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Holm, Einar
Publications (10 of 51) Show all publications
Adjei, E., Eriksson, R., Lindgren, U. & Holm, E. (2019). Familial relationships and firm performance: the impact of entrepreneurial family relationships. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 31(5-6), 357-377
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Familial relationships and firm performance: the impact of entrepreneurial family relationships
2019 (English)In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 31, no 5-6, p. 357-377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While the family may serve as a resource for entrepreneurs, it has been studied separately in different disciplines. In this paper, we combine the arguments on familial relationships (family firm literature) and skill variety (regional learning literature) to analyse how different forms of entrepreneurial family relationships (co-occurrences) facilitate firm performance, and how familial relationships moderate the effects of skill variety on firm performance. Using longitudinal data (2002-2012) on a sample of privately owned firms with up to 50 employees with matched information on all employees, our results show that entrepreneur children relationship is the dominant dyad familial relationship in family firms. The fixed effects estimates demonstrate that entrepreneurial family relationships do affect firm performance but that this is dependent on the type of familial relationship. Children and spouses show a positive relationship with firm performance while siblings of the entrepreneur show no significant relationship with performance. The estimates further indicate that familial relationships involving spouses abate the negative effects of having too similar or too different types of skills. The paper thus contributes to new knowledge regarding not only whether family relationships matter for performance, but also in what way they matter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
entrepreneur, family relationships, trust, skill variety, firm performance
National Category
Social and Economic Geography Business Administration
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143913 (URN)10.1080/08985626.2018.1514074 (DOI)000465888000002 ()881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, 13-1044:1
Note

Originally included in thesis in submitted form.

Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Westin, K. & Holm, E. (2018). Do trees make people more rooted?: Private forest owners’ migration behavior. Forest Policy and Economics, 94, 11-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do trees make people more rooted?: Private forest owners’ migration behavior
2018 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 94, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Forestland is a tangible asset, likely both indicating and creating attachment to the forest site for the owners. Forest ownership can both create and maintain a strong motive for developing the forest holding and its surroundings. Decisions made by non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owners can therefore be expected to influence population development in the local communities. This paper addresses forest owners' migration propensity, and whether forest ownership influences migration to and from the municipality where the forest holding is located. Comparing the non-forest owners to the group of local NIPF owners, we found that the latter are more sedentary. Forest owners living in their forest municipalities seldom move out – about a third annually compared to others in the same age group. When moving, about half of absentee forest owners select their forest municipality as their destination and thus become local forest owners. Although private forest ownership significantly contributes to population development in small, remote rural municipalities, policies for local and rural development rarely acknowledge the potential private forest owners represent for economic and population development in rural areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: , 2018
Keywords
Private forest owners, Migration propensity, Population development, Rural development
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150340 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2018.06.003 (DOI)000440528900002 ()881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2011-1702
Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Holm, E., Westin, K. & Haugen, K. (2018). Place, kinship, and employment. Population, Space and Place, 24(3), Article ID e2118.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Place, kinship, and employment
2018 (English)In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, no 3, article id e2118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study explores the magnitude and composition of kinship ties at Swedish workplaces. By analysing official register data and illustrating findings from interviews with HR personnel at different workplaces, the following questions are discussed: How much kinship concentration is there today on the labour market in a modern Western society such as Sweden? How is the kin‐based selection of workplace members structured by place? The study is based on an analysis of individually connected register information on all workplaces in Sweden in 2012. The number of individual links between relatives and couples at an average workplace amounts to 14% of the number of employees as derived from 310, 000 couples and pairs of relatives among 4.3 million workers. So, even today in Sweden, kinship is a common phenomenon observable for most workers at most workplaces. Of all such connected pairs of kin at workplaces, more than a third contain counterparts living in the same household. A non‐linear individual‐level regression reveals that population density in the vicinity of the workplace is substantially related to kin density. Large agglomerations seem to coexist with low kin density workplaces. Although some level of kin membership is unavoidable especially at workplaces in sparsely populated places, removing this part still reveals that kinship above an unavoidable level seems to exist. The study contributes to the discussion of kinship in workplaces by examining the magnitude and composition of kinship ties in the whole work force and complementing findings with interviews.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
kinship bias, kinship density, kinship ties, workplace
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143467 (URN)10.1002/psp.2118 (DOI)000429719900011 ()881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Lidestav, G., Thellbro, C., Sandström, P., Lind, T., Holm, E., Olsson, O., . . . Ficko, A. (2017). Interactions between forest owners and their forests. In: E. Carina H. Keskitalo (Ed.), Globalisation and change in forest ownership and forest use: natural resource management in transition (pp. 97-137). London: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactions between forest owners and their forests
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2017 (English)In: Globalisation and change in forest ownership and forest use: natural resource management in transition / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 97-137Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

