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Bergström, Peter
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Mårell-Olsson, E., Bergström, P. & Jahnke, I. (2019). Is the tablet a teacher or a student tool?: Emergent practices in tablet-based classrooms (1ed.). In: Teresa Cerratto Pargman, Isa Jahnke (Ed.), Emergent practices and material conditions in learning and teaching with technologies: (pp. 89-105). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is the tablet a teacher or a student tool?: Emergent practices in tablet-based classrooms
2019 (English)In: Emergent practices and material conditions in learning and teaching with technologies / [ed] Teresa Cerratto Pargman, Isa Jahnke, Springer, 2019, 1, p. 89-105Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study was to understand how digitalization of K–12 education has been carried out in Sweden. The focus lied on investigating 26 teacher's teaching designs in tablet-based one-to-one computing initiatives in Sweden. Further, the aim was to explore teachers' motives and practical implementation for teaching and learning in the one-to-one computing classroom. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 26 teachers along with 26 classroom observations in grades 2 to 12 (e.g. students from 8 to 18 years old). Activity theory was used for analyzing the participated teachers' motives, goals, actions, and operations involved in the integration of the tablets in the classroom. This study was part of a broader research project with classroom observations and student group interviews that was conducted during 2011–2015. The findings illuminate emergent practices based on teachers' strategies for constructing a teaching design that attempts to fulfill each student's individual needs. The findings also make clear that teachers are struggling for providing a customized education for all. In addition, the findings contribute to knowledge about how principals' strategic leadership (i.e. leadership and organization of the work in the school) has an impact on teachers' design practices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019 Edition: 1
Keywords
Teachers, one-to-one tablet classroom, Teaching, Learning, Students as consumers, Students as producers, Teacher tool, Student tool
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157499 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-10764-2_6 (DOI)978-3-030-10763-5 (ISBN)978-3-030-10764-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Bergström, P. (2019). Merging three schools into one new school: training teachers for team-based teaching. In: Fjärde nationella konferensen i pedagogiskt arbete: Abstractbok. Paper presented at Fjärde nationella konferensen i pedagogiskt arbete, Umeå, Sverige, 19-20 augusti, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Merging three schools into one new school: training teachers for team-based teaching
2019 (English)In: Fjärde nationella konferensen i pedagogiskt arbete: Abstractbok, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a project where three schools in one municipality are involved in a 2-years preparation process of merging three existing schools into one greater newly built school. In each of these schools, training arenas has been set up based on the architecture of the new school building (e.g. principles of room-in-the-room, small amphitheaters, varying furniture and rich access to ICTs). The new school highlights an organizational shift where teachers will move from individual work in classes of 23-30 students to team-based teaching. Each team teaches one whole grade with approx. 100 students in home arenas. This paper focuses on how the three existing schools prepare teachers for such a shift. The aim is to increase the understanding of what skills teachers need and develop for team-based teaching. The research question addressed: what characterizes the pedagogical practice in the training arenas in terms of how the arena is used and teacher-student communication and interaction? A participatory design-based research methodology (Holmgren, 2019) was applied where this paper focus on the initial phase of teachers’ work in the training arenas. The analysis draws on a) classroom observations based on audio recordings from the teachers’ communication, notes, and photographs, and b) teacher and principal interviews. The data were analyzed with support of a typology where Bernstein’s (2000) theory of classification and framing were operationalized into a two-dimensional typology based on the physical organization of space (classification), and teachers’ communication in practice (framing) (Bergström et al., 2017). Preliminary results indicate possibilities and challenges in the pedagogical practice. Possibilities concern a richer environment which provides variation in students’ learning, while challenges concern increase demands on students’ self-regulation when power and control was distributed to the students.     

