns of disease, and to discover anomalous outbreak events, which departed from expected epidemiological patterns and corresponding meteorological phenomena, such as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

Results: Analysis yielded largely conserved finding with other locations in South East Asia for larger Outbreak years and events such as ENSO. Seasonality, trend, and cycle in many provinces were persistent throughout the dataset, indicating strong potential for Climate Services to be used in dengue early warnings.

Conclusion: Even public health practitioners, having adequate tools for dengue control available must plan and budget vector control and patient treatment efforts well in advance of large scale dengue epidemics to curb such events overall morbidity and mortality. Similarly, urban and sustainable development in Vietnam might benefit from evidence linking climate change, and ill-health events spatially and temporally in future planning. Long term analysis of dengue case data and meteorological records, provided a cases study evidence for emerging opportunities that on how refined climate services could contribute to protection of public health.

Keywords
Climate Services, Dengue, Time Series Analysis, Modeling, El Niño
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127298 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Public Health: Solo, Indonesia
Projects
ResearchLinks
Available from: 2016-11-06 Created: 2016-11-06 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Quam, M. B., Sessions, O., Kamaraj, U. S., Rocklöv, J. & Wilder-Smith, A. (2016). Dissecting Japan's Dengue Outbreak in 2014. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 94(2), 409-412
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dissecting Japan's Dengue Outbreak in 2014
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2016 (English)In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, ISSN 0002-9637, E-ISSN 1476-1645, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 409-412Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite Japan's temperate climate, a dengue outbreak occurred in Tokyo for the first time in over 70 years in 2014. We dissected this dengue outbreak based on phylogenetic analysis, travel interconnectivity, and environmental drivers for dengue epidemics. Comparing the available dengue virus 1 (DENV1) E gene sequence from this outbreak with 3,282 unique DENV1 sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information suggested that the DENV might have been imported from China, Indonesia, Singapore, or Vietnam. With travelers arriving into Japan, Guangzhou (China) may have been the source of DENV introduction, given that Guangzhou also reported a large-scale dengue outbreak in 2014. Coinciding with the 2014 outbreak, Tokyo's climate conditions permitted the amplification of Aedes vectors and the annual peak of vectorial capacity. Given suitable vectors and climate conditions in addition to increasing interconnectivity with endemic areas of Asia, Tokyo's 2014 outbreak did not come as a surprise and may foretell more to come.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-115790 (URN)10.4269/ajtmh.15-0468 (DOI)000369465500028 ()26711518 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 282589
Available from: 2016-02-04 Created: 2016-02-04 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Quam, M. & Wilder-Smith, A. (2016). Estimated global exportations of Zika virus infections via travellers from Brazil from 2014 to 2015. Journal of Travel Medicine, 23(6), Article ID taw059.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimated global exportations of Zika virus infections via travellers from Brazil from 2014 to 2015
2016 (English)In: Journal of Travel Medicine, ISSN 1195-1982, E-ISSN 1708-8305, Vol. 23, no 6, article id taw059Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ongoing Zika pandemic in Latin America illustrates a potential source for further globalized spread. Here, we assessed global travel-related Zika virus exportations from Brazil during the initial year of the epidemic. Similar to subsequent national notifications, we estimated 584-1786 exported Zika cases from Brazil occurred September 2014-August 2015.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2016
Keywords
Zika, Brazil, air passengers, travel, exportation
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126980 (URN)10.1093/jtm/taw059 (DOI)000393066100005 ()27601533 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-10-24 Created: 2016-10-24 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Quam, M. B. (2016). Imported infections’ importance: global change driving Dengue dynamics. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Imported infections’ importance: global change driving Dengue dynamics
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Vikten av importerade infektioner : kan globala förändringar förklara Dengue utbrott?
Abstract [en]

Background Dengue is a significant problem of international health concern. According to the World Health Organization in 2012, globally, dengue is “the most important mosquito borne viral disease” with incidence 30 higher than it had been 50 years ago. While most of the burden of disease associated with dengue is located in areas with a tropical and sub-tropical climate, increasing evidence suggests temperate areas are also at risk. Considering the recent introduction of relevant mosquito vectors into Southern Europe, and increasing numbers of imported dengue via travelers, Europe and other temperate areas may be increasingly at risk for dengue emergence, establishment and local transmission in the foreseeable future.