More than half of the forest land in Europe is privately owned, and ownership structure is known to have implications for management, production of timber and other forest products and services that support the transformation towards a green economy. This chapter provides examples of how we can gain knowledge about the forest and forest owner/user relationship from a structural point of view. Sweden is taken as an example because of the accessibility of continuous data on forest conditions, ownership and demographic data. It is concluded that the pace of change in ownership structure and forest management behaviour is slow. Further, neither the ongoing migration, urbanisation, ageing population nor the increased proportion of women seems to reduce the willingness to manage and harvest.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144602 (URN)10.1057/978-1-137-57116-8_4 (DOI)881251 (Local ID)978-1-137-57115-1 (ISBN)978-1-137-57116-8 (ISBN)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Strömgren, M., Holm, E., Dahlström, Ö., Ekberg, J., Eriksson, H., Spreco, A. & Timpka, T. (2017). Place-based social contact and mixing: a typology of generic meeting places of relevance for infectious disease transmission. Epidemiology and Infection, 145(12), 2582-2593
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Place-based social contact and mixing: a typology of generic meeting places of relevance for infectious disease transmission
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2017 (English)In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 145, no 12, p. 2582-2593Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aims to develop a typology of generic meeting places based on social contact and mixing of relevance for infectious disease transmission. Data was collected by means of a contact diary survey conducted on a representative sample of the Swedish population. The typology is derived from a cluster analysis accounting for four dimensions associated with transmission risk: visit propensity and its characteristics in terms of duration, number of other persons present and likelihood of physical contact. In the analysis, we also study demographic, socioeconomic and geographical differences in the propensity of visiting meeting places. The typology identifies the family venue, the fixed activity site, the family vehicle, the trading plaza and the social network hub as generic meeting places. The meeting place typology represents a spatially explicit account of social contact and mixing relevant to infectious disease modelling where the social context of the outbreak can be highlighted in light of the actual infectious disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2017
Keywords
Infectious disease, epidemiology, modelling
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-135448 (URN)10.1017/S0950268817001169 (DOI)000414606100018 ()28625193 (PubMedID)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2017-05-29 Created: 2017-05-29 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Timpka, T., Eriksson, H., Holm, E., Strömgren, M., Ekberg, J., Spreco, A. & Dahlström, Ö. (2016). Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures. Epidemiology and Infection, 144(10), 2031-2042
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures
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2016 (English)In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 144, no 10, p. 2031-2042Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Workplaces are one of the most important regular meeting places in society. The aim of this study was to use simulation experiments to examine the impact of different workplace cultures on influenza dissemination during pandemics. The impact is investigated by experiments with defined social-mixing patterns at workplaces using semi-virtual models based on authentic sociodemographic and geographical data from a North European community (population 136 000). A simulated pandemic outbreak was found to affect 33% of the total population in the community with the reference academic-creative workplace culture; virus transmission at the workplace accounted for 10·6% of the cases. A model with a prevailing industrial-administrative workplace culture generated 11% lower incidence than the reference model, while the model with a self-employed workplace culture (also corresponding to a hypothetical scenario with all workplaces closed) produced 20% fewer cases. The model representing an academic-creative workplace culture with restricted workplace interaction generated 12% lower cumulative incidence compared to the reference model. The results display important theoretical associations between workplace social-mixing cultures and community-level incidence rates during influenza pandemics. Social interaction patterns at workplaces should be taken into consideration when analysing virus transmission patterns during influenza pandemics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2016
Keywords
Epidemiology,  infectious disease control,  influenza,  medical informatics (veterinary and medical),  modelling
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-116125 (URN)10.1017/S0950268816000169 (DOI)000379785600002 ()26847017 (PubMedID)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-02-08 Created: 2016-02-08 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Westin, K., Holm, E. & Katarina, H. (2016). Släktband på arbetsplatsen: omfattning, erfarenheter och strategier. Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Släktband på arbetsplatsen: omfattning, erfarenheter och strategier
2016 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2016. p. 30
Series
Kulturgeografisk Arbetsrapport ; 2016-05-25
Keywords
Familjeband, Släktband, Rekrytering
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121102 (URN)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-05-26 Created: 2016-05-26 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Li, W., Holm, E. & Lindgren, U. (2015). Linking spatial scale to changes in workplace earnings: an exploratory approach. CyberGeo: European Journal of Geography, Article ID 740.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking spatial scale to changes in workplace earnings: an exploratory approach
2015 (English)In: CyberGeo: European Journal of Geography, ISSN 1278-3366, E-ISSN 1278-3366, article id 740Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper investigates the importance of spatial scale for changes in earnings at the workplace by using spatial regression applied to workplace-level micro data in an exploratory purpose. A floating grid technique is used to define equal-sized workplaces and their daily-reach surrounding zones as divided into three spatial entities: working-square, local area and hinterland. On the basis of geo-referenced information on workplaces and places of residence along with numerous individual-level socio-economic indicators, the results of the regression models reveal that the indicators of the daily-reach area play a dominant role and that their contribution varies over spatial entities. Among the spatial entities, the working-square (km square) surrounding the workplace is more important than the workplace itself, the local area and the hinterland. Moreover, the results suggest that internal factors related to population size, diversity of trade and industry and educational level contribute to about one-third of changes in work income at the workplace level. It can be concluded that knowledge, learning and human capital are strongly associated with increased earnings.

