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Palm, Torulf
Publications (10 of 37) Show all publications
Boesen, J., Lithner, J. & Palm, T. (2018). Assessing mathematical competencies: an analysis of Swedish national mathematics tests. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 62(1), 109-124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing mathematical competencies: an analysis of Swedish national mathematics tests
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 109-124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Internationally, education reform has been directed towards describing educational goals that go beyond topic and content descriptions. The idea of mathematical competencies describes such goals. National tests have been seen as one way of communicating these goals and influence teaching. The present study analyses Swedish national tests in mathematics, and seeks evidence about the extent to which they represent these competencies and may play a role in reforming teaching. The results show that the national tests assess all competencies. However, the study also shows a limited focus on the competencies’ interpretation and evaluation aspects. Thus, the tests do not fully capture the complex nature of the competencies. This may cloud the reform message and restrict the possibilities for the tests to function as levers for reform.

Keywords
assessment, Mathematical competency, national tests, reform
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
didactics of mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133055 (URN)10.1080/00313831.2016.1212256 (DOI)000417602100007 ()2-s2.0-84983339210 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-03-30 Created: 2017-03-30 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Andersson, C. & Palm, T. (2018). Reasons for teachers' successful development of a formative assessment practice through professional development: a motivation perspective. Assessment in education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 25(6), 576-597
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reasons for teachers' successful development of a formative assessment practice through professional development: a motivation perspective
2018 (English)In: Assessment in education: Principles, Policy & Practice, ISSN 0969-594X, E-ISSN 1465-329X, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 576-597Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Formative assessment has been shown to have the potential to significantly enhance student achievement, but a strong research base about how to support teachers to implement such a practice is lacking. This is particularly so for a conceptualisation of formative assessment as a unity of integrated formative assessment strategies. The aim of this study is to investigate why the mathematics teachers who participated in a successful professional development programme in formative assessment developed their formative classroom practice to such an extent that it had a significant impact on student achievement. An analysis of data from teacher questionnaires and interviews shows that the teachers' actions can be explained by expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. Characteristics of the professional development programme that the teachers experienced as important for their development of a formative classroom practice are identified, and the characteristics' affordances for the development of the teachers' expectancy and value beliefs are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
Formative assessment, assessment for learning, professional development, motivation, expectancy-value theory
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
didactics of mathematics; educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102340 (URN)10.1080/0969594X.2018.1430685 (DOI)000457093000003 ()
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form

