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Åström, Christofer
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Liu, C., Chen, R., Sera, F., Vicedo-Cabrera, A. M., Guo, Y., Tong, S., . . . Kan, H. (2019). Ambient Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in 652 Cities. New England Journal of Medicine, 381(8), 705-715
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ambient Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in 652 Cities
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2019 (English)In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 381, no 8, p. 705-715Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The systematic evaluation of the results of time-series studies of air pollution is challenged by differences in model specification and publication bias.

METHODS: We evaluated the associations of inhalable particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) and fine PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) with daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality across multiple countries or regions. Daily data on mortality and air pollution were collected from 652 cities in 24 countries or regions. We used overdispersed generalized additive models with random-effects meta-analysis to investigate the associations. Two-pollutant models were fitted to test the robustness of the associations. Concentration-response curves from each city were pooled to allow global estimates to be derived.

RESULTS: On average, an increase of 10 μg per cubic meter in the 2-day moving average of PM10 concentration, which represents the average over the current and previous day, was associated with increases of 0.44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.50) in daily all-cause mortality, 0.36% (95% CI, 0.30 to 0.43) in daily cardiovascular mortality, and 0.47% (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.58) in daily respiratory mortality. The corresponding increases in daily mortality for the same change in PM2.5 concentration were 0.68% (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.77), 0.55% (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.66), and 0.74% (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.95). These associations remained significant after adjustment for gaseous pollutants. Associations were stronger in locations with lower annual mean PM concentrations and higher annual mean temperatures. The pooled concentration-response curves showed a consistent increase in daily mortality with increasing PM concentration, with steeper slopes at lower PM concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data show independent associations between short-term exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 and daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in more than 600 cities across the globe. These data reinforce the evidence of a link between mortality and PM concentration established in regional and local studies. (Funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and others.).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Waltham: Massachusetts Medical Society, 2019
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162609 (URN)10.1056/NEJMoa1817364 (DOI)31433918 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2019-08-28Bibliographically approved
Olstrup, H., Johansson, C., Forsberg, B. & Åström, C. (2019). Association between Mortality and Short-Term Exposure to Particles, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide in Stockholm, Sweden. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(6), Article ID E1028.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between Mortality and Short-Term Exposure to Particles, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide in Stockholm, Sweden
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 6, article id E1028Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the effects on daily mortality in Stockholm associated with short-term exposure to ultrafine particles (measured as number of particles with a diameter larger than 4 nm, PNC₄), black carbon (BC) and coarse particles (PM2.5⁻10) have been compared with the effects from more common traffic-pollution indicators (PM10, PM2.5 and NO₂) and O₃ during the period 2000⁻2016. Air pollution exposure was estimated from measurements at a 20 m high building in central Stockholm. The associations between daily mortality lagged up to two days (lag 02) and the different air pollutants were modelled by using Poisson regression. The pollutants with the strongest indications of an independent effect on daily mortality were O₃, PM2.5⁻10 and PM10. In the single-pollutant model, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in O₃ was associated with an increase in daily mortality of 2.0% (95% CI: 1.1⁻3.0) for lag 01 and 1.9% (95% CI: 1.0⁻2.9) for lag 02. An IQR increase in PM2.5⁻10 was associated with an increase in daily mortality of 0.8% (95% CI: 0.1⁻1.5) for lag 01 and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.4⁻1.8) for lag 02. PM10 was associated with a significant increase only at lag 02, with 0.8% (95% CI: 0.08⁻1.4) increase in daily mortality associated with an IQR increase in the concentration. NO₂ exhibits negative associations with mortality. The significant excess risk associated with O₃ remained significant in two-pollutant models after adjustments for PM2.5⁻10, BC and NO₂. The significant excess risk associated with PM2.5⁻10 remained significant in a two-pollutant model after adjustment for NO₂. The significantly negative associations for NO₂ remained significant in two-pollutant models after adjustments for PM2.5⁻10, O₃ and BC. A potential reason for these findings, where statistically significant excess risks were found for O₃, PM2.5⁻10 and PM10, but not for NO₂, PM2.5, PNC₄ and BC, is behavioral factors that lead to misclassification in the exposure. The concentrations of O₃ and PM2.5⁻10 are in general highest during sunny and dry days during the spring, when exposure to outdoor air tend to increase, while the opposite applies to NO₂, PNC₄ and BC, with the highest concentrations during the short winter days with cold weather, when people are less exposed to outdoor air.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
PM2.5–10, excess risk, exposure, linear regression, mortality, ozone, particle number count (PNC)
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157554 (URN)10.3390/ijerph16061028 (DOI)000465159500128 ()30901873 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-26 Created: 2019-03-26 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Sera, F., Armstrong, B., Tobias, A., Vicedo-Cabrera, A. M., Åström, C., Bell, M. L., . . . Gasparrini, A. (2019). How urban characteristics affect vulnerability to heat and cold: a multi-country analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, Article ID dyz008.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How urban characteristics affect vulnerability to heat and cold: a multi-country analysis
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, article id dyz008Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The health burden associated with temperature is expected to increase due to a warming climate. Populations living in cities are likely to be particularly at risk, but the role of urban characteristics in modifying the direct effects of temperature on health is still unclear. In this contribution, we used a multi-country dataset to study effect modification of temperature-mortality relationships by a range of city-specific indicators.