National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163626 (URN)
Conference
Fjärde nationella konferensen i pedagogiskt arbete, Umeå, Sverige, 19-20 augusti, 2019
Available from: 2019-09-30 Created: 2019-09-30 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Rönnlund, M., Bergström, P. & Tieva, Å. (2019). Space for active learning: Envisioned and practiced school design.. In: NERA 2019, 6-8 March, Uppsala, Sweden: Education in a globalized world. Paper presented at NERA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Space for active learning: Envisioned and practiced school design.
2019 (English)In: NERA 2019, 6-8 March, Uppsala, Sweden: Education in a globalized world, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a case study of trends and transitions in the context of Nordic school design. The aim is to explore how local stakeholders in Sweden (principals, school leaders and architects) involved in school building projects envision a ‘good’ learning environment and what perceptions of teaching and learning that underlie their visions. By including various groups of stakeholders, we also aim at exploring how their views relate to each other. Drawn on the results, we discuss their ideas in relation to wider discourses on teaching and learning in late modern society with focus on local – global transitions.

The study draws on a relational understanding of space (Massey 2005; McGregor 2004), and the idea that physical, social and pedagogical dimensions of learning space are generated together and continuously in process. Furthermore, we understand learning spaces as areas where power relations, control and agency are performed. In line with this understanding the analysis draws on Bernstein’s concepts ‘classification’ and ‘framing’ (Bernstein 2000).

We conducted semi-structured interviews with stakeholders at different levels (municipality level, school level) involved in projects concerning construction and reconstruction of school buildings. At the level of municipalities, interviews where held with 8 officials/school leaders and 3 architects. At the school level, interviews where held with 9 principals (n 20). Interview data was analysed inspired by Critical Discourse Analysis as advocated by Wodac and Fairclough (1997).

We identified two main discourses about how learning space shall be constituted, that differed in terms of classification. One which celebrated clear boundaries and separations between different places/localities, i.e. strong classification in physical space, and one which celebrated more blurred boundaries and separations in physical space, i.e. weak classification between localities. Furthermore, the framing came in different forms in the two discourses - more strong framing of student-teacher relations and communication in the first discourse and more weak framing in the second discourse. Thus, strongly classified physical space seemed to entail (or operate with) strong framing of communication and behaviour (clear and explicit rules and principles for classroom practices), and weak classified physical space seemed to entail (or operate with) more weak framing of practices (the rules and principles for learning being merely implicit). No matter of what discourse or profession they represented, the stakeholders advocated a pedagogical approach directed towards ‘active’ learning and saw the student as an ‘active learner‘.

National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156827 (URN)
Conference
NERA
Available from: 2019-02-28 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Bagger, A. & Bergström, P. (2019). The Liminal Space Between National Tests and ICT for Teaching and Learning: (Dis)Harmony of Teacher Roles. In: ECER 2019 - European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg, Germany 3rd-6th September 2019: "Education in an Era of Risk – the Role of Educational Research for the Future", 2019: . Paper presented at ECER 2019 - European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg, Germany, 3-6 September, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Liminal Space Between National Tests and ICT for Teaching and Learning: (Dis)Harmony of Teacher Roles
2019 (English)In: ECER 2019 - European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg, Germany 3rd-6th September 2019: "Education in an Era of Risk – the Role of Educational Research for the Future", 2019, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

During the last decades, a neo-liberal governing of public education has emerged and been enhanced throughout the school- systems in nations (Au, 2016). Following from this, the vehicle of development in the nordic education systems are anchored in a corporate-logic in which economic competition and technological change have taken central places (Antikainen, 2006). An orientation towards goal-management and a marketisation of the school has been displayed in reforms especially from the 1990s and forward, encompassing choice, efficiency and accountability (Rönnberg, 2011).

Two examples of this is the very predominant practices of the increased use of ICT in teaching and learning and also, increased emphasis on national assessment (Verger, Lubienski & Steiner-Kamsi, 2017). Both of these practices are in the core of making education more efficient and holding higher quality, which is ultimately the teachers responsibility and something that the schools is held accountable for. Enhancement of knowledge and quality is assumed to be an engine for progress and are at the same time means for the state to govern a system that is imprinted by globalisation, decentrantralisation, privatization and local self-governing (Carlbaum, Hult, Lindgren, Novak, Rönnberg, Segerholm, 2014). Data-use in education have then become important tools for producing evidence, as quality indicators and for the settings of goals (Prøitz, Mausethagen & Skedsmo, 2017), which is seen both in the collection of results from the tests and in the use of ICT in the classroom.

