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Hansson, Patrik
Publications (10 of 25) Show all publications
Eriksson Sörman, D., Hansson, P., Pritschke, I. & Körning-Ljungberg, J. (2019). Complexity of Primary Lifetime Occupation and Cognitive Processing. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1-12, Article ID 1861.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complexity of Primary Lifetime Occupation and Cognitive Processing
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, p. 1-12, article id 1861Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today, there are a lack of studies focusing on the relationship between occupational complexity and executive functioning. This is noteworthy since executive functions are core aspects of cognitive processing. The present study was aimed to investigate if three occupational complexity factors (with data, people, and things) of main lifetime occupation were related to performance in executive tasks (inhibition, switching, updating). We analyzed cross-sectional data that were available for 225 participants aged 50–75 years. Results from structural equation models showed that higher complexity levels of working with data were related to lower error rates in the updating component of cognitive control. In addition, higher rates of complexity working with people was associated with lower error rates in task-switching, which also persisted after adjustment of fluid intelligence. Complexity with things, however, was not related to performance in the executive tasks. Future studies would benefit from a longitudinal design to investigate if the results from this study also hold in the long term and to further investigate the directionality between factors.

National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162532 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01861 (DOI)000482078700001 ()
Available from: 2019-08-21 Created: 2019-08-21 Last updated: 2019-09-10Bibliographically approved
Eriksson Sörman, D., Hansson, P. & Körning Ljungberg, J. (2019). Different Features of Bilingualism in Relation to Executive Functioning. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(269)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different Features of Bilingualism in Relation to Executive Functioning
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, no 269Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The notion that the long-term practice of managing two languages is beneficial for the executive control system is an ongoing debate. Criticism have been raised that studies demonstrating a bilingual advantage often suffer from small sample sizes, and do not control for fluid intelligence as a possible confound. Taking those suggested factors into account, focusing on older bilingual age groups and investigating the potential effects of linguistic distances, this study aimed to improve the interpretations of the bilinguals’ advantages. Measures of inhibition (Flanker, Stroop, Simon task) and switching (Number-letter, Color-Shape, Local-global task) were collected in participants in the ages 50-75 years (n = 193). Despite a large study sample, results did not support any beneficial effects related to improve processing costs in executive functioning. Sub-analyses of the two different language groups (Swedish – Finnish / Swedish – English) intended to investigate the effect of linguistic distances did not change this outcome. Future studies exploring the potential long-term term effects of bilingualism would benefit from identifying tests of cognitive control with greater ecological validity and include other measures of cognitive functioning. Language learning interventions may also be a promising tool for future research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
bilingualism, cognitive control, executive functioning, inhibition, switching, linguistic distance, middle age, old age
National Category
Social Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156412 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00269 (DOI)000458281600001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2011-1782Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2014.0205
Available from: 2019-02-14 Created: 2019-02-14 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Marsja, E., Marsh Everett, J., Hansson, P. & Neely, G. (2019). Examining the Role of Spatial Changes in Bimodal and Uni-Modal To-Be-Ignored Stimuli and How They Affect Short-Term Memory Processes. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1-8, Article ID 299.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Examining the Role of Spatial Changes in Bimodal and Uni-Modal To-Be-Ignored Stimuli and How They Affect Short-Term Memory Processes
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, p. 1-8, article id 299Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines the potential vulnerability of short-term memory processes to distraction by spatial changes within to-be-ignored bimodal, vibratory, and auditory stimuli. Participants were asked to recall sequences of serially presented dots or digits while being exposed to to-be-ignored stimuli. On unexpected occasions, the bimodal (Experiment 1), vibratory (Experiment 2), or auditory (Experiment 3) stimuli changed their spatial origin from one side of the body (e.g., ear and arm, arm only, ear only) to the other. It was expected that the bimodal stimuli would make the spatial change more salient compared to that of the uni-modal stimuli and that this, in turn, would yield an increase in distraction of serial short-term memory in both the verbal and spatial domains. Performance across three experiments support this assumption as a disruptive effect of the spatial deviant was only observed when presented within the bimodal to-be-ignored sequence (Experiment 1): Uni-modal to-be-ignored sequences, whether vibratory (Experiment 2) or auditory (Experiment 3), had no impact on either verbal or spatial short-term memory. Implications for models of attention capture, short-term memory, and the potential special role attention capturing role of bimodal stimuli is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
bimodal, auditory, tactile, short-term memory, distraction, attention capture, deviant, spatial, verbal
National Category
Psychology Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141862 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00299 (DOI)000460833300001 ()30914983 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2011-1782
Available from: 2017-11-14 Created: 2017-11-14 Last updated: 2019-04-08Bibliographically approved
Marsh, J. E., Hansson, P., Eriksson Sörman, D. & Körning Ljungberg, J. (2019). Executive Processes Underpin the Bilingual Advantage on Phonemic Fluency: Evidence from Analyses of Switching and Clustering. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article ID 1355.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Executive Processes Underpin the Bilingual Advantage on Phonemic Fluency: Evidence from Analyses of Switching and Clustering
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1355Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bilinguals often show a disadvantage in lexical access on verbal fluency tasks wherein the criteria require the production of words from semantic categories. However, the pattern is more heterogeneous for letter (phonemic) fluency wherein the task is to produce words beginning with a given letter. Here, bilinguals often outperform monolinguals. One explanation for this is that phonemic fluency, as compared with semantic fluency, is more greatly underpinned by executive processes and that bilinguals exhibit better performance on phonemic fluency due to better executive functions. In this study, we re-analyzed phonemic fluency data from the Betula study, scoring outputs according to two measures that purportedly reflect executive processes: clustering and switching. Consistent with the notion that bilinguals have superior executive processes and that these can be used to offset a bilingual disadvantage in verbal fluency, bilinguals (35-65 years at baseline) demonstrated greater switching and clustering throughout the 15-year study period.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
bilingualism, aging, phonemic fluency, executive function, longitudinal study
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-160201 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01355 (DOI)000471303800001 ()31244740 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2014.0205Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, 1988-0082:17Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, J2001-0682Swedish Research Council, 421-2011-1782Swedish Research Council, 345-2003-3883Swedish Research Council, 315-2004-6977Swedish Research Council, 2015-01116Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2211-0505
Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, M., Nääs, S., Berginström, N., Nordström, P., Hansson, P. & Nordström, A. (2019). Sedentary behavior as a potential risk factor for depression among 70-year-olds. Journal of Affective Disorders
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sedentary behavior as a potential risk factor for depression among 70-year-olds
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Background: Sedentary behavior has previously been associated with the risk of depression. In addition, older adults have been proven to be more sedentary and more depressed than other age groups. However, studies using objective measures of sedentary behavior and taking physical activity into account are lacking. Thus, the purpose of this population-based study was to examine how total sedentary time and length of sedentary bouts were associated with the risk of depression among 70-year-olds.

