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Lindgren, Helena
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Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Siebert, C., Lindgren, H., Ferre, S., Villers, C., Boisset, S., Perard, J., . . . Renesto, P. (2019). Francisella tularensis: FupA mutation contributes to fluoroquinolone resistance by increasing vesicle secretion and biofilm formation. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 8(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Francisella tularensis: FupA mutation contributes to fluoroquinolone resistance by increasing vesicle secretion and biofilm formation
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2019 (English)In: Emerging Microbes & Infections, ISSN 2222-1751, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Francisella tularensis is the causative agent in tularemia for which the high prevalence of treatment failure and relapse is a major concern. Directed-evolution experiments revealed that acquisition of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance was linked to factors in addition to mutations in DNA gyrase. Here, using F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) as a model, we demonstrated that FupA/B (Fer-Utilization Protein) expression is linked to FQ susceptibility, and that the virulent strain F. tularensis subsp. tularensisSCHU S4 deleted for the homologous FupA protein exhibited even higher FQ resistance. In addition to an increased FQ minimal inhibitory concentration, LVSΔfupA/B displayed tolerance toward bactericidal compounds including ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Interestingly, the FupA/B deletion was found to promote increased secretion of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic characterization of vesicles from LVS and LVS∆fupA/B identified 801 proteins, including a subset of 23 proteins exhibiting differential abundance between both strains which may therefore contribute to the reduced antibiotic susceptibility of the FupA/B-deleted strain. We also demonstrated that OMVs are key structural elements of LVSΔfupA/Bbiofilms providing protection against FQ. These results provide a new basis for understanding and tackling antibiotic resistance and/or persistence of Francisella and other pathogenic members of the Thiotrichales class.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Francisella, OMVs, biofilms, antibiotics, fluoroquinolones
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161719 (URN)10.1080/22221751.2019.1615848 (DOI)000473826100001 ()31164053 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-07-26 Created: 2019-07-26 Last updated: 2019-07-26Bibliographically approved
Wallet, P., Benaoudia, S., Mosnier, A., Lagrange, B., Martin, A., Lindgren, H., . . . Henry, T. (2017). IFN-gamma extends the immune functions of Guanylate Binding Proteins to inflammasome-independent antibacterial activities during Francisella novicida infection. PLoS Pathogens, 13(10), Article ID e1006630.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>IFN-gamma extends the immune functions of Guanylate Binding Proteins to inflammasome-independent antibacterial activities during Francisella novicida infection
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2017 (English)In: PLoS Pathogens, ISSN 1553-7366, E-ISSN 1553-7374, Vol. 13, no 10, article id e1006630Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are interferon-inducible proteins involved in the cellintrinsic immunity against numerous intracellular pathogens. The molecular mechanisms underlying the potent antibacterial activity of GBPs are still unclear. GBPs have been functionally linked to the NLRP3, the AIM2 and the caspase-11 inflammasomes. Two opposing models are currently proposed to explain the GBPs-inflammasome link: i) GBPs would target intracellular bacteria or bacteria-containing vacuoles to increase cytosolic PAMPs release ii) GBPs would directly facilitate inflammasome complex assembly. Using Francisella novicida infection, we investigated the functional interactions between GBPs and the inflammasome. GBPs, induced in a type I IFN-dependent manner, are required for the F. novicida-mediated AIM2-inflammasome pathway. Here, we demonstrate that GBPs action is not restricted to the AIM2 inflammasome, but controls in a hierarchical manner the activation of different inflammasomes complexes and apoptotic caspases. IFN-gamma induces a quantitative switch in GBPs levels and redirects pyroptotic and apoptotic pathways under the control of GBPs. Furthermore, upon IFN-gamma priming, F. novicida-infected macrophages restrict cytosolic bacterial replication in a GBP-dependent and inflammasome-independent manner. Finally, in a mouse model of tularemia, we demonstrate that the inflammasome and the GBPs are two key immune pathways functioning largely independently to control F. novicida infection. Altogether, our results indicate that GBPs are the master effectors of IFN-gamma-mediated responses against F. novicida to control antibacterial immune responses in inflammasome-dependent and independent manners.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library Science, 2017
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141986 (URN)10.1371/journal.ppat.1006630 (DOI)000414163300008 ()
Available from: 2017-12-06 Created: 2017-12-06 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Honn, M., Lindgren, H., Bharath, G. K. & Sjöstedt, A. (2017). Lack of OxyR and KatG Results in Extreme Susceptibility of Francisella tularensis LVS to Oxidative Stress and Marked Attenuation In vivo. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 7, Article ID 14.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lack of OxyR and KatG Results in Extreme Susceptibility of Francisella tularensis LVS to Oxidative Stress and Marked Attenuation In vivo
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 7, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Francisella tularensis is an intracellular bacterium and as such is expected to encounter a continuous attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in its intracellular habitat and efficiently coping with oxidative stress is therefore essential for its survival. The oxidative stress response system of F tularensis is complex and includes multiple antioxidant enzymes and pathways, including the transcriptional regulator OxyR and the H2O2-decomposing enzyme catalase, encoded by katG. The latter is regulated by OxyR. A deletion of either of these genes, however, does not severely compromise the virulence of F tularensis and we hypothesized that if the bacterium would be deficient of both catalase and OxyR, then the oxidative defense and virulence of F tularensis would become severely hampered. To test this hypothesis, we generated a double deletion mutant, Delta oxyR/Delta katG, of F tularensis LVS and compared its phenotype to the parental LVS strain and the corresponding single deletion mutants. In accordance with the hypothesis, Delta oxyR/Delta katG was distinctly more susceptible than Delta oxyR and Delta katG to H2O2, ONOO-, and O-2(-), moreover, it hardly grew in mouse-derived BMDM or in mice, whereas Delta katG and Delta oxyR grew as well as F tularensis LVS in BMDM and exhibited only slight attenuation in mice. Altogether, the results demonstrate the importance of catalase and OxyR for a robust oxidative stress defense system and that they act cooperatively. The lack of both functions render F tularensis severely crippled to handle oxidative stress and also much attenuated for intracellular growth and virulence.