This contribution explores two of the most prominent reforms made in the Swedish school system the last decade, and that have connections to the above depicted global and neo-liberal logic of governing education. 1: Increased emphasis on the use of ICT in teaching and learning and 2: Increased and earlier national assessment and grading. The Swedish context in particular provides a large number of ICT initiatives, so called one-to-one computing, with both laptops and tablets for each student reported in almost all of the 290 Swedish municipalities (Becker & Taawo, 2018). In addition, national testing has been advanced and is now administered to preschool class, third grade, sixth grade and ninth grade in compulsory school.

They are both very dominant as institutionalised practices in the Swedish school and we state that they carries with them disparate routines, rules and roles for how to be a teacher. At the same time, the nordic school model is characterized by “providing schooling of high and equal quality, regardless of children’s and young people’s resources, origin and location“ (Lundahl, 2016, p. 3). These elements of equity and quality is also a point of departure and argument for implementing changes in school policy. Although equity is not very well demarcated, and heavily weighted with the neo-liberal logic and in addition, depicted as something the schools and teachers are held accountable for (Bagger, Norén, Boistrup & Lundahl, 2019). Therefore, the teachers role become in the core of these changes and how their space of action within the dominant practices of national testing and use of ICT in teaching and learning, important to explore further.

The purpose of this article is to contribute with knowledge on the teacher role in the practice of using ICT in education and the practice of giving national tests. Three research questions have guided the investigation: RQ1: What does the teachers role include in the practice of giving tests appear. RQ2: What does the teachers’ role include in the practice of using ICT in teaching and learning? RQ3: What differences and similarities are there in the two settings regarding demands, expectations, norms and routines - what “is” it to be a teacher and go between these contexts.

Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used: Van Leeuwens (2008) theories was the point of departure in our exploration of the teachers’ role in relation to the practice at hand. Therefore, both of these investigated practices are understood as social practices. We then draw on Van Leeuwens (2008) understanding of social practices and how they shape and contribute to the role of the teachers. Van Leeuwen define social practice from 10 different elements: participants, actions, performance modes, eligibility conditions (participants), presentations style, times, locations, eligibility conditions (locations), resources: tools and materials, eligibility conditions (resources). All these concepts shall be understood in relation to the social practice. Thus, the concept of participant concern a specific role of, for example, teachers and students in the two contexts.The actions were then framed as performed in sequences which includes, for example, the pace of an action, performance modes, time and location (Van Leeuwen, 2008). Teachers are within these assumed to construct specific knowledge situated within legitimate perspectives. Hence, prevalent social discursive practices shapes and contributes to the role of the teachers whilst creating a possible space for action at the same time as the teachers shapes and contributes to the social discursive practice. The empirical material originates from two larger research projects (dnr:721-2013-774; drn: 721-208-4646) founded by the Swedish research council. The data comprise 21 teachers in the national test project and 26 teachers in the ICT project. The material contains classroom observations assisted with video, audio and field note documentation and retrospective teacher interviews individually and in groups. In both projects, teachers were interviewed and observed with the purpose of exploring the role of the teacher in the social practice at hand - but with different focus areas. In the NP project the aim was to look into if and how the student was affected by testing and in the ICT project the aim was to examining the kinds of enacted practices that arise from teachers’ organisation of the physical space, including ICTs, and teachers’ communication. We have in this article revisited the data from both projects, with a common methodology which makes the two social practices and their effect on the teachers’ role, comparable. The analytical procedure was to explore which specific participants (teachers) take which particular actions and in which performance modes they are performed, to which time-aspects and locations for the two practices and thereafter compare the teacher's role. 

Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings: The roles in the national test practice and the ICT practice are here considered as a liminal space between two different social practices. Individually, these bear with them significantly different spaces, times for action, levels of creativity, kinds of questions, answers and support and essentially how the teacher approaches the students and the tasks. The major differences indicate that in the social practice of ICT, the teacher's role is supposed to promote creativity and stimulate curiosity, creativity and activity. Activity is also crucial in the situation of national tests, but the teacher role is in essence supposed to promote students listening, following and focusing on individual achievement. Further, order issues as sound level and how and where to sit, differs greatly. A conclusion is that between these practices, there is a (dis)harmony of acting as a teacher. When we reflect on the outcome, these practices are significantly different in a way that makes us to consider them as a liminal space. Still, the teacher has to move effortless and presumably seamless between these two systems of norms regarding teaching and learning. In periods, it is not very unlikely that the half of the school day is national tests and the other half consists of some kind of collaborative and creative ICT supported learning activity. The liminal space is crucial to acknowledge in terms of the energy involved in changing role, and also that it might be had for some students to understand the changed appearance of their teacher and the changed demands of the situation. The contrasts between these practices highlight probably deeper questions about what knowledge is in today’s school and society, as well as, for whom education is aimed for, and whose interest it is supposed to serve?

