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Söderström, Hanna
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Publications (10 of 27) Show all publications
Svebrant, S., Olsen, T., Larsson, J., Öhagen, P., Söderström, H. & Järhult, J. D. (2018). The enzyme toilet rim block 'pCure' does not efficiently remove drug residues in a hospital setting: exemplifying the importance of on-site implementation testing. Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, 8(1), Article ID 1553463.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The enzyme toilet rim block 'pCure' does not efficiently remove drug residues in a hospital setting: exemplifying the importance of on-site implementation testing
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2018 (English)In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 1553463Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Negative environmental effects of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are increasingly recognized, especially concerning antibiotics, and hospitals are important point sources. "pCure" is a toilet rim block containing API-degrading enzymes; the producing company claims positive in vitro results but no implementation studies have been performed.

Materials and methods: In a university hospital setting, 16 weeks were randomized to installation or no installation of pCure in all 261 toilets connected to the same cesspit where sewage water was sampled daily. Ninety-six samples were analyzed for 102 APIs using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

Results and Discussion: Fifty-one APIs were detected with a large variation in levels but no significant differences in the initial statistical analysis. More statistical testing of API level ratios (pCure installed/not installed) yielded some cases of significant decrease. Differences were small and not consistent when comparing means and medians. We cannot exclude a small pCure effect but clearly pCure has no effect of biological importance. Conclusion: pCure is not useful to reduce drug residue discharge in a hospital setting. In a bigger perspective, our study exemplifies that products claiming to reduce an environmental problem need to be tested in on-site implementation studies by independent researchers before reaching the market.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
API, antibiotic resistance, enviroment, pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment, waste water
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157379 (URN)10.1080/20008686.2018.1553463 (DOI)30847040 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-18 Created: 2019-03-18 Last updated: 2019-03-19Bibliographically approved
Nykvist, M., Gillman, A., Söderström Lindström, H., Tang, C., Fedorova, G., Lundkvist, Å., . . . Järhult, J. D. (2017). In vivo mallard experiments indicate that zanamivir has less potential for environmental influenza A virus resistance development than oseltamivir. Journal of General Virology, 98, 2937-2949
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In vivo mallard experiments indicate that zanamivir has less potential for environmental influenza A virus resistance development than oseltamivir
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2017 (English)In: Journal of General Virology, ISSN 0022-1317, E-ISSN 1465-2099, Vol. 98, p. 2937-2949Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Neuraminidase inhibitors are a cornerstone of influenza pandemic preparedness before vaccines can be mass-produced and thus a neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant pandemic is a serious threat to public health. Earlier work has demonstrated the potential for development and persistence of oseltamivir resistance in influenza A viruses exposed to environmentally relevant water concentrations of the drug when infecting mallards, the natural influenza reservoir that serves as the genetic base for human pandemics. As zanamivir is the major second-line neuraminidase inhibitor treatment, this study aimed to assess the potential for development and persistence of zanamivir resistance in an in vivo mallard model; especially important as zanamivir will probably be increasingly used. Our results indicate less potential for development and persistence of resistance due to zanamivir than oseltamivir in an environmental setting. This conclusion is based on: (1) the lower increase in zanamivir IC50 conferred by the mutations caused by zanamivir exposure (2-17-fold); (2) the higher zanamivir water concentration needed to induce resistance (at least 10 µg l-1); (3) the lack of zanamivir resistance persistence without drug pressure; and (4) the multiple resistance-related substitutions seen during zanamivir exposure (V116A, A138V, R152K, T157I and D199G) suggesting lack of one straight-forward evolutionary path to resistance. Our study also adds further evidence regarding the stability of the oseltamivir-induced substitution H275Y without drug pressure, and demonstrates the ability of a H275Y-carrying virus to acquire secondary mutations, further boosting oseltamivir resistance when exposed to zanamivir. Similar studies using influenza A viruses of the N2-phylogenetic group of neuraminidases are recommended.