Methods: The present study used data from the Healthy Ageing Initiative (n = 3,633), an ongoing cross-sectional research project in Umeå, Sweden. Sedentary behavior was measured objectively with the ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer, and depression was measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale. Several covariates, including physical activity, were included in logistic regression analyses.

Results: Results from two hierarchical logistic regression models showed that a greater percentage of the day spent sedentary [odds ratio (OR) = 1.031, p = 0.010] and longer average length of sedentary bouts (OR = 1.116, p = 0.045) increased the risk of depression.

Limitations: Limitations include of possible underrepresentation of severely depressed participants, and possible observer effects.

Conclusions: The present study verified the relationship between sedentary behavior and depression and provides new information about the risks associated with increased length of sedentary bouts.  These findings may be important to consider in the development of future recommendations for the prevention of depression among older adults.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Depression, Older/elderly adult, Sedentary lifestyle
National Category
Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165729 (URN)10.1016/j.jad.2019.11.035 (DOI)31759668 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2019-12-03
Eriksson Sörman, D., Josefsson, M., Marsh, J. E., Hansson, P. & Ljungberg, J. K. (2017). Longitudinal effects of bilingualism on dual-tasking. PLoS ONE, 12(12), Article ID e0189299.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal effects of bilingualism on dual-tasking
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2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e0189299Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An ongoing debate surrounds whether bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tests of executive processing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are long-term (10 year) bilingual advantages in executive processing, as indexed by dual-task performance, in a sample that were 40-65 years at baseline. The bilingual (n = 24) and monolingual (n = 24) participants were matched on age, sex, education, fluid intelligence, and study sample. Participants performed free-recall for a 12-item list in three dual-task settings wherein they sorted cards either during encoding, retrieval, or during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list. Free recall without card sorting was used as a reference to compute dual-task costs. The results showed that bilinguals significantly outperformed monolinguals when they performed card-sorting during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list, the condition that presumably placed the highest demands on executive functioning. However, dual-task costs increased over time for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, a finding that is possibly influenced by retirement age and limited use of second language in the bilingual group.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143465 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0189299 (DOI)000419006200021 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 345-2003-3883Swedish Research Council, 315-2004-6977Swedish Research Council, 421-2011-1782
Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Del Missier, F., Hansson, P., Parker, A. M., Bruine de Bruin, W., Nilsson, L.-G. & Mäntylä, T. (2017). Unraveling the Aging Skein : Disentangling Sensory and Cognitive Predictors of Age-related Differences in Decision Making. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 30(1), 123-139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unraveling the Aging Skein : Disentangling Sensory and Cognitive Predictors of Age-related Differences in Decision Making
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 123-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Age-related differences in sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory have been identified as three significant predictors of the age-related performance decline observed in complex cognitive tasks. Yet, the assessment of their relative predictive capacity and interrelations is still an open issue in decision making and cognitive aging research. Indeed, no previous investigation has examined the relationships of all these three predictors with decision making. In an individual-differences study, we therefore disentangled the relative contribution of sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory to the prediction of the age-related decline in cognitively demanding judgment and decision-making tasks. Structural equation modeling showed that the age-related decline in working memory plays an important predictive role, even when controlling for sensory functioning, processing speed, and education. Implications for research on decision making and cognitive aging are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keywords
judgment and decision making, cognitive aging, working memory, processing speed, sensory functioning
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-110264 (URN)10.1002/bdm.1926 (DOI)000396497100011 ()
Note