National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163627 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2019 - European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg, Germany, 3-6 September, 2019
Available from: 2019-09-30 Created: 2019-09-30 Last updated: 2019-10-14
Bergström, P., Mårell-Olsson, E. & Jahnke, I. (2019). Variations of symbolic power and control in the one-to-one computing classroom: Swedish teachers' enacted didactical design decisions. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 63(1), 38-52
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variations of symbolic power and control in the one-to-one computing classroom: Swedish teachers' enacted didactical design decisions
2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 38-52Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study provides new insights into Swedish teachers' didactical designs when handling two contemporary challenges regarding the new national curriculum and the increasing digitalisation of schools through one-to-one computing initiatives. The research questions consider how teachers organise physical and digital resources in their classrooms as well as variations in teachers' pedagogical communication. From a study of 23 one-to-one computing classrooms (using tablets), some ethnographic-inspired methods were applied based on classroom observation and recordings of teachers' teaching. The findings show two distinct forms of teachers' classroom organisation that indicate different didactical designs used by teachers to integrate one-to-one computing into the classroom. Variations in teaching resulted in a shift of symbolic power and control from teachers to students, which exploit the potential of using one-to-one computing in the classroom.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
One-to-one computing, power, control, didactics
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-135207 (URN)10.1080/00313831.2017.1324902 (DOI)000451601200003 ()
Projects
Designs of Digital Didactics – What Designs of Teaching Practices Enable Deeper Learning in Co-located Settings?
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2013-774
Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Mårell-Olsson, E. & Bergström, P. (2018). A.I.D.A. the digital receptionist: An Artificial Intelligent Assistant solution for Dental Healthcare. In: Lili Jiang, Johanna Björklund, Monowar Hussain Bhuyan, Erik Elmroth, Kary Främling, Amro Najjar, Kai-Florian Richter (Ed.), The 6th Swedish Workshop on Data Science (SweDS18), Umeå, November 20-21, 2018: . Paper presented at The 6th Swedish Workshop on Data Science (SweDS18).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A.I.D.A. the digital receptionist: An Artificial Intelligent Assistant solution for Dental Healthcare
2018 (English)In: The 6th Swedish Workshop on Data Science (SweDS18), Umeå, November 20-21, 2018 / [ed] Lili Jiang, Johanna Björklund, Monowar Hussain Bhuyan, Erik Elmroth, Kary Främling, Amro Najjar, Kai-Florian Richter, 2018Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A.I.D.A. the digital receptionist – An Artificial Intelligent Assistant solution for Dental Healthcare

Swedish dental healthcare is facing several challenges that are shared with the rest of the western world regarding how to develop effective dental healthcare in a digitized society. For society, the challenges concern a growing population at the same time as growing staff shortages. It is not possible to address the shortage of dentists and dental nurses by traiing more and it is therefore necessary to find other solutions. In addition, there is an ongoing digitization of dental healthcare and increased demands are being made for developing new innovative solutions, as well as those made on existing structures and systems. The focus is on creating effective dental healthcare in combination with an agile and innovative way of meeting the challenges of the future. The use of Artificial intelligence (AI) in dental healthcare brings the hope of increased quality and effectiveness as well as increased growth and better welfare. This project is about an on-going applied study in dental healthcare. The study context embraces a newly built public dental clinic in the city centre of Umea, Sweden that opened for patients in September 2018.