Keywords
drug residues, avian influenza, pandemic preparedness, neuraminidase inhibitor, Relenza, antiviral resistance
National Category
Infectious Medicine Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142085 (URN)10.1099/jgv.0.000977 (DOI)29139346 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-20 Created: 2017-11-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Blum, K. M., Norström, S. H., Golovko, O., Grabic, R., Järhult, J. D., Koba, O. & Söderström Lindström, H. (2017). Removal of 30 active pharmaceutical ingredients in surface water under long-term artificial UV irradiation. Chemosphere, 176, 175-182
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Removal of 30 active pharmaceutical ingredients in surface water under long-term artificial UV irradiation
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2017 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, p. 175-182Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated the i) kinetics, and ii) proportion of photolysis of 30 relatively stable active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) during artificial UV irradiation for 28 d in ammonium acetate buffer, filtered and unfiltered river water. Buffer was included to control removal kinetics under stable pH conditions and without particulate matter. Dark controls were used to determine removal due to other processes than photolysis and calculate the proportion of photolysis of the total removal. The removal of each API in each matrix was determined using online solid phase extraction/liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE/LC-MS/MS). Most APIs transformed during the 28 d of UV irradiation and the dark controls showed that photolysis was the major removal process for the majority of the APIs studied. The half-lives ranged from 6 h (amitriptyline) in unfiltered river water to 884 h (37 d, carbamazepine) in buffer. In unfiltered river water, the proportion of APIs with short half-lives (<48 h) was much higher (29%) than in the other matrices (4%), probably due to additional organic carbon, which could have promoted indirect photolysis. Furthermore, two APIs, memantine and fluconazole, were stable in all three matrices, while alprazolam was stable in buffer and unfiltered river water and four additional APIs were stable in buffer. Considering the relatively long-term UV-exposure, this study enabled the investigation of environmentally relevant half-lives in natural waters. Many APIs showed high persistence, which is environmentally concerning and emphasizes the importance of further studies on their environmental fate and effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Active pharmaceutical ingredients, Oseltamivir, Photostability, Photolysis, Half-lives, Aquatic environments
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-132650 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.063 (DOI)000399849300021 ()
Note

Corrigendum: Kristin M. Blum, Sara H. Norström, Oksana Golovko, Roman Grabic, Josef D. Järhult, Olga Koba, Hanna Söderström Lindström. Corrigendum to “Removal of 30 active pharmaceutical ingredients in surface water under long-term artificial UV irradiation”. Chemosphere. 2018;208. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.05.150

Available from: 2017-03-20 Created: 2017-03-20 Last updated: 2018-09-11Bibliographically approved
Fedorova, G., Grabic, R., Nyhlen, J., Järhult, J. D. & Söderström, H. (2016). Fate of three anti-influenza drugs during ozonation of wastewater effluents: degradation and formation of transformation products. Chemosphere, 150, 723-730
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fate of three anti-influenza drugs during ozonation of wastewater effluents: degradation and formation of transformation products
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2016 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 150, p. 723-730Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anti-influenza drugs constitute a key component of pandemic preparedness plans against influenza. However, the occurrence of such drugs in water environments, the potential of resistance development in the natural hosts, and the risk for transmission of antiviral resistance to humans call for measures to increase removal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, removal of three anti-influenza drugs; amantadine (AM), oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) and zanamivir (ZA), and formation/removal of their transformation products during ozonation of wastewater effluents from two Swedish WWTPs in Uppsala and Stockholm were studied. The removal profile of target antivirals and formation/removal of their transformation products were studied by liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. 3.5 h of ozone exposure (total dose of ozone 5.95 g) led to complete removal of the three anti-influenza drugs with a degradation in the following order ZA > OC > AM. Two, five and one transformation products were identified and semi-quantified for AM, OC and ZA, respectively. Increasing and later decreasing transformation products concentration followed the decrease in concentration of target compounds. All transformation products detected, except one of AM in wastewater from Stockholm WWTP, were removed at the end of the experiment. The removal efficiency was higher for all studied compounds in wastewater from Uppsala WWTP, which had lower TOC and COD values, less phosphorus, and also higher pH in the water. Ozonation thus offers multiple benefits through its potential to degrade influenza antivirals, hence decrease the risk of environmental resistance development, in addition to degrading other pharmaceuticals and resistant microorganisms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Antiviral drugs, Ozonation, High resolution mass spectrometry, Transformation products, Wastewater