Keywords
Francisella tularensis, OxyR, KatG, oxidative stress, virulence
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy) Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131634 (URN)10.3389/fcimb.2017.00014 (DOI)000392532700001 ()28174696 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-03-02 Created: 2017-03-02 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Golovliov, I., Lindgren, H., Eneslätt, K., Conlan, W., Mosnier, A., Henry, T. & Sjöstedt, A. (2016). An In Vitro Co-culture Mouse Model Demonstrates Efficient Vaccine-Mediated Control of Francisella tularensis SCHU S4 and Identifies Nitric Oxide as a Predictor of Efficacy. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 6, Article ID 152.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An In Vitro Co-culture Mouse Model Demonstrates Efficient Vaccine-Mediated Control of Francisella tularensis SCHU S4 and Identifies Nitric Oxide as a Predictor of Efficacy
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2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 6, article id 152Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular bacterium and cell-mediated immunity is critical for protection, but mechanisms of protection against highly virulent variants, such as the prototypic strain F. tularensis strain SCHU S4, are poorly understood. To this end, we established a co-culture system, based on splenocytes from naive, or immunized mice and in vitro infected bone marrow-derived macrophages that allowed assessment of mechanisms controlling infection with F. tularensis. We utilized the system to understand why the clpB gene deletion mutant, Delta clpB, of SCHU S4 shows superior efficacy as a vaccine in the mouse model as compared to the existing human vaccine, the live vaccine strain (LVS). Compared to naive splenocytes, Delta clpB-, or LVS-immune splenocytes conferred very significant control of a SCHU S4 infection and the Delta clpB-immune splenocytes were superior to the LVS-immune splenocytes. Cultures with the Delta clpB-immune splenocytes also contained higher levels of IFN-gamma, IL-17, and GM-CSF and nitric oxide, and T cells expressing combinations of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-17, than did cultures with LVS-immune splenocytes. There was strong inverse correlation between bacterial replication and levels of nitrite, an end product of nitric oxide, and essentially no control was observed when BMDM from iNOS(-/-) mice were infected. Collectively, the co-culture model identified a critical role of nitric oxide for protection against a highly virulent strain of F. tularensis.

Keywords
F. tularensis SCHU S4, in vitro co-culturemodel, mouse immune response, correlates of protection
National Category
Immunology Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-129814 (URN)10.3389/fcimb.2016.00152 (DOI)000388557800001 ()27933275 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-01-10 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, H. & Sjöstedt, A. (2016). Gallium Potentiates the Antibacterial Effect of Gentamicin against Francisella tularensis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 60(1), 288-295
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gallium Potentiates the Antibacterial Effect of Gentamicin against Francisella tularensis
2016 (English)In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 288-295Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The reasons why aminoglycosides are bactericidal have not been not fully elucidated, and evidence indicates that the cidal effects are at least partly dependent on iron. We demonstrate that availability of iron markedly affects the susceptibility of the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 to the aminoglycoside gentamicin. Specifically, the intracellular depots of iron were inversely correlated to gentamicin susceptibility, whereas the extracellular iron concentrations were directly correlated to the susceptibility. Further proof of the intimate link between iron availability and antibiotic susceptibility were the findings that a Delta fslA mutant, which is defective for siderophore-dependent uptake of ferric iron, showed enhanced gentamicin susceptibility and that a Delta feoB mutant, which is defective for uptake of ferrous iron, displayed complete growth arrest in the presence of gentamicin. Based on the aforementioned findings, it was hypothesized that gallium could potentiate the effect of gentamicin, since gallium is sequestered by iron uptake systems. The ferrozine assay demonstrated that the presence of gallium inhibited >70% of the iron uptake. Addition of gentamicin and/or gallium to infected bone marrow-derived macrophages showed that both 100 mu M gallium and 10 mu g/ml of gentamicin inhibited intracellular growth of SCHU S4 and that the combined treatment acted synergistically. Moreover, treatment of F. tularensis-infected mice with gentamicin and gallium showed an additive effect. Collectively, the data demonstrate that SCHU S4 is dependent on iron to minimize the effects of gentamicin and that gallium, by inhibiting the iron uptake, potentiates the bactericidal effect of gentamicin in vitro and in vivo.