The clinic’s vision is to become the world’s smartest dental clinic, using smart digital tools and developing smart working methods. Furthermore, the clinic aims to be a fully functioned test bed within two years. The clinic is fully digitized with the latest equipment it is possible to obtain for dental healthcare. The staff recruited have a specific responsibility to be part of the exploration and share their experiences of how to develop dental healthcare for the future. Another focus concerns how to conduct more effective dental healthcare for the patients. One of the on-going projects is an AI-based communication-solution under development called A.I.D.A. – the digital receptionist (e.g. Artificial Intelligent Dental Assistant).

Aim and method

The study aims to investigate how an AI-system can optimize the communication between patient and staff as well as the communication between the staff within the clinic. The research questions focus on patients’ and staffs’ experiences and their use of the developed AI-system concerning opportunities as well as challenges. Design-based research methods will be used as a means to develop an approach to meet the challenges of staff shortages based on the use of AI. Three types of data will be collected based on staff interviews, patient interviews and log data from the AI system. The theoretical framework is based on activity theory, where motives, goals, actions and operations are key starting points. Activity theory embraces an exploration and an understanding of a context in relation to how social relations and materials, tools and intentions affect acting in different situations.

Thematic analysis will be used to construct an understanding and sense of the collected empirical material and to identify key themes and emerging patterns based on the study’s aim and research questions.

National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153687 (URN)
Conference
The 6th Swedish Workshop on Data Science (SweDS18)
Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2018-11-27
Bergström, P. & Lindh, V. (2018). Developing the role of Swedish advanced practice nurse (APN) through a blended learning master's program: consequences of knowledge organisation. Nurse Education in Practice, 28, 196-201
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing the role of Swedish advanced practice nurse (APN) through a blended learning master's program: consequences of knowledge organisation
2018 (English)In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 28, p. 196-201Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a research study conducted with a group of nurses in Sweden enrolled in a newly developed blended learning master's programme to become advanced practice nurses (APNs). As background, the paper presents the regional needs the programme is intended to address and describes how the programme was designed. The aim was to understand how, from students' perspective, the nurse master's programme structured knowledge for their future position as APNs. The research question focuses on how the master's programme prepares students by meeting their diverse needs for knowledge. Empirical material was collected at two times during the students' first and second years of study through semi-structured qualitative interviews. The findings highlight the process in which these master's students gained a more advanced identity of becoming APNs. This process demonstrates how students perceive their current position as nurses based on a discourse of knowledge in relation to the practical and theoretical knowledge they encounter in the master's programme. This article concludes by recommending that attention should be paid to developing APN role models in the current Swedish healthcare system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
qualitative, advanced practice nurse, knowledge structures, master's programme, blended learning
National Category
Pedagogical Work Nursing
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141552 (URN)10.1016/j.nepr.2017.10.030 (DOI)000427210000033 ()29126056 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-07 Created: 2017-11-07 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Mårell-Olsson, E. & Bergström, P. (2018). Digital transformation in Swedish schools: Principals’ strategic leadership and organisation of tablet-based one-to-one computing initiatives. Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, 14(2), 174-187
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital transformation in Swedish schools: Principals’ strategic leadership and organisation of tablet-based one-to-one computing initiatives
2018 (English)In: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 174-187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a research study about principals’ strategic leadership and organisation of schools within established tablet-based one-to-one computing initiatives. The aim was to investigate how principals lead and guide one-to-one computing initiatives in K–12 education. The research questions focused on principals’ expressed intentions and their strategic leadership and organisation when implementing tablet-based one-to-one computing initiatives in Swedish schools. The empirical material was collected through semi-structured interviews with seven principals in five municipalities where the schools had used tablets for more than six months within a one-to-one computing initiative. The findings are organised by themes concerning one-to-one computing as a strategy to change teaching and working methods, using technology for adapting teaching and learning to every pupil’s needs, and strategies for organisation. The findings show that marketisation of schools (e.g. the school-choice reform) in combination with the annual presentation of national rankings have had an impact on the financial situations of schools because they receive a voucher for every attending pupil. The participating principals’ strategic leadership concerning their intentions and applied strategies on how to lead and organise the digitalised school are an attempt to meet the demands that the marketisation and digitalisation of Swedish schools requires.