METHODS: We collected ambient temperature and mortality daily time-series data for 340 cities in 22 countries, in periods between 1985 and 2014. Standardized measures of demographic, socio-economic, infrastructural and environmental indicators were derived from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Regional and Metropolitan Database. We used distributed lag non-linear and multivariate meta-regression models to estimate fractions of mortality attributable to heat and cold (AF%) in each city, and to evaluate the effect modification of each indicator across cities.

RESULTS: Heat- and cold-related deaths amounted to 0.54% (95% confidence interval: 0.49 to 0.58%) and 6.05% (5.59 to 6.36%) of total deaths, respectively. Several city indicators modify the effect of heat, with a higher mortality impact associated with increases in population density, fine particles (PM2.5), gross domestic product (GDP) and Gini index (a measure of income inequality), whereas higher levels of green spaces were linked with a decreased effect of heat.

CONCLUSIONS: This represents the largest study to date assessing the effect modification of temperature-mortality relationships. Evidence from this study can inform public-health interventions and urban planning under various climate-change and urban-development scenarios.

Keywords
Temperature, cities, climate, epidemiology, heat, mortality
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157116 (URN)10.1093/ije/dyz008 (DOI)30815699 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-15
Åström, C., Bjelkmar, P. & Forsberg, B. (2019). Ovanligt många dödsfalli Sverige sommaren 2018: drygt 600 kan ha dött till följd av värmeböljan. Läkartidningen, 116, Article ID FLFH.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ovanligt många dödsfalli Sverige sommaren 2018: drygt 600 kan ha dött till följd av värmeböljan
2019 (Swedish)In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 116, article id FLFHArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Läkartidningen Förlag AB, 2019
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159039 (URN)
Available from: 2019-05-17 Created: 2019-05-17 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Orru, H., Åström, C., Andersson, C., Tamm, T., Ebi, K. L. & Forsberg, B. (2019). Ozone and heat-related mortality in Europe in 2050 significantly affected by changes in climate, population and greenhouse gas emission. Environmental Research Letters, 14(7), Article ID 074013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ozone and heat-related mortality in Europe in 2050 significantly affected by changes in climate, population and greenhouse gas emission
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2019 (English)In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 14, no 7, article id 074013Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate change is expected to increase to extreme temperatures and lead to more intense formation of near-surface ozone. Higher temperatures can cause heat stress and ozone is a highly oxidative pollutant; both increase cardiorespiratory mortality. Using greenhouse gas and ozone precursor emission scenarios, global and regional climate and chemistry-transport models, epidemiological data, and population projections, we projected ozone- and heat-related health risks under a changing climate. European near-surface temperature was modelled with the regional climate model (RCA4), forced by the greenhouse gas emission scenario RCP4.5 and the global climate model EC-EARTH, and near-surface ozone was modelled with the Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH) model. Two periods were compared: recent climate in 1991-2000 and future climate in 2046-2055, projecting around a 2 degrees increase in global temperatures by that time. Projections of premature mortality considered future climate, future population, and future emissions separately and jointly to understand the relative importance of their contributions. Ozone currently causes 55 000 premature deaths annually in Europe due to long-term exposure, including a proportion of the estimated 26 000 deaths per year due to short-term exposures. When only taking into account the impact of a changing climate, up to an 11% increase in ozone-associated mortality is expected in some countries in Central and Southern Europe in 2050. However, projected decreases in ozone precursor emissions are expected to result in a decrease in ozone-related mortality (-30% as EUaverage). Due to aging and increasingly susceptible populations, the decrease in 2050 would be smaller, up to -24%. During summer months, ozone risks could combine with increasing temperatures, especially during the hottest periods and in densely populated urban areas. While the heat burden is currently of the same order of magnitude as ozone, due to increasing temperatures and decreasing ozone precursor emissions, heat-related mortality could be twice as large as ozone-related mortality in 2050.

