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Widmark, Anders
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Rasmusson, E., Gunnlaugsson, A., Wieslander, E., Hoglund, P., Widmark, A., Fransson, P., . . . Nilsson, P. (2019). Erectile Dysfunction and Absorbed Dose to Penile Base Structures in a Randomized Trial Comparing Ultrahypofractionated and Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer. Paper presented at 61st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), Chicago, Sep 15-18, 2019. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 105(1), S133-S134
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Erectile Dysfunction and Absorbed Dose to Penile Base Structures in a Randomized Trial Comparing Ultrahypofractionated and Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, ISSN 0360-3016, E-ISSN 1879-355X, Vol. 105, no 1, p. S133-S134Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164419 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.06.122 (DOI)000485671502690 ()
Conference
61st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), Chicago, Sep 15-18, 2019
Note

Supplement S, Meeting Abstract 1042.

Available from: 2019-10-22 Created: 2019-10-22 Last updated: 2019-10-22Bibliographically approved
Thysell, E., Vidman, L., Bovinder Ylitalo, E., Jernberg, E., Crnalic, S., Iglesias-Gato, D., . . . Wikström, P. (2019). Gene expression profiles define molecular subtypes of prostate cancer bone metastases with different outcomes and morphology traceable back to the primary tumor. Molecular Oncology, 13(8), 1763-1777
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gene expression profiles define molecular subtypes of prostate cancer bone metastases with different outcomes and morphology traceable back to the primary tumor
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2019 (English)In: Molecular Oncology, ISSN 1574-7891, E-ISSN 1878-0261, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 1763-1777Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bone metastasis is the lethal end-stage of prostate cancer (PC), but the biology of bone metastases is poorly understood. The overall aim of this study was therefore to explore molecular variability in PC bone metastases of potential importance for therapy. Specifically, genome-wide expression profiles of bone metastases from untreated patients (n = 12) and patients treated with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT, n = 60) were analyzed in relation to patient outcome and to morphological characteristics in metastases and paired primary tumors. Principal component analysis and unsupervised classification were used to identify sample clusters based on mRNA profiles. Clusters were characterized by gene set enrichment analysis and related to histological and clinical parameters using univariate and multivariate statistics. Selected proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in metastases and matched primary tumors (n = 52) and in transurethral resected prostate (TUR-P) tissue of a separate cohort (n = 59). Three molecular subtypes of bone metastases (MetA-C) characterized by differences in gene expression pattern, morphology, and clinical behavior were identified. MetA (71% of the cases) showed increased expression of androgen receptor-regulated genes, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and glandular structures indicating a luminal cell phenotype. MetB (17%) showed expression profiles related to cell cycle activity and DNA damage, and a pronounced cellular atypia. MetC (12%) exhibited enriched stroma-epithelial cell interactions. MetB patients had the lowest serum PSA levels and the poorest prognosis after ADT. Combined analysis of PSA and Ki67 immunoreactivity (proliferation) in bone metastases, paired primary tumors, and TUR-P samples was able to differentiate MetA-like (high PSA, low Ki67) from MetB-like (low PSA, high Ki67) tumors and demonstrate their different prognosis. In conclusion, bone metastases from PC patients are separated based on gene expression profiles into molecular subtypes with different morphology, biology, and clinical outcome. These findings deserve further exploration with the purpose of improving treatment of metastatic PC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
bone metastasis, gene expression, gene set enrichment analysis, morphology, survival, unsupervised cluster analysis
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162668 (URN)10.1002/1878-0261.12526 (DOI)000478600200009 ()31162796 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-05 Last updated: 2019-09-05Bibliographically approved
Sandgren, K., Johansson, L., Axelsson, J., Jonsson, J., Ögren, M., Ögren, M., . . . Widmark, A. (2019). Radiation dosimetry of [Ga-68]PSMA-11 in low-risk prostate cancer patients. EJNMMI Physics, 6, Article ID 2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radiation dosimetry of [Ga-68]PSMA-11 in low-risk prostate cancer patients
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2019 (English)In: EJNMMI Physics, ISSN 2197-7364, E-ISSN 2191-219X, Vol. 6, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: 68Ga-labeled Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys(Ahx)-HBED-CC ([68Ga]PSMA-11) has been increasingly used to image prostate cancer using positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) both during diagnosis and treatment planning. It has been shown to be of clinical value for patients both in the primary and secondary stages of prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the effective dose and organ doses from injection of [68Ga]PSMA-11 in a cohort of low-risk prostate cancer patients.

