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Öhlund, Inger
Publications (10 of 37) Show all publications
McClorry, S., Slupsky, C. M., Lind, T., Akeson, P. K., Hernell, O. & Öhlund, I. (2020). Effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in Swedish children may be negatively impacted by BMI and serum fructose. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 75, Article ID 108251.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in Swedish children may be negatively impacted by BMI and serum fructose
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, ISSN 0955-2863, E-ISSN 1873-4847, Vol. 75, article id 108251Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In regions where sunlight exposure is limited, dietary vitamin D intake becomes important for maintaining status. However, Swedish children have been shown to have deficient or marginal status during the winter months even if the recommended dietary intake is met. Since low vitamin D status has been associated with several disease states, this study investigated the metabolic changes associated with improved vitamin D status due to supplementation.

During the 3 winter months, 5-7-year-old children (n=170) in northern (limed, 63 degrees N) and southern (Malmo, 55 degrees N) Sweden were supplemented daily with 2 (placebo), 10 or 25 mu g of vitamin D. BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ), S-25(OH)D concentrations, insulin concentrations and the serum metabolome were assessed at baseline and follow-up.

S-25(OH)D concentrations increased significantly in both supplementation groups (P<.001). Only arginine and isopropanol concentrations exhibited significant associations with improvements in S-25(OH)D. Furthermore, the extent to which S-25(OH)D increased was correlated with a combination of baseline BAZ and the change in serum fructose concentrations from baseline to follow up (P=.012). In particular, the change in S-25(OH)D concentrations was negatively correlated (P=.030) with the change in fructose concentrations for subjects with BAZ >= 0 and consuming at least 20 mu g vitamin D daily. These results suggest that although the metabolic changes associated with improved vitamin D status are small, the effectiveness of dietary supplementation may be influenced by serum fructose concentrations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
25-Hydroxy-vitamin D, Fructose, Metabolomics, Children, H-1 NMR
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-167351 (URN)10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.108251 (DOI)000504801200003 ()31707286 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-02-04 Created: 2020-02-04 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Hansson, L., Lind, T., Wiklund, U., Öhlund, I. & Rydberg, A. (2019). Fluid restriction negatively affects energy intake and growth in very low birthweight infants with haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus. Acta Paediatrica, 108(11), 1985-1992
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluid restriction negatively affects energy intake and growth in very low birthweight infants with haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus
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2019 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 11, p. 1985-1992Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: We explored if fluid restriction in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants with a haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) affected energy and protein intakes and growth.

Methods: Retrospectively, we identified 90 VLBW infants that were admitted to Umea University Hospital, Sweden, between 2009 and 2012: 42 with and 48 without haemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA). Anthropometric, fluid, energy and protein intake data during the first 28 days of life were expressed as z‐scores.

Results: In the 42 infants diagnosed with hsPDA, fluid intake was restricted after diagnosis, resulting in a decrease in energy and protein intake. No decrease was observed in the other 48 infants in the cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that the z‐score of weight change depended on both ductus arteriosus status and energy intake; thus, infants with hsPDA did not grow as expected with the energy provided to them.

Conclusion: Energy and protein intake was diminished in prematurely born infants with hsPDA when fluid was restricted after diagnosis. The initial reduction in intakes may have contributed to the lower postnatal growth observed in these infants.