Methods Recent dengue emergence in Madeira and reemergence in Tokyo underline the hypothesis that passenger air-travel can be an important conduit for the importation of vector-borne disease leading to emergence in naïve areas climatically suitable for dengue transmission, including parts of Europe. Combining information on travel with virus genetic similarity was useful in discerning likely pathways of for the importation of infections. Generalizing information learned from outbreaks in Tokyo and Madeira with global epidemic intelligence, global travel networks, and climate change projections, leads to more refined understanding of the magnitude of dengue infectious imported into temperate areas and these virus introduction events’ potential implications for seeding epidemics in the 21st century.

Results While compared to total travel, imported dengue events and epidemics of dengue outside the tropics are rare, our combined evidence and modeled estimations suggest strongly that epidemic dengue emergence in temperate areas is possible and will continue to increase. We found that global change dynamics including warming temperatures in the much of the northern hemisphere and increasing passenger interconnectivity between areas endemic for dengue and dengue free areas are key mechanisms partly explaining these unprecedented epidemiological transitions.

Conclusion While we calibrated our models on information known about dengue, many elements of the methods and conclusions may increase understanding of the potentially global implications for imported infections of other climate-sensitive infectious diseases’ that may have similar parameters. During 2016 and the years to come, techniques developed in this doctoral research will contribute to models used in risk analysis for vector-borne diseases of interest, including the increasing important potential for imported Chikungunya and Zika viruses into a variety of unexposed areas. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2016. p. 99
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1793
Keywords
Dengue, Zika, Vector-borne Disease, Aedes, Global Change, Climate Change, Viral Evolution, Phylogenetics, Travel, Interconnectivity, Disease Modeling, Madeira, Italy, Japan, Europe
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118645 (URN)978-91-7601-443-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-22, Room 135, Building 9A, Northlands University Hospital (sal 135, byggnad 9A, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus), Umeå, Sweden, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 282589
Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-28 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lopez, L. F., Amaku, M., Coutinho, F. A., Quam, M., Burattini, M. N., Struchiner, C. J., . . . Massad, E. (2016). Modeling Importations and Exportations of Infectious Diseases via Travelers. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 78(2), 185-209
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling Importations and Exportations of Infectious Diseases via Travelers
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2016 (English)In: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, ISSN 0092-8240, E-ISSN 1522-9602, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 185-209Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper is an attempt to estimate the risk of infection importation and exportation by travelers. Two countries are considered: one disease-free country and one visited or source country with a running endemic or epidemic infectious disease. Two models are considered. In the first model (disease importation), susceptible individuals travel from their disease-free home country to the endemic country and come back after some weeks. The risk of infection spreading in their home country is then estimated supposing the visitors are submitted to the same force of infection as the local population but do not contribute to it. In the second model (disease exportation), it is calculated the probability that an individual from the endemic (or epidemic) country travels to a disease-free country in the condition of latent infected and eventually introduces the infection there. The input of both models is the force of infection at the visited/source country, assumed known. The models are deterministic, but a preliminary stochastic formulation is presented as an appendix. The models are exemplified with two distinct real situations: the risk of dengue importation from Thailand to Europe and the risk of Ebola exportation from Liberia to the USA.

Keywords
Infectious disease importation, Infectious disease exportation, Travelers, Modeling, Risk
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-115788 (URN)10.1007/s11538-015-0135-z (DOI)000371244900001 ()26763222 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-02-04 Created: 2016-02-04 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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