National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121275 (URN)10.1128/AAC.01240-15 (DOI)000369154600036 ()26503658 (PubMedID)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-05-30 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, H., Lindgren, L., Golovliov, I. & Sjöstedt, A. (2015). Mechanisms of heme utilization by Francisella tularensis. PLoS ONE, 10(3), Article ID e0119143.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms of heme utilization by Francisella tularensis
2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0119143Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent facultative intracellular pathogen causing the severe disease tularemia in mammals. As for other bacteria, iron is essential for its growth but very few mechanisms for iron acquisition have been identified. Here, we analyzed if and how F. tularensis can utilize heme, a major source of iron in vivo. This is by no means obvious since the bacterium lacks components of traditional heme-uptake systems. We show that SCHU S4, the prototypic strain of subspecies tularensis, grew in vitro with heme as the sole iron source. By screening a SCHU S4 transposon insertion library, 16 genes were identified as important to efficiently utilize heme, two of which were required to avoid heme toxicity. None of the identified genes appeared to encode components of a potential heme-uptake apparatus. Analysis of SCHU S4 deletion mutants revealed that each of the components FeoB, the siderophore system, and FupA, contributed to the heme-dependent growth. In the case of the former two systems, iron acquisition was impaired, whereas the absence of FupA did not affect iron uptake but led to abnormally high binding of iron to macromolecules. Overall, the present study demonstrates that heme supports growth of F. tularensis and that the requirements for the utilization are highly complex and to some extent novel.

National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102224 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0119143 (DOI)000351275700039 ()25756756 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-05-05 Created: 2015-04-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Binesse, J., Lindgren, H., Lindgren, L., Conlan, W. & Sjöstedt, A. (2015). Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species-Degrading Enzymes of Francisella tularensis SCHU S4. Infection and Immunity, 83(6), 2255-2263
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species-Degrading Enzymes of Francisella tularensis SCHU S4
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2015 (English)In: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 83, no 6, p. 2255-2263Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium utilizing macrophages as its primary intracellular habitat and is therefore highly capable of resisting the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), potent mediators of the bactericidal activity of macrophages. We investigated the roles of enzymes presumed to be important for protection against ROS. Four mutants of the highly virulent SCHU S4 strain with deletions of the genes encoding catalase (katG), glutathione peroxidase (gpx), a DyP-type peroxidase (FTT0086), or double deletion of FTT0086 and katG showed much increased susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and slightly increased susceptibility to paraquat but not to peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and displayed intact intramacrophage replication. Nevertheless, mice infected with the double deletion mutant showed significantly longer survival than SCHU S4-infected mice. Unlike the aforementioned mutants, deletion of the gene coding for alkyl-hydroperoxide reductase subunit C (ahpC) generated a mutant much more susceptible to paraquat and ONOO- but not to H2O2. It showed intact replication in J774 cells but impaired replication in bone marrow-derived macrophages and in internal organs of mice. The live vaccine strain, LVS, is more susceptible than virulent strains to ROS-mediated killing and possesses a truncated form of FTT0086. Expression of the SCHU S4 FTT0086 gene rendered LVS more resistant to H2O2, which demonstrates that the SCHU S4 strain possesses additional detoxifying mechanisms. Collectively, the results demonstrate that SCHU S4 ROS-detoxifying enzymes have overlapping functions, and therefore, deletion of one or the other does not critically impair the intracellular replication or virulence, although AhpC appears to have a unique function.

