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Saaristo, M., Lagesson, A., Bertram, M. G., Fick, J., Klaminder, J., Johnstone, C. P., . . . Brodin, T. (2019). Behavioural effects of psychoactive pharmaceutical exposure on European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a multi-stressor environment. Science of the Total Environment, 655, 1311-1320
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behavioural effects of psychoactive pharmaceutical exposure on European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a multi-stressor environment
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2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 655, p. 1311-1320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the ability to resist biodegradation and exert therapeutic effects at low concentrations, pharmaceutical contaminants have become environmental stressors for wildlife. One such contaminant is the anxiolytic oxazepam, a psychoactive pharmaceutical that is frequently detected in surface waters globally. Despite growing interest in understanding how wildlife respond to anxiolytics, synergistic effects of pharmaceuticals and other abiotic (e.g. temperature) and biotic (e.g. predation risk) stressors remain unclear. Here, using a multi-stressor approach, we investigated effects of 7-day oxazepam exposure (6.5 μg/L) on anxiety-related behaviours in juvenile European perch (Perca fluviatilis). The multi-stressor approach was achieved by exposing perch to oxazepam at two temperatures (10 °C and 18 °C), and at two predation risk regimes—generated using chemical cues from the northern pike (Esox lucius). Our exposures resulted in a successful uptake of the drug from the water, i.e., oxazepam was measured in perch muscle tissue at 50 ± 17 ng/g (mean ± SD). We found significant oxazepam-induced effects on boldness, with 76.7% of the treated fish entering the white background (i.e. ‘exposed’ area where exposure to presumed risks are higher) within the first 5 min, compared to 66.6% of the control fish. We also found a significant effect of temperature on total time spent freezing (i.e. staying motionless). Specifically, fish in the low temperature treatments (oxazepam, predation) froze for longer than fish in high temperatures. Our multi-stressor study is the first to uncover how anxiety-related behaviours in wild juvenile fish are altered by changes in water temperature and perceived predation risk. Importantly, our findings highlight the need to focus on multiple stressors to improve understanding of how organisms not only survive, but adapt to, human-induced environmental change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Anti-predator behaviour, Behavioural ecotoxicology, Oxazepam, Pharmaceuticals, Temperature effect
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155752 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.228 (DOI)000455034600127 ()30577123 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2013-4431
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved
Östman, M., Björlenius, B., Fick, J. & Tysklind, M. (2019). Effect of full-scale ozonation and pilot-scale granular activated carbon on the removal of biocides, antimycotics and antibiotics in a sewage treatment plant. Science of the Total Environment, 649, 1117-1123
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of full-scale ozonation and pilot-scale granular activated carbon on the removal of biocides, antimycotics and antibiotics in a sewage treatment plant
2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 649, p. 1117-1123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several micropollutants show low removal efficiencies in conventional sewage treatment plants, and therefore enter the aquatic environment. To reduce the levels of micropollutants in sewage effluent, and thereby the effects on biota, a number of extra treatment steps are currently being evaluated. Two such techniques are ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of Sweden's first full-scale ozonation treatment plant at removing a number of antibiotics, antimycotics and biocides. The effect of adding granular activated carbon (GAC) on a pilot scale and pilot-scale ozonation were also evaluated. The conventional treatment (13,000 PE) with the add-on of full-scale ozonation (0.55 g O3/g Total organic carbon (TOC)) was able to remove most of the studied compounds (>90%), except for benzotriazoles and fluconazole (<50%). Adsorption on GAC on a pilot scale showed a higher removal efficiency than ozonation (>80% for all studied compounds). Three types of GAC were evaluated and shown to have different removal efficiencies. In particular, the GAC with the smallest particle sizes exhibited the highest removal efficiency. The results demonstrate that it is important to select an appropriate type of carbon to achieve the removal goal for specific target compounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Biocides, Antibiotics, Ozonation, GAC, Removal efficiency, Wastewater
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151966 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.382 (DOI)000446076500106 ()2-s2.0-85052640940 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasMistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental ResearchSwedish Agency for Marine and Water Management
Available from: 2018-09-20 Created: 2018-09-20 Last updated: 2018-10-31Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, M., Andersson, M., Fick, J., Brodin, T., Klaminder, J. & Piovano, S. (2019). High-speed imaging reveals how antihistamine exposure affects escape behaviours in aquatic insect prey. Science of the Total Environment, 648, 1257-1262
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-speed imaging reveals how antihistamine exposure affects escape behaviours in aquatic insect prey