Keywords
Fluid restriction, Infant growth, Nutrition, Patent ductus arteriosus, Premature infants
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165667 (URN)10.1111/apa.14815 (DOI)000489595000009 ()30980416 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-12-06 Created: 2019-12-06 Last updated: 2019-12-06Bibliographically approved
Johansson, U., Öhlund, I., Hernell, O., Lönnerdal, B., Lindberg, L. & Lind, T. (2019). Protein-Reduced Complementary Foods Based on Nordic Ingredients Combined with Systematic Introduction of Taste Portions Increase Intake of Fruits and Vegetables in 9 Month Old Infants: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Nutrients, 11(6), Article ID 1255.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protein-Reduced Complementary Foods Based on Nordic Ingredients Combined with Systematic Introduction of Taste Portions Increase Intake of Fruits and Vegetables in 9 Month Old Infants: A Randomised Controlled Trial
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2019 (English)In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1255Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fruits and vegetables are healthy foods but under-consumed among infants and children. Approaches to increase their intake are urgently needed. This study investigated the effects of a systematic introduction of taste portions and a novel protein-reduced complementary diet based on Nordic foods on fruit and vegetable intake, growth and iron status to 9 months of age. Healthy, term infants (n = 250) were recruited and randomly allocated to either a Nordic diet group (NG) or a conventional diet group (CG). Infants were solely breast- or formula-fed at study start. From 4 to 6 months of age, the NG followed a systematic taste portions schedule consisting of home-made purées of Nordic produce for 24 days. Subsequently, the NG was supplied with baby food products and recipes of homemade baby foods based on Nordic ingredients but with reduced protein content compared to the CG. The CG was advised to follow current Swedish recommendations on complementary foods. A total of 232 participants (93%) completed the study. The NG had significantly higher intake of fruits and vegetables than the CG at 9 months of age; 225 ± 109 g/day vs. 156 ± 77 g/day (p < 0.001), respectively. Energy intake was similar, but protein intake was significantly lower in the NG (−26%, p < 0.001) compared to the CG. This lower protein intake was compensated for by higher intake of carbohydrate from fruits and vegetables. No significant group differences in growth or iron status were observed. The intervention resulted in significantly higher consumption of fruits and vegetables in infants introduced to complementary foods based on Nordic ingredients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
infant feeding, Nordic diet, eating behaviour, repeated exposure
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161926 (URN)10.3390/nu11061255 (DOI)000474936700061 ()31159495 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85067185540 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-06 Created: 2019-08-06 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Lind, T., Johansson, U., Öhlund, I., Lindberg, L., Lonnerdal, B., Tennefors, C. & Hernell, O. (2019). Study protocol: optimized complementary feeding study (OTIS): a randomized controlled trial of the impact of a protein-reduced complementary diet based on Nordic foods. BMC Public Health, 19, Article ID 134.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study protocol: optimized complementary feeding study (OTIS): a randomized controlled trial of the impact of a protein-reduced complementary diet based on Nordic foods
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2019 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: What we eat as infants and children carries long-term consequences. Apart from breastfeeding, the composition of the complementary diet, i.e. the foods given to the infant during the transition from breast milk/infant formula to regular family foods affects the child's future health. A high intake of protein, a low intake of fruits, vegetables and fish and an unfavorable distribution between polyunsaturated and saturated fats are considered to be associate with health risks, e.g. obesity, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia later in life.

Methods: In a randomized, controlled study from 6 to 18months of age we will compare the currently recommended, Swedish complementary diet to one based on Nordic foods, i.e. an increased intake of fruits, berries, vegetables, tubers, whole-grain and game, and a lower intake of sweets, dairy, meat and poultry, with lower protein content (30% decrease), a higher intake of vegetable fats and fish and a systematic introduction of fruits and greens. The main outcomes are body composition (fat and fat-free mass measured with deuterium), metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers (associated with the amount of body fat) in blood and urine, gut microbiota (thought to be the link between early diet, metabolism and diseases such as obesity and insulin resistance) and blood pressure.We will also measure the participants' energy and nutrient intake, eating behavior and temperament through validated questionnaires, acceptance of new and unfamiliar foods through video-taped test meals and assessment of cognitive development, which we believe can be influenced through an increased intake of fish and milk fats, notably milk fat globule membranes (MFGM).

Discussion: If the results are what we expect, i.e. improved body composition and a less obesogenic, diabetogenic and inflammatory metabolism and gut microbiota composition, a more sustainable nutrient intake for future health and an increased acceptance of healthy foods, they will have a profound impact on the dietary recommendations to infants in Sweden and elsewhere, their eating habits later in life and subsequently their long-term health.