First published online: 9 Dec 2015

Available from: 2015-10-19 Created: 2015-10-19 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Eriksson Sörman, D., Hansson, P. & Rönnlund, M. (2016). Blood Pressure Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Relation to Social Network Factors. Psychological Topics, 25(1), 59-73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blood Pressure Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Relation to Social Network Factors
2016 (English)In: Psychological Topics, ISSN 1332-0742, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 59-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables and levels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. The participants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097) responded to questions concerning social relationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic) was measured. Blood pressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses to questions concerning social relationships as predictors and basic demographic factors (age, sex) as covariates, unexpectedly indicated that a more limited social network (no close friend, few visits, little contact with friends in other ways, not living with someone, and a composite index based on all questions) was associated with significantly lower diastolic blood pressure levels. For systolic blood pressure a similar result was observed for one of the variables (lack of a close friend). In general, these effects diminished over time, as indexed by the positive relationship between several of the social variables and slope. The results were little affected by inclusion of additional covariates (e.g. measures of psychological distress, smoking/alcohol habits, and BMI) suggesting that the origins of this unexpected pattern of findings must probably be sought for in other subjectrelated factors, such as, for example, increased help seeking. Future studies should consider qualitative aspects (e.g. feelings of loneliness, quality of social relationships) in addition to structural aspects to provide a better understanding of these associations.

Keywords
blood pressure, social network, cross-sectional, longitudinal
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120122 (URN)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Ljungberg, J. K., Hansson, P., Adolfsson, R. & Nilsson, L.-G. (2016). The effect of language skills on dementia in a Swedish longitudinal cohort. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 6(1-2), 190-204
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of language skills on dementia in a Swedish longitudinal cohort
2016 (English)In: Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, ISSN 1879-9264, E-ISSN 1879-9272, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 190-204Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent findings indicate that bilingualism delay the onset of dementia. Using data from the Betula longitudinal cohort study on memory, health and aging (www.betula.su.se) the issue of a possible protective effect of bilingualism was addressed.

Monolingual (n = 736) and bilingual (n = 82) participants (≥ 60 years) without dementia at inclusion were followed for incident dementia over a time-period up to 10 years. In total, 112 participants developed dementia. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for age, sex, and presence/absence of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele, with dementia outcome as the dependent variable.

Results showed no delayed onset of dementia in bilinguals compared to monolinguals. However, because of the findings from a study using participants from the same population showing beneficial longitudinal effects of bilingualism on episodic memory; we argue that our results may depend on the frequency of use of the second language after retirement.

Keywords
Bilingualism, Dementia, Longitudinal design, Aging, Cognitive reserve
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-110080 (URN)10.1075/lab.14031.lju (DOI)000375751500009 ()
Note

Special Issue: Aging and Bilingualism

Available from: 2015-10-15 Created: 2015-10-15 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Sörman, D., Ljungberg K., J., Hansson, P., Adolfsson, R. & Nilsson, L.-G. (2015). Language skills and risk of dementia: a population-based study. In: : . Paper presented at 56th Annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, November 20th, Chicago, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Language skills and risk of dementia: a population-based study
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-129488 (URN)
Conference
56th Annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, November 20th, Chicago, USA
Available from: 2016-12-30 Created: 2016-12-30 Last updated: 2018-06-09
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