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Dynesius, Mats
Publications (10 of 39) Show all publications
Karlsson Tiselius, A., Lundbäck, S., Lönnell, N., Jansson, R. & Dynesius, M. (2019). Bryophyte community assembly on young land uplift islands: dispersal and habitat filtering assessed using species traits. Journal of Biogeography, 46(10), 2188-2202
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bryophyte community assembly on young land uplift islands: dispersal and habitat filtering assessed using species traits
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 46, no 10, p. 2188-2202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To assess habitat filtering and dispersal limitation in spore plant community assembly using bryophytes on recently emerged land uplift islands as study system. Location Gulf of Bothnia, northern Europe. Taxa Bryophytes, including the spore plant phyla Bryophyta (mosses) and Marchantiophyta (liverworts).

Methods: The species compositions of 20 coastal land uplift islands differing in age, area, connectivity and habitat composition were recorded in the field. In addition, we compiled a list of the regional species pool (446 species) and gathered data on species traits related to habitat affiliations (substrate, light, moisture, and pH) and dispersal capacity (regional abundance, spore size, sporophyte frequency, sexual system, vegetative propagules). For the 420 species with available trait data, we used multivariate generalized linear models to compare trait effects on species occurrence probabilities on the islands.

Results: Occurrence probabilities depended strongly on habitat affiliations. In addition, occurrence probabilities were lower for predominantly asexual species than for sexual species and for regionally rare than for regionally abundant species. Having specialized asexual propagules increased occurrence probabilities, but compensated only partly for the reductions in asexual species. No effect of the size of sexually produced spores was detected. Comparison of trait effects across island size and connectivity gradients revealed (a) reduced habitat filtering on larger islands and (b) decreasing negative effects of being predominantly asexual with increasing island connectivity.

Conclusions: Both habitat filtering and dispersal capacities affect the community assembly of spore plants on land uplift islands. Asexual mosses and liverworts show landscape scale (<= 10 km) dispersal limitation. The weak or absent relationships between island connectivity and the effects of dispersal traits suggest that colonization is regulated mainly by habitat availability and the abundance of each species in a "regional spore rain" from which colonists are recruited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
colonization, community assembly, dispersal limitation, habitat availability, liverworts, mosses; reduced rank vector generalized linear models, sporophytes, trait based community ecology, vegetative propagules
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Ecological Botany; Conservation Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121236 (URN)10.1111/jbi.13652 (DOI)000481048700001 ()2-s2.0-85070330223 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 215-2010-998
Note

Originally published in thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2016-06-01 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2019-12-19Bibliographically approved
Hjältén, J., Hägglund, R., Löfroth, T., Roberge, J.-M., Dynesius, M. & Olsson, J. (2017). Forest restoration by burning and gap cutting of voluntary set-asides yield distinct immediate effects on saproxylic beetles. Biodiversity and Conservation, 26(7), 1623-1640
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forest restoration by burning and gap cutting of voluntary set-asides yield distinct immediate effects on saproxylic beetles
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2017 (English)In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 1623-1640Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today, the importance of restoring natural forest disturbance regimes and habitat structures for biodiversity is widely recognized. We evaluated the immediate effects of two restoration methods on wood-inhabiting (saproxylic) beetles in boreal forest voluntary set-asides. We used a before-after control-impact experimental set-up in 15 set-asides; each assigned to one of three treatments: (1) restoration burning, (2) gap cutting and (3) no-treatment reference stands. Before treatment, abundance, species richness and assemblage composition of trapped beetles did not differ significantly among treatments. Burning resulted in a significant change in assemblage composition and increased species richness and abundance compared to reference stands. As predicted, saproxylic species known to be fire favoured increased dramatically after burning. The immediate response shows that, initially, fire favoured species are attracted from the surrounding landscape and not produced on site. Gap cutting increased the abundance of cambium consumers but had no significant effect on total species richness or assemblage composition of saproxylic beetles. The stronger effect of burning compared to gap cutting on saproxylic assemblages is probably due to the very specific conditions created by fires that attracts many disturbance-dependent species, but that at the same time disfavour some disturbance-sensitive species. By contrast, gap cutting maintained assemblage composition, increased abundances and is likely to increase species richness in the years to follow, due to elevated level of dead wood. The restoration methods applied in this study may prove particularly useful, partly because of positive effect on saproxylic beetles, but also due to the cost-efficiency of the measures; the voluntary set-asides were already established and the restoration costs fully covered by revenue from the extracted timber.