Trial registration: NCT02634749. Registration date 18 December 2015.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
Infant food, Child nutrition physiology, Body composition, Growth, Obesity, Insulin resistance, Hypertension, Child development, Microbiota, Feeding behavior, Food preference
National Category
Pediatrics Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162772 (URN)10.1186/s12889-019-6466-1 (DOI)000457471800007 ()30704429 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-05 Last updated: 2019-09-05Bibliographically approved
Johansson, U., Venables, M., Öhlund, I. & Lind, T. (2018). Active Image-Assisted Food Records in Comparison to Regular Food Records: A Validation Study against Doubly Labeled Water in 12-Month-Old Infants. Nutrients, 10(12), Article ID 1904.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active Image-Assisted Food Records in Comparison to Regular Food Records: A Validation Study against Doubly Labeled Water in 12-Month-Old Infants
2018 (English)In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 1904Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Overreporting of dietary intake in infants is a problem when using food records (FR), distorting possible relationships between diet and health outcomes. Image-assisted dietary assessment may improve the accuracy, but to date, evaluation in the pediatric setting is limited. The aim of the study was to compare macronutrient and energy intake by using an active image-assisted five-day FR against a regular five-day FR, and to validate image-assistance with total energy expenditure (TEE), was measured using doubly labeled water. Participants in this validation study were 22 healthy infants randomly selected from the control group of a larger, randomized intervention trial. The parents reported the infants’ dietary intake, and supplied images of main course meals taken from standardized flat-surfaced plates before and after eating episodes. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated separately using regular FR and image-assisted FRs. The mean (± standard deviations) energy intake (EI) was 3902 ± 476 kJ/day from the regular FR, and 3905 ± 476 kJ/day from the FR using active image-assistance. The mean EI from main-course meals when image-assistance was used did not differ (1.7 ± 55 kJ, p = 0.89) compared to regular FRs nor did the intake of macronutrients. Compared to TEE, image-assisted FR overestimated EI by 10%. Without validation, commercially available software to aid in the volume estimations, food item identification, and automation of the image processing, image-assisted methods remain a more costly and burdensome alternative to regular FRs in infants. The image-assisted method did, however, identify leftovers better than did regular FR, where such information is usually not readily available. View Full-Text

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
energy intake, dietary assessment, image-assisted method, infant, food record, doubly labeled water
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155779 (URN)10.3390/nu10121904 (DOI)000455073200085 ()30518042 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved
Åkeson, P. K., Åkesson, K. E., Lind, T., Hernell, O., Silfverdal, S.-A. & Öhlund, I. (2018). Vitamin D Intervention and Bone: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Fair- and Dark-skinned Children at Northern Latitudes. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, 67(3), 388-394
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vitamin D Intervention and Bone: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Fair- and Dark-skinned Children at Northern Latitudes
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 388-394Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate vitamin D status and effects of vitamin D intervention on bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) in children with fair and dark skin in Sweden during winter.

Methods: In a 2-center prospective double-blinded randomized intervention study 5- to 7-year-old children (n = 206) with fair and dark skin in Sweden (55 degrees N-63 degrees N) received daily vitamin D supplements of 25 mu g, 10 mu g, or placebo (2 mu g) during 3 winter months. We measured BMD and BMC for total body (TB), total body less head (TBLH), femoral neck (FN), and spine at baseline and 4 months later. Intake of vitamin D and calcium, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (S-25 [OH]D), and related parameters were analyzed.

Results: Despite lower S-25(OH)D in dark than fair-skinned children, BMD of TB (P = 0.012) and TBLH (P = 0.002) and BMC of TBLH (P = 0.04) were higher at baseline and follow-up in those with dark skin. Delta (Delta) BMD and BMC of TB and TBLH did not differ between intervention and placebo groups, but FN-BMC increased more among dark-skinned children in the 25 mu g (P = 0.038) and 10 mu g (P = 0.027) groups compared to placebo. We found no associations between Delta S-25(OH)D, P-parathyroid hormone, P-alkaline phosphatase, and Delta BMD and BMC, respectively.

Conclusions: BMD and BMC remained higher in dark- than fair-skinned children despite lower vitamin D status. Even though no difference in general was found in BMD or BMC after vitamin D intervention, the increase in FN-BMC in dark-skinned children may suggest an influence on bone in those with initially insufficient vitamin D status.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018
Keywords
bone mineral content, bone mineral density, child, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, skin color
National Category
Orthopaedics Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152216 (URN)10.1097/MPG.0000000000002031 (DOI)000442252100024 ()29851760 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-10-25 Created: 2018-10-25 Last updated: 2018-10-25Bibliographically approved
Gyll, J., Ridell, K., Öhlund, I., Akeson, P. K., Johansson, I. & Lif Holgerson, P. (2018). Vitamin D status and dental caries in healthy Swedish children. Nutrition Journal, 17, Article ID 11.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vitamin D status and dental caries in healthy Swedish children
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2018 (English)In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 17, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Vitamin D is crucial for mineralized tissue formation and immunological functions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and dental status in healthy children with vitamin D supplementation in infancy and at 6 years of age.