Methods: Six low-risk prostate cancer patients were injected with 133–178 MBq [68Ga]PSMA-11 and examined with four PET/CT acquisitions from injection to 255 min post-injection. Urine was collected up to 4 h post-injection, and venous blood samples were drawn at 45 min, 85 min, 175 min, and 245 min post-injection. Kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen, salivary and lacrimal glands, and total body where delineated, and cumulated activities and absorbed organ doses calculated. The software IDAC-Dose 2.1 was used to calculate absorbed organ doses according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 107 using specific absorbed fractions published in ICRP 133 and effective dose according to ICRP Publication 103. We also estimated the absorbed dose to the eye lenses using Monte Carlo methods.

Results: [68Ga]PSMA-11 was rapidly cleared from the blood and accumulated preferentially in the kidneys and the liver. The substance has a biological half-life in blood of 6.5 min (91%) and 4.4 h (9%). The effective dose was calculated to 0.022 mSv/MBq. The kidneys received approximately 40 mGy after an injection with 160 MBq [68Ga]PSMA-11 while the lacrimal glands obtained an absorbed dose of 0.12 mGy per administered MBq. Regarding the eye lenses, the absorbed dose was low (0.0051 mGy/MBq).

Conclusion: The effective dose for [68Ga]PSMA-11 is 0.022 mSv/MBq, where the kidneys and lacrimal glands receiving the highest organ dose.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Radiation dosimetry, [Ga-68]PSMA-11, PSMA, PET-tracer, Prostate cancer, Absorbed dose and effective dose, Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys(Ahx)-HBED-CC
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155760 (URN)10.1186/s40658-018-0239-2 (DOI)000455503100001 ()30631980 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved
Widmark, A., Gunnlaugsson, A., Beckman, L., Thellenberg-Karlsson, C., Hoyer, M., Lagerlund, M., . . . Nilsson, P. (2019). Ultra-hypofractionated versus conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: 5-year outcomes of the HYPO-RT-PC randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial. The Lancet, 394(10196), 385-395
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultra-hypofractionated versus conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: 5-year outcomes of the HYPO-RT-PC randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial
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2019 (English)In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 394, no 10196, p. 385-395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer has gained increased attention due to its proposed high radiation-fraction sensitivity. Recent reports from studies comparing moderately hypofractionated and conventionally fractionated radiotherapy support the clinical use of moderate hypofractionation. To date, there are no published randomised studies on ultra-hypofractionated radiotherapy. Here, we report the outcomes of the Scandinavian HYPO-RT-PC phase 3 trial with the aim to show non-inferiority of ultra-hypofractionation compared with conventional fractionation.

Methods: In this open-label, randomised, phase 3 non-inferiority trial done in 12 centres in Sweden and Denmark, we recruited men up to 75 years of age with intermediate-to-high-risk prostate cancer and a WHO performance status between 0 and 2. Patients were randomly assigned to ultra-hypofractionation (42·7 Gy in seven fractions, 3 days per week for 2·5 weeks) or conventional fractionated radiotherapy (78·0 Gy in 39 fractions, 5 days per week for 8 weeks). No androgen deprivation therapy was allowed. The primary endpoint was time to biochemical or clinical failure, analysed in the per-protocol population. The prespecified non-inferiority margin was 4% at 5 years, corresponding to a critical hazard ratio (HR) limit of 1·338. Physician-recorded toxicity was measured according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) morbidity scale and patient-reported outcome measurements with the Prostate Cancer Symptom Scale (PCSS) questionnaire. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN45905321.