Keywords
Restoration, Fire, Gap cutting, Saproxylic beetles, Biodiversity, Voluntary set-asides, Boreal forest
National Category
Ecology Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-136040 (URN)10.1007/s10531-017-1321-0 (DOI)000401422200008 ()
Available from: 2017-06-21 Created: 2017-06-21 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Shackelford, N., Starzomski, B. M., Banning, N. C., Battaglia, L. L., Becker, A., Bellingham, P. J., . . . Standish, R. J. (2017). Isolation predicts compositional change after discrete disturbances in a global meta-study. Ecography, 40(11), 1256-1266
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Isolation predicts compositional change after discrete disturbances in a global meta-study
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2017 (English)In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 40, no 11, p. 1256-1266Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Globally, anthropogenic disturbances are occurring at unprecedented rates and over extensive spatial and temporal scales. Human activities also affect natural disturbances, prompting shifts in their timing and intensities. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand and predict the response of ecosystems to disturbance. In this study, we investigated whether there are general determinants of community response to disturbance across different community types, locations, and disturbance events. We compiled 14 case studies of community response to disturbance from four continents, twelve aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem types, and eight different types of disturbance. We used community compositional differences and species richness to indicate community response. We used mixed-effects modeling to test the relationship between each of these response metrics and four potential explanatory factors: regional species pool size, isolation, number of generations passed, and relative disturbance intensity. We found that compositional similarity was higher between pre- and post-disturbance communities when the disturbed community was connected to adjacent undisturbed habitat. The number of generations that had passed since the disturbance event was a significant, but weak, predictor of community compositional change; two communities were responsible for the observed relationship. We found no significant relationships between the factors we tested and changes in species richness. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to search for general drivers of community resilience from a diverse set of case studies. The strength of the relationship between compositional change and isolation suggests that it may be informative in resilience research and biodiversity management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141803 (URN)10.1111/ecog.02383 (DOI)000413580700002 ()
Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J., Dynesius, M. & Hjalten, J. (2017). Short-term response to stump harvesting by the ground flora in boreal clearcuts. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 32(3), 239-245
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Short-term response to stump harvesting by the ground flora in boreal clearcuts
2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 239-245Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We studied short-term ground vegetation responses to stump harvesting by recording the occurrence of all species of bryophytes, vascular plants and the cover of soil disturbance on 20 clearcuts in the Southern and Middle Boreal zone in northern Scandinavia. All 20 clearcuts were slash-harvested and scarified and 10 of the clearcuts were also stump-harvested. The added effect of stump harvesting was assessed by comparing stump-harvested clearcuts with non-stump-harvested clearcuts. We tested whether stump harvesting causes extra soil disturbance compared to conventional forestry and if stump harvesting is affecting the assemblage, species richness and occurrence of individual species of vascular plants and bryophytes in boreal clearcuts. Our results revealed that stump harvesting causes an increase in the area of disturbed soil surface compared to conventional harvesting. Four of the most commonly occurring plant species in this area were significantly affected by stump harvesting, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea had a median occurrence of only 20% of that in non-stump-harvested clearcuts. The large impact on some plant species from a relatively modest increase of soil disturbance caused by stump harvesting suggest that stumps, with their slightly elevated bases, contributes to the survival of certain species on clearcuts.

Keywords
Stump harvesting, bryophytes, clearcut, vascular plants, boreal, stumps
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133234 (URN)10.1080/02827581.2016.1269943 (DOI)000395088000006 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 30676-1
Available from: 2017-04-12 Created: 2017-04-12 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Hudson, L. N., Newbold, T., Contu, S., Hill, S. L. L., Lysenko, I., De Palma, A., . . . Purvis, A. (2017). The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project. Ecology and Evolution, 7(1), 145-188
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project
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2017 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 145-188Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.