Keywords
qualitative study, principals, strategic leadership, one-to-one computing, marketisation of schools
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152770 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-23 Created: 2018-10-23 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
Wiklund-Engblom, A. & Bergström, P. (2018). Finnish teachers’ didactical design for power and control: Exploring their motives and intentions for one-to-one computing. In: ECER 2018: Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?: . Paper presented at ECER 2018 “Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?”, 3 – 7 September, Free University Bolzano, Italy.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finnish teachers’ didactical design for power and control: Exploring their motives and intentions for one-to-one computing
2018 (English)In: ECER 2018: Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?, 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction 

This study is part of a larger Nordic research project, including a series of substudies with a common research objective of examining teachers’ didactical design in one-to-one computing classrooms in Denmark, Sweden and Finland (Jahnke et al., 2017). In this research project, one didactical design represents one lesson, which is documented through classroom observations, written documentation, photographs, and audio recordings. In addition to this teacher interviews are conducted to corroborate discoveries from other data. 

The findings presented in this paper is based on 14 teacher interviews in grades 7-9 in Finland. The analysis is a triangulation of findings (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004)from one earlier analysis of the observational data from the same Finnish substudy. The main discoveries of the first analysis revealed two clusters related to power and control as described by Berstein (2000). The first cluster involved practices described as rather traditional where the teachers make the decisions, while the second cluster involved practices described as student active where students are involved in making decisions (Bergström, submitted 2018). Regarding this issue, Laurillard and Derntl (2014) argue that one aspect of design concerns the extent to which students are allowed to take some controlin the teaching and learning process. Otherwise, they warn that the use of ICTs can simply replicate previous traditions for teaching and learning. Further, in Klein and Kleinman’s (2002) perspective on the social construction of technology the enacted didactical design in the one-to-one computing classroom should be considered as a design process. In this process, powerindicates the interaction between teachers and students, the rules that order the interactions, and how other factors contribute to differences in theirrelationship. 

The concept of didactical design is used based on the European tradition of Didaktik regarding the teacher–student–content triad (Klafki, 2000). These are all relays of symbolic power and control. Bernstein’s (1990, 2000) concepts of classification and framing were found to be helpful for analysing such relations. The concept of classification refers to power relations that emerge between objects (e.g. desks) or contexts, as either strong or weak. Strong classification, can be found in classrooms with desks organised in straight lines, whereas weak classification indicates distribution of power based on increased “disorder” (e.g. desks in groups). The concept of framing refers to the locus of control in the teachers’ narratives with regard to the selection and sequence of content, pacing, evaluation and hierarchical between teacher-student and student-student. If framing is strong, teachers are in control, for example how fast the content shall be acquired, while weak framing indicates increased possibilities for students to affect the pace.

This project was conducted during the transition from the 2004 Finnish national curriculum to the 2016 national curriculum that emphasised, among other things, digital competence. However, implementing digital devices, and in this case at a 1:1 ratio, is in many ways a challenge for the ecology of the classroom (Håkansson Lindqvist, 2015). It is known from earlier research that ICT-implementation needs to be pedagogically integrated in order to be of use for learning (Genlott & Grönlund, 2016). It is the teachers’ didactical design and orchestration of the classroom activities that determine the success of the 1:1 implementation in the classroom (Jahnke, Norqvist & Olsson, 2014).

The aim is to contribute to a deeper understanding of Finnish teachers’ didactical design in one-to-one computing classrooms. More specifically: How do the two clusters, pertaining to power and control, relate to how teachers reflect on their motives and intentions in their planning, their ideas about learning and assessment, as well as perceived changes from introducing one-to-one computing?

Method 

Fourteen semi-structured teacher interviews were conducted at two schools. These teachers (9 female; 5 male) were selected based on suggestions from the principals, because of their frequent use of one-to-one computing in their teaching. The work experience of the sample ranged between 2 and 40 years. The interview themes covered: teacher background, planning, learning, assessment, and perceptions of change. The teachers were given the opportunity to explain their motives and intentions for the iPad integration during the observed lecture, and the researchers were able to ask questions related to these classroom practices. Thus, the interviews were similar to a retrospective ethnographic interview with elements of stimulated recall, as teachers often went back to the digital devices to show content and apps (Dempsey, 2010). Each interview were conducted by either two or three researchers, lasting approximately 60 minutes. They were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim.  