Findings: Between July 1, 2005, and Nov 4, 2015, 1200 patients were randomly assigned to conventional fractionation (n=602) or ultra-hypofractionation (n=598), of whom 1180 (591 conventional fractionation and 589 ultra-hypofractionation) constituted the per-protocol population. 1054 (89%) participants were intermediate risk and 126 (11%) were high risk. Median follow-up time was 5·0 years (IQR 3·1–7·0). The estimated failure-free survival at 5 years was 84% (95% CI 80–87) in both treatment groups, with an adjusted HR of 1·002 (95% CI 0·758–1·325; log-rank p=0·99). There was weak evidence of an increased frequency of acute physician-reported RTOG grade 2 or worse urinary toxicity in the ultra-hypofractionation group at end of radiotherapy (158 [28%] of 569 patients vs 132 [23%] of 578 patients; p=0·057). There were no significant differences in grade 2 or worse urinary or bowel late toxicity between the two treatment groups at any point after radiotherapy, except for an increase in urinary toxicity in the ultra-hypofractionation group compared to the conventional fractionation group at 1-year follow-up (32 [6%] of 528 patients vs 13 [2%] of 529 patients; (p=0·0037). We observed no differences between groups in frequencies at 5 years of RTOG grade 2 or worse urinary toxicity (11 [5%] of 243 patients for the ultra-hypofractionation group vs 12 [5%] of 249 for the conventional fractionation group; p=1·00) and bowel toxicity (three [1%] of 244 patients vs nine [4%] of 249 patients; p=0·14). Patient-reported outcomes revealed significantly higher levels of acute urinary and bowel symptoms in the ultra-hypofractionation group compared with the conventional fractionation group but no significant increases in late symptoms were found, except for increased urinary symptoms at 1-year follow-up, consistent with the physician-evaluated toxicity.

Interpretation: Ultra-hypofractionated radiotherapy is non-inferior to conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for intermediate-to-high risk prostate cancer regarding failure-free survival. Early side-effects are more pronounced with ultra-hypofractionation compared with conventional fractionation whereas late toxicity is similar in both treatment groups. The results support the use of ultra-hypofractionation for radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

Funding: The Nordic Cancer Union, the Swedish Cancer Society, and the Swedish Research Council.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162730 (URN)10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31131-6 (DOI)000478698300023 ()31227373 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85069673767 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Nordstrand, A., Bovinder Ylitalo, E., Thysell, E., Jernberg, E., Crnalic, S., Widmark, A., . . . Wikström, P. (2018). Bone Cell Activity in Clinical Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis and Its Inverse Relation to Tumor Cell Androgen Receptor Activity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(4), Article ID 1223.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bone Cell Activity in Clinical Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis and Its Inverse Relation to Tumor Cell Androgen Receptor Activity
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 19, no 4, article id 1223Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Advanced prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to bone and induces a mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic bone response. Standard treatment for metastatic prostate cancer is androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) that also affects bone biology. Treatment options for patients relapsing after ADT are limited, particularly in cases where castration-resistance does not depend on androgen receptor (AR) activity. Patients with non-AR driven metastases may, however, benefit from therapies targeting the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, the current study specifically investigated bone cell activity in clinical bone metastases in relation to tumor cell AR activity, in order to gain novel insight into biological heterogeneities of possible importance for patient stratification into bone-targeting therapies. Metastasis tissue obtained from treatment-naïve (n = 11) and castration-resistant (n = 28) patients was characterized using whole-genome expression analysis followed by multivariate modeling, functional enrichment analysis, and histological evaluation. Bone cell activity was analyzed by measuring expression levels of predefined marker genes representing osteoclasts (ACP5, CTSK, MMP9), osteoblasts (ALPL, BGLAP, RUNX2) and osteocytes (SOST). Principal component analysis indicated a positive correlation between osteoblast and osteoclast activity and a high variability in bone cell activity between different metastases. Immunohistochemistry verified a positive correlation between runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) positive osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, encoded by ACP5) positive osteoclasts lining the metastatic bone surface. No difference in bone cell activity was seen between treatment-naïve and castration-resistant patients. Importantly, bone cell activity was inversely correlated to tumor cell AR activity (measured as AR, FOXA1, HOXB13, KLK2, KLK3, NKX3-1, STEAP2, and TMPRSS2 expression) and to patient serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Functional enrichment analysis indicated high bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in metastases with high bone cell activity and low tumor cell AR activity. This was confirmed by BMP4 immunoreactivity in tumor cells of metastases with ongoing bone formation, as determined by histological evaluation of van Gieson-stained sections. In conclusion, the inverse relation observed between bone cell activity and tumor cell AR activity in prostate cancer bone metastasis may be of importance for patient response to AR and/or bone targeting therapies, but needs to be evaluated in clinical settings in relation to serum markers for bone remodeling, radiography and patient response to therapy. The importance of BMP signaling in the development of sclerotic metastasis lesions deserves further exploration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
prostate cancer, bone, metastasis, androgen receptor, osteoblast, osteoclast, BMP
National Category
Orthopaedics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146973 (URN)10.3390/ijms19041223 (DOI)000434978700302 ()29670000 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045938451 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
Bovinder Ylitalo, E., Nordstrand, A., Thysell, E., Jernberg, E., Crnalic, S., Widmark, A., . . . Wikström, P. (2018). Bone remodeling in relation to androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer bone metastases. Paper presented at AACR Special Conference on Prostate Cancer - Advances in Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research, DEC 02-05, 2017, Orlando, FL. Cancer Research, 78(16), 50-50
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bone remodeling in relation to androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer bone metastases
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2018 (English)In: Cancer Research, ISSN 0008-5472, E-ISSN 1538-7445, Vol. 78, no 16, p. 50-50Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Association for Cancer Research, 2018
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151399 (URN)000441803800065 ()
Conference
AACR Special Conference on Prostate Cancer - Advances in Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research, DEC 02-05, 2017, Orlando, FL
Note