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2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 648, p. 1257-1262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aquatic systems receive a wide range of pharmaceuticals that may have adverse impacts on aquatic wildlife. Among these pharmaceuticals, antihistamines are commonly found, and these substances have the potential to influence the physiology of aquatic invertebrates. Previous studies have focused on how antihistamines may affect behaviours of aquatic invertebrates, but these studies probably do not capture the full consequences of antihistamine exposure, as traditional recording techniques do not capture important animal movements occurring at the scale of milliseconds, such as prey escape responses. In this study, we investigated if antihistamine exposure can impact escape responses in aquatic insect, by exposing damselfly (Coenagrion hastulatum) larvae to two environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1 and 1 μg L−1) of diphenhydramine. Importantly, we used a high-speed imaging approach that with high-time resolution captures details of escape responses and, thus, potential impacts of diphenhydramine on these behaviours. Our results show overall weak effects of antihistamine exposure on the escape behaviours of damselfly larvae. However, at stage 2 of the C-escape response, we found a significant increase in turning angle, which corresponds to a reduced swimming velocity, indicating a reduced success at evading a predator attack. Thus, we show that low concentrations of an antihistamine may affect behaviours strongly related to fitness of aquatic insect prey – effects would have been overlooked using traditional recording techniques. Hence, to understand the full consequences of pharmaceutical contamination on aquatic wildlife, high-speed imaging should be incorporated into future environmental risk assessments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Damselfly larvae, Diphenhydramine, Escape response, Pharmaceutical pollution
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150912 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.226 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052146409 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-11-12Bibliographically approved
Flach, C.-F., Genheden, M., Fick, J. & Larsson, D. G. (2018). A comprehensive screening of Escherichia coli isolates from Scandinavia's largest sewage treatment plant indicates no selection for antibiotic resistance. Environmental Science and Technology, 52(19), 11419-11428
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comprehensive screening of Escherichia coli isolates from Scandinavia's largest sewage treatment plant indicates no selection for antibiotic resistance
2018 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 19, p. 11419-11428Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is concern that sewage treatment plants (STPs) serve as hotspots for emergence and selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, field studies investigating resistance selection by comparing bacterial populations in influents and effluents have produced variable and sometimes contradictive results. Also, large taxonomic changes between influents and effluents make interpretation of studies measuring relative gene abundances ambiguous. The aim here was to investigate whether within-species selection occurs by conducting a comprehensive screening of Escherichia coli isolated from composite influent and effluent samples collected at Scandinavia's largest STP, accompanied by analyses of antibiotics residues. In total, 4028 isolates, collected on eight occasions during 18 months, were screened for resistance to seven antibiotics. Although differences in proportions of resistant E. coli between influent and effluent samples were detected for a few antibiotics on two occasions, aggregated data over time showed no such differences for any of the investigated antibiotics. Neither was there any enrichment of multiresistant or extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing isolates through the treatment process. Despite some antibiotics were detected at or close to concentrations predicted to provide some selective pressure, field observations of resistance profiles in E. coli do not provide support for systematic selection in the investigated STP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
National Category
Water Treatment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152874 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.8b03354 (DOI)000446542100057 ()30215260 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 219-2014-1575Swedish Research Council Formas, 942-2015-750Swedish Research Council, 2015-02492
Available from: 2018-10-31 Created: 2018-10-31 Last updated: 2018-10-31Bibliographically approved
Richmond, E. K., Rosi, E. J., Walters, D. M., Fick, J., Hamilton, S. K., Brodin, T., . . . Grace, M. R. (2018). A diverse suite of pharmaceuticals contaminates stream and riparian food webs. Nature Communications, 9, Article ID 4491.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A diverse suite of pharmaceuticals contaminates stream and riparian food webs
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2018 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 4491Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A multitude of biologically active pharmaceuticals contaminate surface waters globally, yet their presence in aquatic food webs remain largely unknown. Here, we show that over 60 pharmaceutical compounds can be detected in aquatic invertebrates and riparian spiders in six streams near Melbourne, Australia. Similar concentrations in aquatic invertebrate larvae and riparian predators suggest direct trophic transfer via emerging adult insects to riparian predators that consume them. As representative vertebrate predators feeding on aquatic invertebrates, platypus and brown trout could consume some drug classes such as antidepressants at as much as one-half of a recommended therapeutic dose for humans based on their estimated prey consumption rates, yet the consequences for fish and wildlife of this chronic exposure are unknown. Overall, this work highlights the potential exposure of aquatic and riparian biota to a diverse array of pharmaceuticals, resulting in exposures to some drugs that are comparable to human dosages.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153544 (URN)10.1038/s41467-018-06822-w (DOI)000449270300001 ()30401828 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Larsson, D. G., Andremont, A., Bengtsson-Palme, J., Brandt, K. K., Husman, A. M., Fagerstedt, P., . . . Wernersson, A.-S. (2018). Critical knowledge gaps and research needs related to the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance. Environment International, 117, 132-138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical knowledge gaps and research needs related to the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance
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2018 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 117, p. 132-138Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is growing understanding that the environment plays an important role both in the transmission of antibiotic resistant pathogens and in their evolution. Accordingly, researchers and stakeholders world-wide seek to further explore the mechanisms and drivers involved, quantify risks and identify suitable interventions. There is a clear value in establishing research needs and coordinating efforts within and across nations in order to best tackle this global challenge. At an international workshop in late September 2017, scientists from 14 countries with expertise on the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance gathered to define critical knowledge gaps. Four key areas were identified where research is urgently needed: 1) the relative contributions of different sources of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment; 2) the role of the environment, and particularly anthropogenic inputs, in the evolution of resistance; 3) the overall human and animal health impacts caused by exposure to environmental resistant bacteria; and 4) the efficacy and feasibility of different technological, social, economic and behavioral interventions to mitigate environmental antibiotic resistance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Antimicrobial resistance, Infectious diseases, Risk assessment, Risk management, Environmental pollution
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150656 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2018.04.041 (DOI)000436573400016 ()29747082 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2018-08-28Bibliographically approved
Östman, M., Fick, J. & Tysklind, M. (2018). Detailed mass flows and removal efficiencies for biocides and antibiotics in Swedish sewage treatment plants. Science of the Total Environment, 640, 327-336
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detailed mass flows and removal efficiencies for biocides and antibiotics in Swedish sewage treatment plants
2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 640, p. 327-336Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antimicrobial compounds, such as biocides and antibiotics, are widely used in society with significant quantities of these chemicals ending up in sewage treatment plants (STPs). In this study, mass flows and removal efficiency in different treatment steps at three Swedish STPs were evaluated for eleven different biocides and antibiotics. Mass flows were calculated at eight different locations (incoming wastewater, water after the first sedimentation step, treated effluent, primary sludge, surplus sludge, digested sludge, dewatered digested sludge and reject water). Samples were collected for a total of nine days over three weeks. The STPs were able to remove 53-> 99% of the antimicrobial compounds and 0-64% were biodegraded on average in the three STPs. Quaternary ammonium compounds were removed from the wastewater N99%, partly through biodegradation, but 38-96% remained in the digested sludge. Chlorhexidine was not biodegraded but was efficiently removed from the wastewater to the sludge. The biological treatment step was the most important step for the degradation of the studied compounds, but also removed several compounds through the surplus sludge. Compounds that were inefficiently removed included benzotriazoles, trimethoprim and fluconazole. The study provides mass flows and removal efficiencies for several compounds that have been seldom studied. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Antimicrobial, Mass balance, Wastewater, Sludge, Wastewater treatment plant, Micropollutants
National Category
Environmental Sciences Water Treatment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150642 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.05.304 (DOI)000438408800035 ()29860006 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047754418 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-29 Created: 2018-08-29 Last updated: 2018-10-11Bibliographically approved
Pohl, J., Björlenius, B., Brodin, T., Carlsson, G., Fick, J., Larsson, D. G., . . . Örn, S. (2018). Effects of ozonated sewage effluent on reproduction and behavioral endpoints in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquatic Toxicology, 200, 93-101
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of ozonated sewage effluent on reproduction and behavioral endpoints in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
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2018 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 200, p. 93-101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pharmaceutical residues and other micro-contaminants may enter aquatic environments through effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and could cause adverse effects in wild fish. One strategy to alleviate this situation is to improve wastewater treatment by ozonation. To test the effectiveness of full-scale wastewater effluent ozonation at a Swedish municipal STP, the added removal efficiency was measured for 105 pharmaceuticals. In addition, gene expression, reproductive and behavioral endpoints were analyzed in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed on-site over 21 days to ozonated or non-ozonated effluents as well as to tap water. Ozone treatment (7 g O-3/m(3)) removed pharmaceuticals by an average efficiency of 77% in addition to the conventional treatment, leaving 11 screened pharmaceuticals above detection limits. Differences in biological responses of the exposure treatments were recorded in gene expression, reproduction and behavior. Hepatic vitellogenin gene expression was higher in male zebrafish exposed to the ozonated effluent compared to the non-ozonated effluent and tap water treatments. The reproductive success was higher in fish exposed to ozonated effluent compared to non-ozonated effluent and to tap water. The behavioral measurements showed that fish exposed to the ozonated STP effluent were less active in swimming the first minute after placed in a novel vessel. Ozonation is a capable method for removing pharmaceuticals in effluents. However, its implementation should be thoroughly evaluated for any potential biological impact. Future research is needed for uncovering the factors which produced the in vivo responses in fish.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Fecundity, Vitellogenin, Ozone, Pharmaceuticals, Wastewater