Available from: 2015-04-23 Created: 2015-04-23 Last updated: 2019-02-20Bibliographically approved
Palm, T., Andersson, C., Boström, E. & Vingsle, C. (2017). A research program for studying the development and impact of formative assessment. In: Johan Häggström, Eva Norén, Jorryt van Bommel, Judy Sayers, Ola Helenius, Yvonne Liljekvist (Ed.), ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities: Proceedings of MADIF 10 The tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 26–27, 2016. Göteborg: SMDF. Paper presented at MADIF 10 The tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education (pp. 135-144). Göteborg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A research program for studying the development and impact of formative assessment
2017 (English)In: ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities: Proceedings of MADIF 10 The tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 26–27, 2016. Göteborg: SMDF / [ed] Johan Häggström, Eva Norén, Jorryt van Bommel, Judy Sayers, Ola Helenius, Yvonne Liljekvist, Göteborg, 2017, p. 135-144Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper outlines the research program for the formative assessment group at Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre. The program was presented in a symposium at the conference, and focuses on the study of the development and impact of formative assessment. The main purpose of the research carried out by the research group is to provide research results that will be used outside the research community for educational decisions on systemic level, or as support for improved teaching and learning at classroom level. The paper outlines the fundamental ideas of the program, current studies, and examples of completed studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: , 2017
Series
Skrifter från svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning, ISSN 1651-3274
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
didactics of mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133184 (URN)
Conference
MADIF 10 The tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education
Available from: 2017-04-01 Created: 2017-04-01 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Palm, T., Andersson, C., Boström, E. & Vingsle, C. (2017). A review of the impact of formative assessment on student achievement in mathematics. Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, 22(3), 25-50
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of the impact of formative assessment on student achievement in mathematics
2017 (English)In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 25-50Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research reviews show that formative assessment has great potential for raising student achievement in general, but there is a need for reviews of formative assessment in individual subjects. This review examines its impact on student achievement in mathematics through an assessment of scientific journal articles published between 2005 and 2014 and indexed in Web of science. Through the use of search terms such as ”formative assessment”, ”assessment for learning” and ”self-regulated learning”, different approaches to formative assessment were included in the review. While varying in approach, they all share the defining characteristic of formative assessment: agents in the classroom collect evidence of student learning and, based on this information, adjust their teaching and/or learning. The results show positive relations between student achievement in mathematics and the ways of doing formative assessment included in the review.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning, 2017
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
didactics of mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133183 (URN)
Available from: 2017-04-01 Created: 2017-04-01 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Andersson, C. & Palm, T. (2017). Characteristics of improved formative assessment practice. Education Inquiry, 8(2), 104-122
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics of improved formative assessment practice
2017 (English)In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 104-122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An earlier study showed that the changes in teachers’ classroom practice, after participation in a professional development program in formative assessment, significantly improved student achievement in mathematics. The teachers in that study were a random selection of Year 4 teachers in a Swedish mid-sized municipality. In the present study, we analyse and describe the characteristics of these changes in classroom practice, which were based on a combination of various strategies for formative assessment. Data were collected through teacher interviews and classroom observations. The teachers implemented many new activities that strengthened a formative classroom practice based on identifying student learning needs and modifying the teaching and learning accordingly. The characteristics of the changes the teachers made reveal the complexity of this formative assessment practice and why such developments of practice are likely to require major changes in most teachers’ practices. We also discuss how such changes in practice afford new learning opportunities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2017
Keywords
Assessment for learning, formative classroom practice, mathematics, teaching, teacher change
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
didactics of mathematics; educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130287 (URN)10.1080/20004508.2016.1275185 (DOI)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form/as oral presentation with published abstract titled "The characteristics of formative assessment that enhance student achievement in mathematics"

Available from: 2017-01-16 Created: 2017-01-16 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
Andersson, C., Boström, E. & Palm, T. (2017). Formative assessment in Swedish mathematics classroom practice. Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, NOMAD: [Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education], 22(1), 5-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formative assessment in Swedish mathematics classroom practice
2017 (English)In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, NOMAD: [Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education], ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research shows that substantial learning gains are possible through the use of formative assessment. However, little is known about Swedish mathematics teachers’ use of formative assessment, and thus about the possible value of professional development programmes. This study uses teacher interviews and classroom observations to examine the classroom practice of 38 randomly selected primary and secondary school teachers in a mid-sized Swedish municipality. A framework of formative assessment comprising one big idea and five Key strategies structured the analysis. The study identifies characteristics of current formative assessment practices. The results show that the teachers do use a variety of formative assessment activities, but also that there is much room for development towards a more effective formative classroom practice. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning (NCM), 2017
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
didactics of mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-132697 (URN)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form

Available from: 2017-03-20 Created: 2017-03-20 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
Andersson, C. & Palm, T. (2017). The impact of formative assessment on student achievement: a study of the effects of changes in classroom practice after a comprehensive professional development programme. Learning and instruction, 49, 92-102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of formative assessment on student achievement: a study of the effects of changes in classroom practice after a comprehensive professional development programme
2017 (English)In: Learning and instruction, ISSN 0959-4752, E-ISSN 1873-3263, Vol. 49, p. 92-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A random sample of 22 Year 4 teachers in mathematics from a middle-sized Swedish municipality participated in a teacher professional development programme in formative assessment. The content ofthe programme was formative assessment conceptualised as a unity of different, integrated strategies.The study examines the effects on student achievement of the changes in the teachers’ formative classroom practice that followed the professional development input. Results show that, after controlling for pretest scores, the classes in the intervention group significantly out performed the classes in thecontrol group in a posttest administered one school year after the end of the programme (p = 0.036, d = 0.66). The study contributes to the understanding of under-studied areas of the impact of professional development in formative assessment, and the impact of teacher practice based on formative assessment conceptualised as a unity of different formative assessment strategies.