National Category
Environmental Sciences Water Treatment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119628 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.12.051 (DOI)000372765100087 ()26746418 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-05-20 Created: 2016-04-25 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Jansson, S., Söderström, H., Andersson, P. & Nording, M. (2015). Implementation of Problem-Based Learning in Environmental Chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education, 92(12), 2080-2086
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation of Problem-Based Learning in Environmental Chemistry
2015 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Education, ISSN 0021-9584, E-ISSN 1938-1328, Vol. 92, no 12, p. 2080-2086Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental Chemistry covers a range of topics within the discipline of chemistry, from toxicology to legislation, which warrants interdisciplinary study. Consequently, problem-based learning (PBL), a style of student-centered learning which facilitates the integration of multiple subjects, was investigated to determine if it would be a more appropriate instructional method for teaching Environmental Chemistry than the traditional teacher-centered education model. This article describes the practical aspects of course development and implementation of PBL in a master’s level course in Environmental Chemistry. Overall, the results, which were collected from the initial two years of the course, indicated that the students were pleased and found PBL to be an efficient methodology for not only learning, but also acquiring an in-depth understanding of Environmental Chemistry. This is intended as a case-study with the target audience consisting primarily of high school and undergraduate chemistry teachers, but may also be useful for teachers in other subject areas with an interest in student-centered education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2015
Keywords
Upper-Division Undergraduate, Environmental Chemistry, Collaborative/Cooperative Learning, Problem Solving/Decision Making, Student-Centered Learning
National Category
Chemical Sciences Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112034 (URN)10.1021/ed500970y (DOI)000366961800017 ()2-s2.0-84948945979 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-11-30 Created: 2015-11-30 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Gillman, A., Nykvist, M., Muradrasoli, S., Söderström, H., Wille, M., Daggfeldt, A., . . . Järhult, J. D. (2015). Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Acquires Resistance-Related Neuraminidase I222T Substitution When Infected Mallards Are Exposed to Low Levels of Oseltamivir in Water. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 59(9), 5196-5202
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Acquires Resistance-Related Neuraminidase I222T Substitution When Infected Mallards Are Exposed to Low Levels of Oseltamivir in Water
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2015 (English)In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 59, no 9, p. 5196-5202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Influenza A virus (IAV) has its natural reservoir in wild waterfowl, and new human IAVs often contain gene segments originating from avian IAVs. Treatment options for severe human influenza are principally restricted to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), among which oseltamivir is stockpiled in preparedness for influenza pandemics. There is evolutionary pressure in the environment for resistance development to oseltamivir in avian IAVs, as the active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) passes largely undegraded through sewage treatment to river water where waterfowl reside. In an in vivo mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) model, we tested if low-pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus might become resistant if the host was exposed to low levels of OC. Ducks were experimentally infected, and OC was added to their water, after which infection and transmission were maintained by successive introductions of uninfected birds. Daily fecal samples were tested for IAV excretion, genotype, and phenotype. Following mallard exposure to 2.5 μg/liter OC, the resistance-related neuraminidase (NA) I222T substitution, was detected within 2 days during the first passage and was found in all viruses sequenced from subsequently introduced ducks. The substitution generated 8-fold and 2.4-fold increases in the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for OC (P < 0.001) and zanamivir (P = 0.016), respectively. We conclude that OC exposure of IAV hosts, in the same concentration magnitude as found in the environment, may result in amino acid substitutions, leading to changed antiviral sensitivity in an IAV subtype that can be highly pathogenic to humans. Prudent use of oseltamivir and resistance surveillance of IAVs in wild birds are warranted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2015
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-109148 (URN)10.1128/AAC.00886-15 (DOI)000364343900014 ()