Supplement: S, Meeting Abstract: A048

Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Thysell, E., Bovinder Ylitalo, E., Jernberg, E., Crnalic, S., Widmark, A., Bergh, A. & Wikström, P. (2018). Clinically relevant molecular subgroups of prostate cancer bone metastases. Paper presented at AACR Special Conference on Prostate Cancer - Advances in Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research, DEC 02-05, 2017, Orlando, FL. Cancer Research, 78(16), 123-123
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clinically relevant molecular subgroups of prostate cancer bone metastases
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2018 (English)In: Cancer Research, ISSN 0008-5472, E-ISSN 1538-7445, Vol. 78, no 16, p. 123-123Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Association for Cancer Research, 2018
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151398 (URN)000441803800194 ()
Conference
AACR Special Conference on Prostate Cancer - Advances in Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research, DEC 02-05, 2017, Orlando, FL
Note

 Supplement: S, Meeting Abstract: B081

Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Sandgren, K., Jonsson, J., Nyholm, T., Strandberg, S., Ögren, M., Axelsson, J., . . . Windmark, A. (2018). Histology correlation of in vivo [68Ga]PSMA-PET/MRI data of the prostate. Paper presented at 37th Meeting of the European-Society-for-Radiotherapy-and-Oncology (ESTRO), APR 20-24, 2018, Barcelona, SPAIN. Radiotherapy and Oncology, 127, S541-S541
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Histology correlation of in vivo [68Ga]PSMA-PET/MRI data of the prostate
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2018 (English)In: Radiotherapy and Oncology, ISSN 0167-8140, E-ISSN 1879-0887, Vol. 127, p. S541-S541Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150494 (URN)10.1016/S0167-8140(18)31288-X (DOI)000437723402226 ()
Conference
37th Meeting of the European-Society-for-Radiotherapy-and-Oncology (ESTRO), APR 20-24, 2018, Barcelona, SPAIN
Available from: 2018-11-01 Created: 2018-11-01 Last updated: 2018-11-01Bibliographically approved
diva2:1205722
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Osteoblast-derived factors promote metastatic potential in human prostate cancer cells, in part via non-canonical transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling
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2018 (English)In: The Prostate, ISSN 0270-4137, E-ISSN 1097-0045, Vol. 78, no 6, p. 446-456Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) functions as a double-edged sword in prostate cancer tumorigenesis. In initial stages of the disease, TGFβ acts as a growth inhibitor upon tumor cells, whereas it in later stages of disease rather promotes invasion and metastatic potential. One well-known cellular source of TGFβ in the bone metastatic site is the bone-forming osteoblasts. Here we have studied the effects by osteoblast-derived factors on metastatic potential in several human prostate cancer cell lines.

Methods: Effects on metastatic potential in prostate cancer cells by osteoblast-derived factors were studied in vitro using several methods, including Transwell migration and evaluation of formation of pro-migratory protrusions. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate possible changes in differentiation state in tumor cells by analysis of markers for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The Matrigel-on-top 3D culture method was used for further assessment of metastatic characteristics in tumor cells by analysis of formation of filopodium-like protrusions (FLPs).