The purpose for conducting the teacher interviews was to be able to triangulate these data with the prior observational data. Data triangulation is used to cross-validate sources of data against each other during analysis. This is a verification against error in the research process, as multiple methods provide stronger evidence, decrease potential weaknesses of any single method (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004) and prevent biased perspectives due to methodological distortion (Hodkinson & Macleod, 2007). A true triangulation is done by integrating multiple types of data during analysis, in contrast to merely comparing findings (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004). 

A qualitative content analysis was made on all interview transcripts using the QSR NVivo software. In the first phase, each meaning unit was coded separately in accordance to the themes: planning, learning, assessment, and perceptions of change. These were, furthermore, divided into a number of subcategories. During the second phase of coding, meaning condensations were made for each coded meaning unit, in order to further reduce the material (Flick, 1998/2002). The third phase consisted of an integrated data analysis, using both interview and observational data. Each of the 14 teachers were given attribute values (Bazeley, 2007) of their designated power-cluster, resulting in seven teachers in each cluster. This dichotomised classification of teachers was then correlated to the coded subcategories.

Expected results/outcomes

Not only do the teachers have to be content experts, but they also have to configure and orchestrate artefacts, environment, and people (Goodyear & Dimitriadis, 2013). Prior findings based on observational data (Bergström et al. 2017) illustrate how teachers’ arrangements of the classroom space create different privileging teaching practices. Such practices indicate how teachers’ design in practice constrained by the precondition of the classroom space. But why do they choose certain practices?

This phase of the larger Nordic study focused on triangulating interview data with observational data from the Finnish substudy. It targeted how teachers talked about their own perceptions, expectations, and attitudes towards the change the one-to-one tablet introduction had brought to their classrooms. But most importantly, it presented the opportunity to further explain differences in perceptions and motives for planning, learning, and assessment between the power-and-control-based clusters of teachers (cf. Bernstein 1990; 2000) found in the prior analysis. It is expected that these two patterns of didactical design in relation to power and control will also be visible in teachers’ reflections during the retrospective interviews.

The triangulation of data enables an examination of the subcategories of each theme. The first two phases of this second analysis of the Finnish substudy have resulted in a number of subcategories derived from the interview data. For instance, the theme Planning a lectureinclude the following subcategories: activating students, considering emotions, producing material, instructional design, iPad integration, learning goals, curriculum guidance, furnishing the room, collaboration, and providing teasers for engagement. The theme Learning includes the following subcategories: adjustment to learner needs, feedback, feed forward, focus on the learning process, peer learning, motivation, repetition, scaffolding, documentation, and students taking own initiative. The theme Assessment includes how teachers reflected on assessment criteria, students own interest, group work, holistic assessment, communicating assessment criteria to students, self-assessment, and assessing students’ class activity. 

 

National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157903 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2018 “Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?”, 3 – 7 September, Free University Bolzano, Italy
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
Bergström, P. & Mårell-Olsson, E. (2018). Power and control in the one-to-one computing classroom: students’ perspectives on teachers’ didactical design. Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, 14(2), 160-173
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Power and control in the one-to-one computing classroom: students’ perspectives on teachers’ didactical design
2018 (English)In: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 160-173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a research study that scrutinised the student perspective on teachers’ different didactical designs from lessons in the one-to-one computing classroom. Specifically, the aim was to describe and understand three different clusters of didactical design in the one-to-one computing classroom from the student perspective. Each of the three clusters represents different interactions between teachers and students. The research questions embrace how the teachers or students, through the didactical design, will have an advantage over the other. The empirical material was based on student focus groups interviews, enhanced through the method of stimulated recall where different photographs of teaching and learning situations from the one-to-one computing classroom were shown to the students. The results demonstrate three empirical themes: students’ learning in class, students’ learning outside class, and classroom assessment. From a theoretical lens of power and control, the students’ reasoning demonstrates approaches to how teachers regulate students and to how students can make decisions in their learning process. For handling students’ demands, specifically in pedagogical plans, the one-to-one computing classroom becomes one component for making students’ learning processes smoother regarding when to study and how to study.

Keywords
qualitative, one-to-one computing, power, control, didactics
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153727 (URN)
Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2018-11-30Bibliographically approved
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