Available from: 2015-09-21 Created: 2015-09-21 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, R. H., Fedorova, G., Blum, K. M., Pulit-Prociak, J., Gillman, A., Järhult, J., . . . Söderström, H. (2015). Online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography using bonded zwitterionic stationary phases and tandem mass spectrometry for rapid environmental trace analysis of highly polar hydrophilic compounds – Application for the antiviral drug Zanamivir. Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, 141, 164-169
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography using bonded zwitterionic stationary phases and tandem mass spectrometry for rapid environmental trace analysis of highly polar hydrophilic compounds – Application for the antiviral drug Zanamivir
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2015 (English)In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 141, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Zanamivir (Za) is a highly polar and hydrophilic antiviral drug used for the treatment of influenza A viruses. Za has been detected in rivers of Japan and it's environmental occurrence has the risk of inducing antiviral resistant avian influenza viruses. In this study, a rapid automated online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography method using bonded zwitterionic stationary phases and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/LC–MS/MS) for trace analysis of Za was developed. Furthermore, an internal standard (IS) calibration method capable of quantifying Za in Milli-Q, surface water, sewage effluent and sewage influent was evaluated. Optimum pre-extraction sample composition was found to be 95/5 v/v acetonitrile/water sample and 1% formic acid. The developed method showed acceptable linearities (r2≥0.994), filtration recovery (≥91%), and intra-day precisions (RSD≤16%), and acceptable and environmentally relevant LOQs (≤20 ng L−1). Storage tests showed no significant losses of Za during 20 days and +4/−20 °C (≤12%) with the exception of influent samples, which should be kept at −20 °C to avoid significant Za losses. The applicability of the method was demonstrated in a study on phototransformation of Za in unfiltered and filtered surface water during 28 days of artificial UV irradiation exposure. No significant (≤12%) phototransformation was found in surface water after 28 days suggesting a relatively high photostability of Za and that Za should be of environmental concern.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Antivirals, Zanamivir, Online solid phase extraction, Liquid chromatography, ZIC-HILIC, Tandem mass spectrometry
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-104589 (URN)10.1016/j.talanta.2015.03.066 (DOI)000356987500026 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 211-2013-1320
Available from: 2015-06-11 Created: 2015-06-11 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Gillman, A., Muradrasoli, S., Mardnas, A., Söderstrom, H., Fedorova, G., Lowenthal, M., . . . Jarhult, J. D. (2015). Oseltamivir Resistance in Influenza A(H6N2) Caused by an R292K Substitution in Neuraminidase Is Not Maintained in Mallards without Drug Pressure. PLoS ONE, 10(9), Article ID e0139415.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oseltamivir Resistance in Influenza A(H6N2) Caused by an R292K Substitution in Neuraminidase Is Not Maintained in Mallards without Drug Pressure
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2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 9, article id e0139415Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Wild waterfowl is the natural reservoir of influenza A virus (IAV); hosted viruses are very variable and provide a source for genetic segments which can reassort with poultry or mammalian adapted IAVs to generate novel species crossing viruses. Additionally, wild waterfowl act as a reservoir for highly pathogenic IAVs. Exposure of wild birds to the antiviral drug oseltamivir may occur in the environment as its active metabolite can be released from sewage treatment plants to river water. Resistance to oseltamivir, or to other neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), in IAVs of wild waterfowl has not been extensively studied. Aim and Methods In a previous in vivo Mallard experiment, an influenza A(H6N2) virus developed oseltamivir resistance by the R292K substitution in the neuraminidase (NA), when the birds were exposed to oseltamivir. In this study we tested if the resistance could be maintained in Mallards without drug exposure. Three variants of resistant H6N2/R292K virus were each propagated during 17 days in five successive pairs of naive Mallards, while oseltamivir exposure was decreased and removed. Daily fecal samples were analyzed for viral presence, genotype and phenotype. Results and Conclusion Within three days without drug exposure no resistant viruses could be detected by NA sequencing, which was confirmed by functional NAI sensitivity testing. We conclude that this resistant N2 virus could not compete in fitness with wild type subpopulations without oseltamivir drug pressure, and thus has no potential to circulate among wild birds. The results of this study contrast to previous observations of drug induced resistance in an avian H1N1 virus, which was maintained also without drug exposure in Mallards. Experimental observations on persistence of NAI resistance in avian IAVs resemble NAI resistance seen in human IAVs, in which resistant N2 subtypes do not circulate, while N1 subtypes with permissive mutations can circulate without drug pressure. We speculate that the phylogenetic group N1 NAs may easier compensate for NAI resistance than group N2 NAs, though further studies are needed to confirm such conclusions.