Results: Osteoblast-derived factors increased migration of PC-3U cells, an effect less prominent in cells overexpressing a mutated type I TGFβ receptor (TβRI) preventing non-canonical TRAF6-dependent TGFβ signaling. Osteoblast-derived factors also increased the formation of long protrusions and loss of cell-cell contacts in PC-3U cells, suggesting induction of a more aggressive phenotype. In addition, treatment with TGFβ or osteoblast-derived factors of PC-3U cells in Matrigel-on-top 3D cultures promoted formation of FLPs, previously shown to be essential for metastatic establishment.

Conclusions: These findings suggests that factors secreted from osteoblasts, including TGFβ, can induce several cellular traits involved in metastatic potential of PC-3U cells, further strengthening the role for bone cells to promote metastatic tumor cell behavior.

Keywords
metastasis, osteoblast, prostate cancer, TGFβ, TRAF6
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146192 (URN)10.1002/pros.23489 (DOI)000427264200005 ()29383751 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-15 Created: 2018-05-15 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Armstrong, A. J., Anand, A., Edenbrandt, L., Bondesson, E., Bjartell, A., Widmark, A., . . . Morris, M. J. (2018). Phase 3 Assessment of the Automated Bone Scan Index as a Prognostic Imaging Biomarker of Overall Survival in Men With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Oncology, 4(7), 944-951
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phase 3 Assessment of the Automated Bone Scan Index as a Prognostic Imaging Biomarker of Overall Survival in Men With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial
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2018 (English)In: JAMA Oncology, ISSN 2374-2437, E-ISSN 2374-2445, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 944-951Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Importance: Prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone, and bone metastases are associated with pathologic fractures, pain, and reduced survival. Bone disease is routinely visualized using the technetium Tc 99m(Tc-99m) bone scan; however, the standard interpretation of bone scan data relies on subjective manual assessment of counting metastatic lesion numbers. There is an unmet need for an objective and fully quantitative assessment of bone scan data.

Objective: To clinically assess in a prospectively defined analysis plan of a clinical trial the automated Bone Scan Index (aBSI) as an independent prognostic determinant of overall survival (OS) in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).

Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigationwas a prospectively planned analysis of the aBSI in a phase 3 multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of tasquinimod (10TASQ10). Men with bone metastatic chemotherapy-naive CRPC were recruited at 241 sites in 37 countries between March 2011 and August 2015. The statistical analysis plan to clinically evaluate the aBSI was prospectively defined and locked before unmasking of the 10TASQ10 study. The analysis of aBSI was conducted between May 25, 2016, and June 3, 2017.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The associations of baseline aBSI with OS, radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS), time to symptomatic progression, and time to opiate use for cancer pain.

Results: Of the total 1245 men enrolled, 721 were evaluable for the aBSI. The mean (SD) age (available for 719 men) was 70.6 (8.0) years (age range, 47-90 years). The aBSI population was representative of the total study population based on baseline characteristics. The aBSI (median, 1.07; range, 0-32.60) was significantly associated with OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.14-1.26; P < .001). The median OS by aBSI quartile (lowest to highest) was 34.7, 27.3, 21.7, and 13.3 months, respectively. The discriminative ability of the aBSI (C index, 0.63) in prognosticating OS was significantly higher than that of the manual lesion counting (C index, 0.60) (P = .03). In a multivariable survival model, a higher aBSI remained independently associated with OS (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11; P = .03). A higher aBSI was also independently associated with time to symptomatic progression (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.23; P < .001) and time to opiate use for cancer pain (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.14-1.30; P < .001).

Conclusions and Relevance: To date, this investigation is the largest prospectively analyzed study to validate the aBSI as an independent prognostic imaging biomarker of survival in mCRPC. These data support the prognostic utility of the aBSI as an objective imaging biomarker in the design and eligibility of clinical trials of systemic therapies for patients with mCRPC.

National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150381 (URN)10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.1093 (DOI)000438486000011 ()29799999 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050523368 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-08 Created: 2018-08-08 Last updated: 2018-08-08Bibliographically approved
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