Abstract [fr]

Le document étudie l'importance de l'échelle spatiale dans l'évolution des gains sur le lieu de travail, en utilisant la régression spatiale appliquée au niveau des micro-données sur les lieux de travail dans un but exploratoire. Une technique à grille flottante est utilisée pour définir les lieux de travail de taille égale et leurs zones d'accès quotidiens environnantes jour- divisée en trois entités spatiales: le km2 de travail, la zone locale et l'arrière-pays. Sur la base des informations géo-référencées sur les lieux de travail et les lieux de résidence ainsi que de nombreux indicateurs socio-économiques au niveau individuel, les résultats des modèles de régression révèlent que les indicateurs de la zone d'accès quotidien jouent un rôle dominant et que leur contribution varie selon les entités spatiales. Parmi les entités spatiales, le travail-carré (km carré) entourant le lieu de travail est plus important que le lieu de travail lui-même, la région et l'arrière-pays. En outre, les résultats suggèrent que des facteurs internes liés à la taille de la population, la diversité du commerce et de l'industrie et le niveau d'éducation contribuent à environ un tiers des changements dans le revenu de travail au niveau du lieu de travail. On peut en conclure que la connaissance, l'apprentissage et le capital humain sont fortement associés à l'augmentation du bénéfice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cybergeo, 2015
Keywords
Sweden, workplace, spatial model, floating grid, earnings, regional growth, modélisation, Suède, région, modèle spatial, lieu de travail, gains
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-109143 (URN)10.4000/cybergeo.27192 (DOI)000217848500051 ()881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2015-09-21 Created: 2015-09-21 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Timpka, T., Spreco, A., Gursky, E. A., Eriksson, O., Dahlström, Ö., Strömgren, M., . . . Holm, E. (2014). Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks in Sweden: A cross-sectional study following a mass vaccination campaign. PLoS ONE, 9(3), e91060
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks in Sweden: A cross-sectional study following a mass vaccination campaign
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2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3, p. e91060-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Failure to incorporate the beliefs and attitudes of the public into theoretical models of preparedness has been identified as a weakness in strategies to mitigate infectious disease outbreaks. We administered a cross-sectional telephone survey to a representative sample (n = 443) of the Swedish adult population to examine whether self-reported intentions to improve personal hygiene and increase social distancing during influenza outbreaks could be explained by trust in official information, self-reported health (SF-8), sociodemographic factors, and determinants postulated in protection motivation theory, namely threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The interviewees were asked to make their appraisals for two scenarios: a) an influenza with low case fatality and mild lifestyle impact; b) severe influenza with high case fatality and serious disturbances of societal functions. Every second respondent (50.0%) reported high trust in official information about influenza. The proportion that reported intentions to take deliberate actions to improve personal hygiene during outbreaks ranged between 45–85%, while less than 25% said that they intended to increase social distancing. Multiple logistic regression models with coping appraisal as the explanatory factor most frequently contributing to the explanation of the variance in intentions showed strong discriminatory performance for staying home while not ill (mild outbreaks: Area under the curve [AUC] 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.82;0.89), severe outbreaks AUC 0.82 (95% CI 0.77;0.85)) and acceptable performance with regard to avoiding public transportation (AUC 0.78 (0.74;0.82), AUC 0.77 (0.72;0.82)), using handwash products (AUC 0.70 (0.65;0.75), AUC 0.76 (0.71;0.80)), and frequently washing hands (AUC 0.71 (0.66;0.76), AUC 0.75 (0.71;0.80)). We conclude that coping appraisal was the explanatory factor most frequently included in statistical models explaining self-reported intentions to carry out non-pharmaceutical health actions in the Swedish outlined context, and that variations in threat appraisal played a smaller role in these models despite scientific uncertainties surrounding a recent mass vaccination campaign.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2014
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86041 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0091060 (DOI)000332485800091 ()24608557 (PubMedID)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2014-02-17 Created: 2014-02-16 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Timpka, T., Spreco, A., Dahlström, O., Eriksson, O., Gursky, E., Ekberg, J., . . . Holm, E. (2014). Performance of eHealth data sources in local influenza surveillance: a 5-year open cohort study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(4), 216-225
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance of eHealth data sources in local influenza surveillance: a 5-year open cohort study
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 216-225Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: There is abundant global interest in using syndromic data from population-wide health information systems-referred to as eHealth resources-to improve infectious disease surveillance. Recently, the necessity for these systems to achieve two potentially conflicting requirements has been emphasized. First, they must be evidence-based; second, they must be adjusted for the diversity of populations, lifestyles, and environments.