Keywords
data sharing, global biodiversity modeling, global change, habitat destruction, land use
National Category
Ecology Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131880 (URN)10.1002/ece3.2579 (DOI)000392069500013 ()28070282 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-02-24 Created: 2017-02-24 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Kuglerová, L., Dynesius, M., Laudon, H. & Jansson, R. (2016). Relationships between plant assemblages and water flow across a boreal forest landscape: a comparison of liverworts, mosses, and vascular plants. Ecosystems (New York. Print), 19(1), 170-184
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationships between plant assemblages and water flow across a boreal forest landscape: a comparison of liverworts, mosses, and vascular plants
2016 (English)In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 170-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The distribution of water across landscapes affects the diversity and composition of ecological communities, as demonstrated by studies on variation in vascular plant communities along river networks and in relation to groundwater. However, nonvascular plants have been neglected in this regard. Bryophytes are dominant components of boreal flora, performing many ecosystem functions and affecting ecosystem processes, but how their diversity and species composition vary across catchments is poorly known. We asked how terrestrial assemblages of mosses and liverworts respond to variation in (i) catchment size, going from upland-forest to riparian settings along increasingly large streams and (ii) groundwater discharge conditions. We compared the patterns found for liverworts and mosses to vascular plants in the same set of study plots. Species richness of vascular plants and mosses increased with catchment size, whereas liverworts peaked along streams of intermediate size. All three taxonomic groups responded to groundwater discharge in riparian zones by maintaining high species richness further from the stream channel. Groundwater discharge thus provided riparian-like habitat further away from the streams and also in upland-forest sites compared to the non-discharge counterparts. In addition, soil chemistry (C:N ratio, pH) and light availability were important predictors of vascular plant species richness. Mosses and liverworts responded to the availability of specific substrates (stones and topographic hollows), but were also affected by soil C: N. Overall, assemblages of mosses and vascular plants exhibited many similarities in how they responded to hydrological gradients, whereas the patterns of liverworts differed from the other two groups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag New York, 2016
Keywords
catchment size, groundwater discharge, liverworts, mosses, riparian zones, river network, species richness, vascular plants
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
biology, Environmental Science; Ecological Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100213 (URN)10.1007/s10021-015-9927-0 (DOI)000373017800013 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasMistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2015-02-25 Created: 2015-02-25 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
Wasof, S., Lenoir, J., Aarrestad, P. A., Alsos, I. G., Armbruster, W. S., Austrheim, G., . . . Decocq, G. (2015). Disjunct populations of European vascular plant species keep the same climatic niches. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 24(12), 1401-1412
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disjunct populations of European vascular plant species keep the same climatic niches
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2015 (English)In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1401-1412Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim Previous research on how climatic niches vary across species ranges has focused on a limited number of species, mostly invasive, and has not, to date, been very conclusive. Here we assess the degree of niche conservatism between distant populations of native alpine plant species that have been separated for thousands of years. Location European Alps and Fennoscandia. Methods Of the studied pool of 888 terrestrial vascular plant species occurring in both the Alps and Fennoscandia, we used two complementary approaches to test and quantify climatic-niche shifts for 31 species having strictly disjunct populations and 358 species having either a contiguous or a patchy distribution with distant populations. First, we used species distribution modelling to test for a region effect on each species' climatic niche. Second, we quantified niche overlap and shifts in niche width (i.e. ecological amplitude) and position (i.e. ecological optimum) within a bi-dimensional climatic space. Results Only one species (3%) of the 31 species with strictly disjunct populations and 58 species (16%) of the 358 species with distant populations showed a region effect on their climatic niche. Niche overlap was higher for species with strictly disjunct populations than for species with distant populations and highest for arctic-alpine species. Climatic niches were, on average, wider and located towards warmer and wetter conditions in the Alps. Main conclusion Climatic niches seem to be generally conserved between populations that are separated between the Alps and Fennoscandia and have probably been so for 10,000-15,000 years. Therefore, the basic assumption of species distribution models that a species' climatic niche is constant in space and time-at least on time scales 104 years or less-seems to be largely valid for arctic-alpine plants.

Keywords
Alpine plants, arctic plants, climatic niche, disjunct distribution, distant populations, niche conservatism, niche optimum, niche overlap, niche width, species distribution modelling
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117544 (URN)10.1111/geb.12375 (DOI)000367668000004 ()
Available from: 2016-03-01 Created: 2016-03-01 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Dynesius, M. (2015). Slow recovery of bryophyte assemblages in middle-aged boreal forests regrown after clear-cutting. Biological Conservation, 191, 101-109
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Slow recovery of bryophyte assemblages in middle-aged boreal forests regrown after clear-cutting
2015 (English)In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 191, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Clear-cutting followed by even-aged forestry is transforming forests around the globe. There is growing concern that considerable parts of the native forest biodiversity will not be able to re-colonize these new stands before the next clear-cutting. The development of species assemblages during the full forestry rotation period must be understood in order to assess the need for management adaptations and to get a basis for their design. Knowledge is accumulating from studies of permanent plots before and shortly after clear-cutting, but for later stages only comparative studies have been published (space-for-time substitutions). In this study, I combined this comparative approach with direct monitoring of the pace of assemblage recovery in boreal stands regrown after clear-cutting half a century ago (treatment stands). I found little re-colonization in assemblages of mosses and liverworts between an initial survey to a resurvey 15 years later in 0.1-ha permanent plots of upland and stream-side forest. The assemblages of the treatment stands were still significantly different from those in matched old control forests that had never been clear-cut. The treatment stands had significantly fewer species of liverworts and of the substrate-based species subgroup "wood or bark", and the six most negatively affected species were liverworts more or less specialized to this substrate. The only significant recovery recorded over the 15 years was for the "rocks or boulders" subgroup in upland stands, probably related to a shadier and moister climate resulting from canopy development. During the inter-survey period, some of the upland treatment stands were thinned. All disfavored subgroups recovered less in thinned than in not thinned upland stands, most likely as a result of a return to lighter and drier microclimates and direct mechanical disturbance. The incomplete and slow recovery halfway into the forestry rotation period calls for action. Adaptation of thinning for conservation has rarely been implemented in boreal forest management, but has a large potential. To facilitate re-colonization by disfavored liverworts and mosses growing on wood or bark and/or under shaded and moist conditions, I suggest retention of unlogged patches during thinning and addition of coarse deadwood on the ground in these patches. Such measures would also favor re-colonization of other late-successional species.