National Category
Immunology Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106020 (URN)10.1128/IAI.02488-14 (DOI)000356243000006 ()25802058 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-07-06 Created: 2015-07-03 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Twine, S. M., Vinogradov, E., Lindgren, H., Sjöstedt, A. & Conlan, J. W. (2012). Roles for wbtC, wbtI, and kdtA genes in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, protein glycosylation, virulence, and immunogenicity in Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4. Pathogens, 1(1), 12-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Roles for wbtC, wbtI, and kdtA genes in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, protein glycosylation, virulence, and immunogenicity in Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4
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2012 (English)In: Pathogens, ISSN 2076-0817, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 12-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using a strategy of gene deletion mutagenesis, we have examined the roles of genes putatively involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in the virulent facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis, strain SCHU S4 in LPS biosynthesis, protein glycosylation, virulence and immunogenicity. One mutant, ∆wbtI, did not elaborate a long chain O-polysaccharide (OPS), was completely avirulent for mice, and failed to induce a protective immune response against challenge with wild type bacteria. Another mutant, ∆wbtC, produced a long chain OPS with altered chemical and electrophoretic characteristics. This mutant showed markedly reduced glycosylation of several known glycoproteins. Additionally this mutant was highly attenuated, and elicited a protective immune response against systemic, but not respiratory challenge with wild type SCHU S4. A third mutant, ∆kdtA, produced an unconjugated long chain OPS, lacking a detectable core structure, and which was not obviously expressed at the surface. It was avirulent and elicited partial protection against systemic challenge only.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2012
Keywords
Francisella tularensis, lipopolysaccharide, glycosylation, virulence
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-64742 (URN)10.3390/pathogens1010012 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-02-01 Created: 2013-02-01 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Engdahl, C., Näslund, J., Lindgren, L., Ahlm, C. & Bucht, G. (2012). The Rift Valley Fever virus protein NSm and putative cellular protein interactions. Virology Journal, 9, 139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Rift Valley Fever virus protein NSm and putative cellular protein interactions
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2012 (English)In: Virology Journal, ISSN 1743-422X, Vol. 9, p. 139-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rift Valley Fever is an infectious viral disease and an emerging problem in many countries of Africa and on the Arabian Peninsula. The causative virus is predominantly transmitted by mosquitoes and high mortality and abortion rates characterize outbreaks in animals while symptoms ranging from mild to life-threatening encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever are noticed among infected humans. For a better prevention and treatment of the infection, an increased knowledge of the infectious process of the virus is required. The focus of this work was to identify protein-protein interactions between the non-structural protein (NSm), encoded by the M-segment of the virus, and host cell proteins. This study was initiated by screening approximately 26 million cDNA clones of a mouse embryonic cDNA library for interactions with the NSm protein using a yeast two-hybrid system. We have identified nine murine proteins that interact with NSm protein of Rift Valley Fever virus, and the putative protein-protein interactions were confirmed by growth selection procedures and beta-gal activity measurements. Our results suggest that the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 2 (Cpsf2), the peptidyl-prolyl cistrans isomerase (cyclophilin)-like 2 protein (Ppil2), and the synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) are the most promising targets for the NSm protein of the virus during an infection.

Keywords
Rift Valley fever, NSm, Yeast two-hybrid, SNAP-25, Ppil2, Cpsf2
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-61224 (URN)10.1186/1743-422X-9-139 (DOI)000308610100001 ()
Available from: 2012-11-08 Created: 2012-11-07 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Honn, M., Lindgren, H. & Sjöstedt, A. (2012). The role of MglA for adaptation to oxidative stress of Francisella tularensis LVS. BMC Microbiology, 12, 14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of MglA for adaptation to oxidative stress of Francisella tularensis LVS
2012 (English)In: BMC Microbiology, ISSN 1471-2180, E-ISSN 1471-2180, Vol. 12, p. 14-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The Francisella tularensis protein MglA performs complex regulatory functions since it influences the expression of more than 100 genes and proteins in F. tularensis. Besides regulating the igl operon, it has been suggested that it also regulates several factors such as SspA, Hfq, CspC, and UspA, all important to stress adaptation. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that MglA plays an important role for Francisella stress responses in general and for the oxidative stress response specifically.

Results: We investigated the oxidative stress response of the Delta mglA mutant of the live vaccine strain (LVS) of F. tularensis and found that it showed markedly diminished growth and contained more oxidized proteins than the parental LVS strain when grown in an aerobic milieu but not when grown microaerobically. Moreover, the Delta mglA mutant exhibited an increased catalase activity and reduced expression of the fsl operon and feoB in the aerobic milieu. The mutant was also found to be less susceptible to H2O2. The aberrant catalase activity and gene expression was partially normalized when the Delta mglA mutant was grown in a microaerobic milieu.

Conclusions: Altogether the results show that the Delta mglA mutant exhibits all the hallmarks of a bacterium subjected to oxidative stress under aerobic conditions, indicating that MglA is required for normal adaptation of F. tularensis to oxidative stress and oxygen-rich environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: BioMed Central, 2012
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-53946 (URN)10.1186/1471-2180-12-14 (DOI)000301483900001 ()22264342 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-04-12 Created: 2012-04-10 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
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