Method: Eight-year-old children who had participated, in a vitamin D intervention project when they were 6 years old were invited to participate in a dental follow-up study. They had fair or darker skin complexion and represented two geographically distant parts of Sweden. 25-hydroxy vitamin D in serum had been measured at 6 years of age and after a 3-month intervention with 25, 10 or 2 (placebo) mu g of vitamin D-3 per day. Two years later, caries and enamel defects were scored, self-reported information on e.g., oral behavior, dietary habits and intake of vitamin D supplements was collected, and innate immunity peptide LL37 levels in saliva and cariogenic mutant streptococci in tooth biofilm were analyzed. The outcome variables were caries and tooth enamel defects.

Results: Dental status was evaluated in 85 of the 206 children in the basic intervention study. Low vitamin D levels were found in 28% at baseline compared to 11% after the intervention, and 34% reported continued intake of vitamin D supplements. Logistic regression supported a weak inverse association between vitamin D status at 6 years of age and caries 2 years later (odds ratio 0.96; p = 0.024) with minor attenuation after an adjustment for potential confounders. Multivariate projection regression confirmed that insufficient vitamin D levels correlated with caries and higher vitamin D levels correlated with being caries-free. Vitamin D status at 6 years of age was unrelated to enamel defects but was positively associated with saliva LL37 levels.