Keywords
Biodiversity, Boreal, Bryophyta, Conservation management, Forestry, Marchantiophyta, Resilience, Sweden, Thinning logging
National Category
Ecology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112256 (URN)10.1016/j.biocon.2015.06.024 (DOI)000364257100012 ()
Available from: 2015-12-07 Created: 2015-12-04 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J., Hjältén, J. & Dynesius, M. (2015). Wood-Inhabiting Beetles in Low Stumps, High Stumps and Logs on Boreal Clear-Cuts: Implications for Dead Wood Management. PLoS ONE, 10(3), Article ID e0118896.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wood-Inhabiting Beetles in Low Stumps, High Stumps and Logs on Boreal Clear-Cuts: Implications for Dead Wood Management
2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0118896Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing demand for biofuels from logging residues require serious attention on the importance of dead wood substrates on clear-cuts for the many forestry-intolerant saproxylic (wood-inhabiting) species. In particular, the emerging harvest of low stumps motivates further study of these substrates. On ten clear-cuts we compared the species richness, abundance and species composition of saproxylic beetles hatching from four to nine year old low stumps, high stumps and logs of Norway spruce. By using emergence traps we collected a total of 2,670 saproxylic beetles among 195 species during the summers of 2006, 2007 and 2009. We found that the species assemblages differed significantly between high stumps and logs all three years. The species assemblages of low stumps, on the other hand, were intermediate to those found in logs and high stumps. There were also significant difference in species richness between the three examined years, and we found significant effect of substrate type on richness of predators and fungivores. As shown in previous studies of low stumps on clear-cuts they can sustain large numbers of different saproxylic beetles, including red-listed species. Our study does, in addition to this fact, highlight a possible problem in creating just one type of substrate as a tool for conservation in forestry. Species assemblages in high stumps did not differ significantly from those found in low stumps. Instead logs, which constitute a scarcer substrate type on clear-cuts, provided habitat for a more distinct assemblage of saproxylic species than high stumps. It can therefore be questioned whether high stumps are an optimal tool for nature conservation in clear-cutting forestry. Our results also indicate that low stumps constitute an equally important substrate as high stumps and logs, and we therefore suggest that stump harvesting is done after carefully evaluating measures to provide habitat for saproxylic organisms.

National Category
Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102223 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0118896 (DOI)000351275700030 ()25756871 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-04-28 Created: 2015-04-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Dynesius, M. & Jansson, R. (2014). Persistence of within-species lineages: a neglected control of speciation rates. Evolution, 68(4), 923-934
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistence of within-species lineages: a neglected control of speciation rates
2014 (English)In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 923-934Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a framework distinguishing three principal controls of speciation rate: rate of splitting, level of persistence, and length of speciation duration. We contend that discussions on diversification become clearer in the light of this framework, because speciation rate variation could be attributed to any of these controls. In particular, we claim that the role of persistence of within-species lineages in controlling speciation rates has been greatly underappreciated. More emphasis on the persistence control would change expectations of the role of several biological traits and environmental factors, because they may drive speciationrate in one direction through the persistence control and in the opposite direction through the other two controls. Traits and environments have been little studied regarding their influence on speciation rate through the persistence control, with climatic fluctuations being a relatively well-studied exception. Considering the recent advances in genomic and phylogenetic analysis, we think that the time is ripe for applying the framework in empirical research. Variation among clades and areas (and thus among traits and environments) in the importance of the three rate controls could be addressed for example by dating splitting events, detecting within-species lineages, and scanning genomes for evidence of divergent selection.

Keywords
cladogenesis, extinction, speciation speed, waiting time to speciation
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86281 (URN)10.1111/evo.12316 (DOI)000333553500001 ()
Available from: 2014-02-21 Created: 2014-02-21 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
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