Keywords
air quality, temperature, health, climate change, modelling
National Category
Climate Research Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161836 (URN)10.1088/1748-9326/ab1cd9 (DOI)000474788900001 ()
Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Lee, J. Y., Kim, H., Gasparrini, A., Armstrong, B., Bell, M. L., Sera, F., . . . Guo, Y. (2019). Predicted temperature-increase-induced global health burden and its regional variability. Environment International, 131, Article ID 105027.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicted temperature-increase-induced global health burden and its regional variability
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2019 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 131, article id 105027Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An increase in the global health burden of temperature was projected for 459 locations in 28 countries worldwide under four representative concentration pathway scenarios until 2099. We determined that the amount of temperature increase for each 100 ppm increase in global CO2 concentrations is nearly constant, regardless of climate scenarios. The overall average temperature increase during 2010-2099 is largest in Canada (1.16 °C/100 ppm) and Finland (1.14 °C/100 ppm), while it is smallest in Ireland (0.62 °C/100 ppm) and Argentina (0.63 °C/100 ppm). In addition, for each 1 °C temperature increase, the amount of excess mortality is increased largely in tropical countries such as Vietnam (10.34%p/°C) and the Philippines (8.18%p/°C), while it is decreased in Ireland (-0.92%p/°C) and Australia (-0.32%p/°C). To understand the regional variability in temperature increase and mortality, we performed a regression-based modeling. We observed that the projected temperature increase is highly correlated with daily temperature range at the location and vulnerability to temperature increase is affected by health expenditure, and proportions of obese and elderly population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Climate change, Mortality, Projection, Regional variation, Vulnerability
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162419 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2019.105027 (DOI)31351381 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-08-22Bibliographically approved
Oudin Åström, D., Åström, C., Forsberg, B., Vicedo-Cabrera, A. M., Gasparrini, A., Oudin, A. & Sundquist, K. (2018). Heat wave-related mortality in Sweden: a case-crossover study investigating effect modification by neighbourhood deprivation. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heat wave-related mortality in Sweden: a case-crossover study investigating effect modification by neighbourhood deprivation
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2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

AIMS: The present study aimed to investigate if set thresholds in the Swedish heat-wave warning system are valid for all parts of Sweden and if the heat-wave warning system captures a potential increase in all-cause mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. An additional aim was to investigate whether neighbourhood deprivation modifies the relationship between heat waves and mortality.

METHODS: From 1990 until 2014, in 14 municipalities in Sweden, we collected data on daily maximum temperatures and mortality for the five warmest months. Heat waves were defined according to the categories used in the current Swedish heat-wave warning system. Using a case-crossover approach, we investigated the association between heat waves and mortality in Sweden, as well as a modifying effect of neighbourhood deprivation.