Keywords
assessment for learning, formative assessment, mathematics, primary school, professional development, student achievement
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
didactics of mathematics; educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102335 (URN)10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.12.006 (DOI)000403117400009 ()
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
Available from: 2015-04-23 Created: 2015-04-23 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Boström, E. & Palm, T. (2015). A professional development program in formative assessment for mathematics teachers: Which changes did the teachers do and why?. In: Krainer, K Vondrova, N (Ed.), Proceedings of the ninth conference of the European Society for Research in mathematics education (CERME9): . Paper presented at 9th congress of European Reasearch in Mathematics Education, Prague, February 4-8, 2015 (pp. 2947-2948). Prague: Charles University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A professional development program in formative assessment for mathematics teachers: Which changes did the teachers do and why?
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the ninth conference of the European Society for Research in mathematics education (CERME9) / [ed] Krainer, K Vondrova, N, Prague: Charles University , 2015, p. 2947-2948Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study is part of a larger research project about a comprehensive professional development program (PDP) in formative assessment for mathematics teachers. The aim of the study is to investigate in which ways the teachers' classroom practice change, with respect to formative assessment, after participating in the PDP, and which some of the reasons may be for these changes. Fourteen randomly chosen grade-seven mathematics teachers participated in the PDP. The teachers were interviewed and their classroom practices observed, before and after the PDP. They also answered two questionnaires about the PDP. Preliminary results show that all teachers were motivated to change and did change their practice, but to varying degrees.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Prague: Charles University, 2015
Keywords
Professional development, formative assessment, mathematics education
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163262 (URN)000466853904032 ()978-80-7290-844-8 (ISBN)
Conference
9th congress of European Reasearch in Mathematics Education, Prague, February 4-8, 2015
Available from: 2019-09-18 Created: 2019-09-18 Last updated: 2019-09-18Bibliographically approved
Ryve, A., Nilsson, P., Palm, T., Van Steenbrugge, H., Andersson, C., Bergwall, A., . . . Vingsle, L. (2015). Kartläggning av forskning om formativ bedömning, klassrumsundervisning och läromedel i matematik: Delrapport från skolforsk-projektet.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kartläggning av forskning om formativ bedömning, klassrumsundervisning och läromedel i matematik: Delrapport från skolforsk-projektet
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2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The current project focuses on mathematics education, and is partitioned into three subprojects mapping research on formative assessment, classroom teaching, and curriculum programs in mathematics. The rationale for focusing on these three areas is that they are all highly relevant for understanding and improving Swedish mathematics education and students’ knowing of mathematics. Therefore, the aim of the project is to map research on formative assessment, classroom teaching, and curriculum programs in mathematics education.

The methodology of the literature review has been inspired by Gough, Oliver, and Thomas (2013), and we have focused on the mapping on journal articles published on Web of Science (WoS).

The results from the sample of articles on formative assessment show that strategies of formative assessment in mathematics are positively correlated to students’ performance in mathematics with medium and large effect sizes. However, based on the current mapping it is difficult to specify aspects of how the formative strategies are to be implemented in order to promote students’ knowing of mathematics.