National Category
Other Biological Topics Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150383 (URN)10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.04.014 (DOI)000438180700010 ()29729477 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85046783086 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-08 Created: 2018-08-08 Last updated: 2018-08-08Bibliographically approved
Orton, F., Säfholm, M., Jansson, E., Carlsson, Y., Eriksson, A., Fick, J., . . . Berg, C. (2018). Exposure to an anti-androgenic herbicide negatively impacts reproductive physiology and fertility in Xenopustropicalis. Scientific Reports, 8, Article ID 9124.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to an anti-androgenic herbicide negatively impacts reproductive physiology and fertility in Xenopustropicalis
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 9124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Amphibians are threatened on a global scale and pollutants may be contributing to population declines, but how chemicals impact on their reproduction is poorly understood. We conducted a life cycle analysis to investigate the impacts of early life exposure to two anti-androgens (exposure until completion of metamorphosis;stage 66): flutamide, (50 µg/L)/linuron (9 and 45 µg/L)) on sexual development and breeding competence in Xenopus tropicalis. Our analyses included: mRNA levels of dmrt1, cyp17, amh, cyp19, foxl2 and ar (tadpoles/metamorphs), gonadal histomorphology (metamorphs/adults), mRNA levels of ar/gr (adult male brain/gonad/forelimb), testosterone/corticosterone levels (adult males), secondary sexual characteristics (forelimb width/nuptial pad: adult males) and breeding competence (amplexus/fertility: adult males). Compared to controls, feminised sex ratios and increased number of spermatogonia (adults) were observed after exposure to flutamide and the lower linuron concentration. Exposure to the lower linuron concentration also resulted in demasculinisation of secondary sexual characteristics and reduced male fertility. Flutamide exposure resulted in masculinisation of the nuptial pad and elevated mRNA levels of dmrt1, cyp17, amh and foxl2 in brains (metamorphs). Testosterone levels were higher in all treatment groups, however, overall few effects were observed in response to the higher linuron concentration. Our findings advance understanding of reproductive biology of X. tropicalis and illustrate negative effects of linuron on reproductive processes at a concentration measured in freshwater environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Environmental Sciences Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150784 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-27161-2 (DOI)000435338100039 ()29904069 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-16 Created: 2018-08-16 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Lagesson, A., Saaristo, M., Brodin, T., Fick, J., Martin, J. M., Klaminder, J. & Wong, B. B. .. (2018). Fish on steroids: Temperature dependent effects of 17β-trenbolone on anti-predator, risk-taking and exploratory behaviours.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fish on steroids: Temperature dependent effects of 17β-trenbolone on anti-predator, risk-taking and exploratory behaviours
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2018 (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Hormonal growth promoters (HGPs), widely used in beef cattle production globally, make their way into the environment as agricultural effluent—with potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. One HPG of particular concern is 17β-trenbolone, which is persistent in freshwater habitats and can affect the development, morphology and reproductive behaviors of aquatic organisms. Despite this, few studies have investigated impacts of 17β-trenbolone on non-reproductive behaviors linked to growth and survival, like boldness and predator avoidance. None consider the interaction between 17β-trenbolone and other environmental stressors, such as temperature, although environmental challenges confronting animals in the wild seldom, if ever, occur in isolation. Accordingly, this study aimed to test the interactive effects of trenbolone and temperature on organismal behavior. To do this, eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were subjected to an environmentally-relevant concentration of 17β-trenbolone (≤ 5.1 ± 0.5 ng/L) or freshwater (i.e. control) for 21 days under one of two temperatures (20 and 30°C), after which the predator escape, boldness and exploration behavior of fish were tested. Predator escape behavior was assayed by subjecting fish to a simulated predator strike, while boldness and exploration were assessed in a separate maze experiment. We found that trenbolone exposure increased boldness behavior. Interestingly, some behavioural effects of trenbolone depended on temperature, sex, or both. Specifically, significant effects of trenbolone on male predator escape behavior were only noted at 30°C, with males becoming less reactive to the simulated threat. Further, in the maze experiment, trenbolone-exposed fish had a higher activity and explored the maze faster than control fish, but only at 20°C. We conclude that field detected concentrations of 17β-trenbolone can impact ecologically important behaviors of fish, and such effects can be temperature dependent. Such findings underscore the importance of considering the potentially interactive effects of other environmental stressors when investigating behavioural effects of environmental contaminants.

Keywords
Anti-predator behavior, Behavioural ecotoxicology, Endocrine disrupting chemicals, Synthetic androgenic anabolic steroid, Temperature
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151136 (URN)
Available from: 2018-08-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2018-08-28
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3949-7371

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