RESULTS: On a national as well as a regional level, heat waves significantly increased both all-cause mortality and CHD mortality by approximately 10% and 15%, respectively. While neighbourhood deprivation did not seem to modify heat wave-related all-cause mortality, CHD mortality did seem to modify the risk.

CONCLUSIONS: It may not be appropriate to assume that heat waves in Sweden will have the same impact in a northern setting as in a southern, or that the impact of heat waves will be the same in affluent and deprived neighbourhoods. When designing and implementing heat-wave warning systems, neighbourhood, regional and national information should be incorporated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
Heat wave, heat-wave warning system, mortality, neighbourhood deprivation
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152188 (URN)10.1177/1403494818801615 (DOI)30253698 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2019-04-04
Analitis, A., De' Donato, F., Scortichini, M., Lanki, T., Basagana, X., Ballester, F., . . . Katsouyanni, K. (2018). Synergistic Effects of Ambient Temperature and Air Pollution on Health in Europe: Results from the PHASE Project. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(9), 1-11, Article ID E1856.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synergistic Effects of Ambient Temperature and Air Pollution on Health in Europe: Results from the PHASE Project
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 1-11, article id E1856Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We studied the potential synergy between air pollution and meteorology and their impact on mortality in nine European cities with data from 2004 to 2010. We used daily series of Apparent Temperature (AT), measurements of particulate matter (PM10), ozone (O₃), and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and total non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths. We applied Poisson regression for city-specific analysis and random effects meta-analysis to combine city-specific results, separately for the warm and cold seasons. In the warm season, the percentage increase in all deaths from natural causes per °C increase in AT tended to be greater during high ozone days, although this was only significant for all ages when all causes were considered. On low ozone days, the increase in the total daily number of deaths was 1.84% (95% CI 0.87, 2.82), whilst it was 2.20% (95% CI 1.28, 3.13) in the high ozone days per 1 °C increase in AT. Interaction with PM10 was significant for cardiovascular (CVD) causes of death for all ages (2.24% on low PM10 days (95% CI 1.01, 3.47) whilst it is 2.63% (95% CI 1.57, 3.71) on high PM10 days) and for ages 75+. In days with heat waves, no consistent pattern of interaction was observed. For the cold period, no evidence for synergy was found. In conclusion, some evidence of interactive effects between hot temperature and the levels of ozone and PM10 was found, but no consistent synergy could be identified during the cold season.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
air pollution, climate change and extreme weather events, interaction, short-term health effect, temperature, vulnerability
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152111 (URN)10.3390/ijerph15091856 (DOI)000445765600065 ()30154318 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052600315 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2018-10-30Bibliographically approved
Scortichini, M., de'Donato, F., De Sario, M., Leone, M., Åström, C., Ballester, F., . . . Michelozzi, P. (2018). The inter-annual variability of heat-related mortality in nine European cities (1990–2010). Environmental health, 17(1), Article ID 66.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The inter-annual variability of heat-related mortality in nine European cities (1990–2010)
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2018 (English)In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 66Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The association between heat and daily mortality and its temporal variation are well known. However, few studies have analyzed the inter-annual variations in both the risk estimates and impacts of heat. The aim is to estimate inter-annual variations in the effect of heat for a fixed temperature range, on mortality in 9 European cities included in the PHASE (Public Health Adaptation Strategies to Extreme weather events) project for the period 1990-2010. The second aim is to evaluate overall summer effects and heat-attributable deaths for each year included in the study period, considering the entire air temperature range (both mild and extreme temperatures).

METHODS: A city-specific daily time-series analysis was performed, using a generalized additive Poisson regression model, restricted to the warm season (April-September). To study the temporal variation for a fixed air temperature range, a Bayesian Change Point analysis was applied to the relative risks of mortality for a 2 °C increase over the 90th percentile of the city-specific distribution. The number of heat attributable deaths in each summer were also calculated for mild (reference to 95th percentile) and extreme heat (95th percentile to maximum value).