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to examine correlations between data from Google Flu Trends (GFT), computer-supported telenursing centers, health service websites, and influenza case rates during seasonal and pandemic influenza outbreaks. The secondary objective was to investigate associations between eHealth data, media coverage, and the interaction between circulating influenza strain(s) and the age-related population immunity.

METHODS: An open cohort design was used for a five-year study in a Swedish county (population 427,000). Syndromic eHealth data were collected from GFT, telenursing call centers, and local health service website visits at page level. Data on mass media coverage of influenza was collected from the major regional newspaper. The performance of eHealth data in surveillance was measured by correlation effect size and time lag to clinically diagnosed influenza cases.

RESULTS: Local media coverage data and influenza case rates showed correlations with large effect sizes only for the influenza A (A) pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 (r=.74, 95% CI .42-.90; P<.001) and the severe seasonal A H3N2 outbreak in 2011-2012 (r=.79, 95% CI .42-.93; P=.001), with media coverage preceding case rates with one week. Correlations between GFT and influenza case data showed large effect sizes for all outbreaks, the largest being the seasonal A H3N2 outbreak in 2008-2009 (r=.96, 95% CI .88-.99; P<.001). The preceding time lag decreased from two weeks during the first outbreaks to one week from the 2009 A pH1N1 pandemic. Telenursing data and influenza case data showed correlations with large effect sizes for all outbreaks after the seasonal B and A H1 outbreak in 2007-2008, with a time lag decreasing from two weeks for the seasonal A H3N2 outbreak in 2008-2009 (r=.95, 95% CI .82-.98; P<.001) to none for the A p H1N1 outbreak in 2009 (r=.84, 95% CI .62-.94; P<.001). Large effect sizes were also observed between website visits and influenza case data.

CONCLUSIONS: Correlations between the eHealth data and influenza case rates in a Swedish county showed large effect sizes throughout a five-year period, while the time lag between signals in eHealth data and influenza rates changed. Further research is needed on analytic methods for adjusting eHealth surveillance systems to shifts in media coverage and to variations in age-group related immunity between virus strains. The results can be used to inform the development of alert-generating eHealth surveillance systems that can be subject for prospective evaluations in routine public health practice.

National Category
Social and Economic Geography Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-88697 (URN)10.2196/jmir.3099 (DOI)000336501600017 ()24776527 (PubMedID)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2014-05-12 Created: 2014-05-12 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
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