Conclusion: An association between vitamin D status and caries was supported, but it was not completely consistent. Vitamin D status at 6 years of age was unrelated to enamel defects but was positively associated with LL37 expression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: BioMed Central, 2018
Keywords
Vitamin D, Children, caries, enamel defects, LL37
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144348 (URN)10.1186/s12937-018-0318-1 (DOI)000419960300001 ()29338758 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Söderberg, L., Lind, T., Åkeson, P. K., Sandström, A.-K., Hernell, O. & Öhlund, I. (2017). A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children. Nutrients, 9(7), Article ID 682.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children
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2017 (English)In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, no 7, article id 682Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients with a range of biological effects of public health relevance. This study aimed to validate a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) against a three-day food record (3D record), assessing the intake of vitamin D and calcium in Swedish children during wintertime. In a double-blinded, randomized food-based intervention study on the effect of feeding different daily doses of vitamin D supplement to 5-7-year-old children (n = 85), 79 (93%) participants completed SFFQ1 at baseline and SFFQ2 after the intervention, and 72 were informed to fill in a 3D record. The 28 (39%) children who completed the 3D record were included in this validation study. The baseline level of serum-25 hydroxy vitamin D [S-25(OH)D] was used as a biomarker. The correlation between all three instruments were moderate to strong. SFFQ2 and the 3D record correlated moderately to S-25(OH)D. Bland-Altman analysis showed that SFFQ2 overestimated vitamin D intake by on average 0.6 mu g/day, (limits of agreement (LOA) 5.7 and -4.6 mu g/day), whereas the intake of calcium was underestimated by on average 29 mg/day, (LOA 808 and -865 mg/day). Finally, the validity coefficient calculated for vitamin D using the method of triad was high (0.75). In conclusion, this SFFQ, assessed by a dietician, is a valid tool to assess dietary vitamin D and calcium intake in groups of young children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2017
Keywords
dietary assessments, three-day food record, child, 25-hydroxy vitamin D
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138608 (URN)10.3390/nu9070682 (DOI)000406679700039 ()
Available from: 2017-09-07 Created: 2017-09-07 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Öhlund, I., Lind, T., Hernell, O., Silfverdal, S.-A. & Karlsland Åkeson, P. (2017). Increased vitamin D intake differentiated according to skin color is needed to meet requirements in young Swedish children during winter: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 106(1), 105-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased vitamin D intake differentiated according to skin color is needed to meet requirements in young Swedish children during winter: a double-blind randomized clinical trial
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2017 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Dark skin and low exposure to sunlight increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency in children. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the amount of vitamin D needed to ascertain that most children >4 y of age attain sufficient serum25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH) D; i.e., >= 50 nmol/L] during winter regardless of latitude and skin color. Design: In a longitudinal, double-blind, randomized, food-based intervention study, 5- to 7-y-old children from northern (638 degrees N) and southern (558 degrees N) Sweden with fair (n = 108) and dark (n = 98) skin were included. Children, stratified by skin color by using Fitzpa-trick's definition, were randomly assigned to receive milk-based vitamin D-3 supplements that provided 2 (placebo), 10, or 25 mu g/d during 3 winter months. Results: Mean daily vitamin D intake increased from 6 to 17 mu g and 26 mu g in the intervention groups supplemented with 10 and 25 mu g, respectively. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 90.2% (95% CI: 81.1%, 99.3%) of fair-skinned children randomly assigned to supplementation of 10 mu g/d attained sufficient concentrations, whereas 25 mu g/d was needed in dark-skinned children to reach sufficiency in 95.1% (95% CI: 88.5%, 100%). In children adherent to the study product, 97% (95% CI: 91.3%, 100%) and 87.9% (95% CI: 76.8%, 99%) of fair-and dark-skinned children, respectively, achieved sufficient concentrations if supplemented with 10 mu g/d. By using 95% prediction intervals for 30 and 50 nmol S-25(OH) D/L, intakes of 6 and 20 mu g/d are required in fair-skinned children, whereas 14 and 28 mu g/d are required in children with dark skin. Conclusion: Children with fair and dark skin require vitamin D intakes of 20 and 28 mu g/d, respectively, to maintain S-25(OH) D >= 50 nmol/L, whereas intakes of 6 and 14 mu g/d, respectively, are required to maintain concentrations >= 30 nmol/L during winter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society for Nutrition, 2017
Keywords
serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, intervention, season, latitude, vitamin D, child
National Category
Pediatrics Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138554 (URN)10.3945/ajcn.116.147108 (DOI)000404593900015 ()28615261 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Videhult, F. K., Öhlund, I., Hernell, O. & West, C. E. (2016). Body mass but not vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral content and density in young school children in northern Sweden. Food & Nutrition Research, 60, Article ID 30045.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body mass but not vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral content and density in young school children in northern Sweden
2016 (English)In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 60, article id 30045Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: High latitude of residence where sun exposure is limited affects vitamin D status. Although vitamin D levels have been associated with poor bone health, cut-off values for optimising bone health are yet to be decided. Objective: To assess vitamin D intake and status among young school children living at latitude 63-64 degrees N, in northern Sweden and to examine the association between vitamin D status and bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Design: In a cross-sectional study, diet was assessed by a 4-day food diary and a food frequency questionnaire in 8- to 9-year-old children (n = 120). Energy, vitamin D, and calcium intakes were calculated. Physical activity was assessed using a pedometer for 7 days. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25[OH]D) levels were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (n = 113). BMC and BMD were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Height and weight were measured by standard procedures and BMI z-score was calculated using WHO AnthroPlus programme. Results: The majority of children, 91%, did not reach the recommended vitaminDintake of 7.5 mu g/day and 50% had insufficient S-25[OH]D levels defined as <50 nmol/l. The highest concentrations of S-25[OH]D were observed during the summer months (p = 0.01). Body mass (p < 0.01) but not S-25[OH]D was associated with measures of BMC and BMD. Furthermore, boys had higher total BMC (p = 0.01), total body less head BMC (p = 0.02), fat free mass (p < 0.01), and a higher degree of physical activity (p = 0.01) compared to girls. Conclusions: Body mass was related to BMC and BMD measures in a population of prepubertal school children living at high latitudes in Sweden. Despite insufficient S-25[OH]D levels and low vitamin D intake, this did not appear to affect bone parameters. Prospective studies with repeated assessment of vitamin D status are needed to examine cut-off values for optimising bone health.

Keywords
dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, season, latitude, diet, calcium
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121495 (URN)10.3402/fnr.v60.30045 (DOI)000375881800001 ()26945233 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-02 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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