RESULTS: A decline in the effects of heat over time was observed in Athens and Rome when considering a fixed interval, while an increase in effects was observed in Helsinki. The greatest impact of heat in terms of attributable deaths was observed in the Mediterranean cities (Athens, Barcelona and Rome) for extreme air temperatures. In the other cities the impact was mostly related to extreme years with 2003 as a record breaking year in Paris (+ 1900 deaths) and London (+ 1200 deaths).

CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring the impact of heat over time is important to identify changes in population vulnerability and evaluate adaptation measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2018
Keywords
Attributable risk, Bayesian models, Heat, Mortality, Temporal trends, Time factors
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151137 (URN)10.1186/s12940-018-0411-0 (DOI)000441142300001 ()30089503 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2018-08-30Bibliographically approved
Åström, C. (2017). Health effects of heatwaves: short and long term predictions. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå Universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health effects of heatwaves: short and long term predictions
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Climate change is defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as changes in the state of the climate associated with changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties. Climate change will affect temperatures both as an increase in mean temperature as well as changes in the frequency of temperature extremes. Health effects associated with extreme heat, both mortality and morbidity, have been observed all over the globe. Groups that are often found to be more vulnerable are the elderly and people diagnosed with certain diseases and/or on taking some specific types of medication. The health effects from climate change in the future depend on a number of underlying sociodemographic and other factors. It is difficult to predict how the underlying societal factors that are likely to alter the health effects from high temperatures will change. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the influence of the underlying assumptions and factors that are key components when predicting and projecting heat-related illness, both in the short and long term. This work aims to identify and to some extent quantify different sources of uncertainty that will have effects on the outcome of health impact assessments.

Methods: We wanted to evaluate if different statistical models would alter the ability to identify days with elevated heat-related risk. We used observations of temperatures and daily mortality for Greater Stockholm to model different exposure-response relationships (Paper I). Along the observed data, we collected temperature forecasts for the Stockholm area. We defined what constitutes a risk day and compared the model’s ability to identify these days using both observed and forecasted temperatures to evaluate the predictive performance of models based on the different statistical approaches. To estimate how climate change will alter the heat-related health impacts we used climate change projections from a range of climate change scenarios to be able to get stable estimates as well as a measure of the uncertainty in the climate projections (Paper II-III). We estimated the change in respiratory hospital admissions (Paper II) and the future need for adaptation to keep heat-related mortality at current levels (Paper III) in Europe. We also estimated the change in heat-related mortality due to changes in climate, demographics and health status of the population in Stockholm (Paper IV).

Results: The models using a highly complex exposure-response relationship showed lower predictive performance, especially when looking at a longer time-scale. The more complex models did also estimate a lower mortality increase compared to the less complex ones. There was however high agreement of which days to be considered risk days. The estimated increase in heat-related illness from the three health impact assessment studies showed impacts on a similar order of magnitude when looking at changes in climate only. Respiratory hospital admissions were estimated to more than double in Europe and heat-related mortality in Stockholm was estimated to increase to around 257% of current levels. Therefore, adaptation needs to lower the vulnerability to heat by around 50% in the European countries. In study III and IV we take changes in demographics into account and find that the future health burden from heat will increase due to the growing elderly population.

Conclusion: To be able to make predictions of future health burdens from heat, both in the long and short term, we need to consider the properties of the epidemiological models and how the choice of model might limit its use within a health impact assessment. Climate change seems to be the main driver of the future health burden from extreme temperatures, but our results suggests that changing demographics will add to the burden considerably unless relevant adaptation measures are implemented. Adding this on top of the challenges posed by climate change, we find that need for adaptation will increase substantially in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2017. p. 35
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1890
Keywords
Heatwave, health impact assessment, early warning system, mortality, morbidity, climate change
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-134318 (URN)978-91-7601-689-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-05-24, Triple Helix, Samverkanshuset, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-05-03 Created: 2017-04-28 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
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