National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111013 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0139415 (DOI)000362175700114 ()
Available from: 2015-11-04 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Gillman, A., Muradrasoli, S., Söderström, H., Holmberg, F., Latorre-Margalef, N., Tolf, C., . . . Jarhult, J. D. (2015). Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Strain with an H274Y Mutation in Neuraminidase Persists without Drug Pressure in Infected Mallards. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81(7), 2378-2383
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Strain with an H274Y Mutation in Neuraminidase Persists without Drug Pressure in Infected Mallards
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2015 (English)In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 81, no 7, p. 2378-2383Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Influenza A virus (IAV) has its natural reservoir in wild waterfowl, and emerging human IAVs often contain gene segments from avian viruses. The active drug metabolite of oseltamivir (oseltamivir carboxylate [OC]), stockpiled as Tamiflu for influenza pandemic preparedness, is not removed by conventional sewage treatment and has been detected in river water. There, it may exert evolutionary pressure on avian IAV in waterfowl, resulting in the development of resistant viral variants. A resistant avian IAV can circulate among wild birds only if resistance does not restrict viral fitness and if the resistant virus can persist without continuous drug pressure. In this in vivo mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) study, we tested whether an OC-resistant avian IAV (H1N1) strain with an H274Y mutation in the neuraminidase (NA-H274Y) could retain resistance while drug pressure was gradually removed. Successively infected mallards were exposed to decreasing levels of OC, and fecal samples were analyzed for the neuraminidase sequence and phenotypic resistance. No reversion to wild-type virus was observed during the experiment, which included 17 days of viral transmission among 10 ducks exposed to OC concentrations below resistance induction levels. We conclude that resistance in avian IAV that is induced by exposure of the natural host to OC can persist in the absence of the drug. Thus, there is a risk that human-pathogenic IAVs that evolve from IAVs circulating among wild birds may contain resistance mutations. An oseltamivir-resistant pandemic IAV would pose a substantial public health threat. Therefore, our observations underscore the need for prudent oseltamivir use, upgraded sewage treatment, and surveillance for resistant IAVs in wild birds.

National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102351 (URN)10.1128/AEM.04034-14 (DOI)000351842000013 ()25616792 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-06-03 Created: 2015-04-23 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Singer, A. C., Järhult, J. D., Grabic, R., Khan, G. A., Lindberg, R. H., Fedorova, G., . . . Söderström, H. (2014). Intra- and inter-pandemic variations of antiviral, antibiotics and decongestants in wastewater treatment plants and receiving rivers. PLoS ONE, 9(9), e108621
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intra- and inter-pandemic variations of antiviral, antibiotics and decongestants in wastewater treatment plants and receiving rivers
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2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, p. e108621-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin), three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) and the antiviral drug oseltamivir's active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), were measured weekly at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England during the month of November 2009, the autumnal peak of the influenza A[H1N1]pdm09 pandemic. The aim was to quantify the pharmaceutical response to the pandemic and compare this to drug use during the late pandemic (March 2010) and the inter-pandemic periods (May 2011). A large and small wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled in November 2009 to understand the differential fate of the analytes in the two WWTPs prior to their entry in the receiving river and to estimate drug users using a wastewater epidemiology approach. Mean hourly OC concentrations in the small and large WWTP's influent were 208 and 350 ng/L (max, 2070 and 550 ng/L, respectively). Erythromycin was the most concentrated antibiotic measured in Benson and Oxford WWTPs influent (max = 6,870 and 2,930 ng/L, respectively). Napthazoline and oxymetazoline were the most frequently detected and concentrated decongestant in the Benson WWTP influent (1650 and 67 ng/L) and effluent (696 and 307 ng/L), respectively, but were below detection in the Oxford WWTP. OC was found in 73% of November 2009's weekly river samples (max = 193 ng/L), but only in 5% and 0% of the late-and inter-pandemic river samples, respectively. The mean river concentration of each antibiotic during the pandemic largely fell between 17-74 ng/L, with clarithromycin (max = 292 ng/L) and erythromycin (max = 448 ng/L) yielding the highest single measure. In general, the concentration and frequency of detecting antibiotics in the river increased during the pandemic. OC was uniquely well-suited for the wastewater epidemiology approach owing to its nature as a prodrug, recalcitrance and temporally-and spatially-resolved prescription statistics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public library science, 2014
National Category
Chemical Sciences Water Treatment Environmental Sciences Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96793 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0108621 (DOI)000344862300098 ()
Available from: 2014-12-03 Created: 2014-12-03 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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