Despite the change in perspective of what constitutes knowledge in mathematics to also include reasoning, problem-solving and communication, the map shows that research is mainly focused on examining teaching methods and their effects on students’ skills in mathematics. A closer examination of the studies that do focus on teaching for supporting students in developing competencies like reasoning and problem-solving shows that connections between and comparison of students’ solutions, as well as teachers’ ways of asking questions to support students in explaining their solutions clearly and in detail, are important for students’ learning of these competencies.

A central finding stemming from this review of curriculum programs is the complexity involved in how the programs can support teachers in establishing classroom practices. Curriculum resources and teacher resources, as well as other influencing factors, impact the quality of instruction, and studies have begun to point out how curriculum resources and teacher resources uniquely and jointly impact classroom practices. Multiple research articles have expressed the need for teacher support in implementing curriculum programs, by means of professional development, teacher education and support provided by the curriculum programs themselves. Interesting in this regard is the state of the research field concerning the design of educative curriculum programs, and how teachers make use of such support. Studies have proposed design approaches, regarding both the actual development of educative curriculum programs as well as how to use them in teacher education to support prospective teachers’ development of knowledge. Further, although research has revealed that it is important to prepare for teaching in certain ways, we found very little research that explicitly analyzed how teachers actually prepare for teaching a mathematics lesson.

Limitations of the project include: (1) the lack of searching in potentially relevant databases, (2) the fact that a relatively small proportion of articles found in the search have been coded, (3) that we have not engaged in deep considerations as to whether and in what ways results from international research are relevant in the Swedish context, and (4) that we therefore have not been able to synthesize the results of the study. In relation to the Swedish context (Hemmi & Ryve, 2014; Boesen et al., 2014), international research (Hattie, 2009; Smith & Stein, 2011), and the current project’s findings, we recommend that Skolforskningsinstitutet focus on two aspects of great importance for developing students’ knowing of mathematics. First, Skolforskningsinstitutet should synthesize research that supports actors, such as teachers and principals, in acting within school practices. In the case of teachers, support is needed to engage them in actively anticipating students’ thinking, using curriculum programs effectively, introducing mathematical content, acting in group work, formatively assessing students’ learning, and orchestrating whole-class mathematical discussions. Secondly, actors within school practices need support not only in initiating and implementing developments but also in institutionalizing such developments. Skolforskningsinstitutet should specify the kind of support needed in order to ensure that material, routines, competences, and organizations become integral and permanent features of Swedish school practice. 

Publisher
p. 229
Series
Vetenskapsrådets rapporter
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
didactics of mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-122607 (URN)ISBN 978-91-7307-274-8 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-06-20 Created: 2016-06-20 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Boesen, J., Helenius, O., Bergqvist, E., Bergqvist, T., Lithner, J., Palm, T. & Palmberg, B. (2014). Developing mathematical competence: from the intended to the enacted curriculum. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 33, 72-87
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing mathematical competence: from the intended to the enacted curriculum
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 33, p. 72-87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the impact of a national reform in Sweden introducing mathematical competency goals. Data were gathered through interviews, classroom observations, and online surveys with nearly 200 teachers. Contrasting to most studies of this size, qualitative analyses were conducted. The results show that teachers are positive to the message, but the combination of using national curriculum documents and national tests to convey the reform message has not been sufficient for teachers to identify the meaning of the message. Thus, the teachers have not acquired the functional knowledge of the competence message required to modify their teaching in alignment with the reform. The results indicate that for complex reform messages, such as the competency message, to have intended impact on classroom practice, special attention needs to be put on the clarity of the message. To have high-stakes tests, for example, does not alone seem to be sufficient. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
JAI Press Ltd, 2014
Keywords
Mathematical competence Interpretation of competency goals Reform Learning opportunities, Classroom observation, Teacher interviews, Conceptual belief change
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
didactics of mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-82884 (URN)10.1016/j.jmathb.2013.10.001 (DOI)
Projects
Nationella matematikprov som katalysator för implementering av utbildningsreformer
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2007-375-50893-28
Available from: 2013-11-12 Created: 2013-11-12 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
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