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Sunnevång, Cecilia
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Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
López-Valdés, F. J., Juste-Lorente, O., Maza-Frechin, M., Pipkorn, B., Sunnevång, C., Lorente, A., . . . Davidsson, J. (2016). Analysis of occupant kinematics and dynamics in nearside oblique impacts. Traffic Injury Prevention, 17, 86-92
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of occupant kinematics and dynamics in nearside oblique impacts
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2016 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 17, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The objective of this article is to analyze the kinematics and dynamics of restrained postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) exposed to a nearside oblique impact and the injuries that were found after the tests.Methods: Three male PMHS of similar age (64 4years) and anthropometry (weight: 61 9.6kg; stature: 172 +/- 2.7cm) were exposed to a 30 degrees nearside oblique impact at 34km/h. The test fixture approximated the seating position of a front seat occupant. A rigid seat was designed to match the pelvic displacement in a vehicle seat. Surrogates were restrained by a 3-point seat belt consisting of a 2kN pretensioner (PT), 4.5kN force-limiting shoulder belt, and a 3.5kN PT lap belt. The shoulder belt PT was not fired in one of the tests. Trajectories of the head, shoulder, and hip joint (bilaterally) were recorded at 1,000Hz by a 3D motion capture system. The 3D acceleration and angular rate of the head, T1, and pelvis, and the 3D acceleration of selected spinal locations was measured at 10,000Hz. Seat belt load cells measured the belt tension at 4 locations. PMHS donation and handling were performed with the approval of the relevant regional ethics review board.Results: Activation of the shoulder PT reduced substantially the peak forward excursion of the head but did not influence the lateral displacement of the head center of gravity (CG). In all 3 subjects, the lateral excursion of the head CG (291.1, 290, 292.1mm) was greater than the forward displacement (271.4, 216.7, 171.5mm). The hip joint excursion of the PMHS that was not exposed to the shoulder PT seat belt was twice the magnitude observed for the other 2 subjects. The 3 PMHS sustained clavicle fractures on the shoulder loaded by the seat belt and 2 of them were diagnosed atlantoaxial subluxation in the radiologist examination. Avulsion fractures of the right lamina of T1, T2, T3, and T4 were found when the PT was not used. The 3 PMHS received multiple fractures spread over both aspects of the rib cage and involving the posterior aspect of it.Conclusion: In this study of nearside oblique impact loading, the PMHS exhibited kinematics characterized by reduced torso pitching and increased lateral head excursion as compared to previous frontal impact results. These kinematics resulted in potential cervical and thoracic spinal injuries and in complete, displaced fractures of the lateral and posterior aspects of the rib cage. Though this is a limited number of subjects, it shows the necessity of further understanding of the kinematics of occupants exposed to this loading mode.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keywords
Oblique impacts, Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS), kinematics, nearside, thoracic injuries
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126774 (URN)10.1080/15389588.2016.1189077 (DOI)000383897600016 ()27586108 (PubMedID)
Note

Special Issue, Supplement 1.

Available from: 2016-10-17 Created: 2016-10-13 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Pipkorn, B., López-Valdés, F. J., Juste-Lorente, O., Insausti, R., Lundgren, C. & Sunnevång, C. (2016). Assessment of an innovative seat belt with independent control of the shoulder and lap portions using THOR tests, the THUMS model, and PMHS tests. Traffic Injury Prevention, 17, 124-130
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of an innovative seat belt with independent control of the shoulder and lap portions using THOR tests, the THUMS model, and PMHS tests
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2016 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 17, p. 124-130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the potential chest injury benefits and influence on occupant kinematics of a belt system with independent control of the shoulder and lap portions. Methods: This article investigates the kinematics and dynamics of human surrogates in 35km/h impacts with 2 different restraints: a pretensioning (PT), force-limiting (FL) seat belt, a reference belt system, and a concept design with a split buckle consisting (SB) of 2 separate shoulder and lap belt bands. The study combines mathematical simulations with the THOR dummy and THUMS human body model, and mechanical tests with the THOR dummy and 2 postmortem human surrogate (PMHS) tests of similar age (39 and 42years) and anthropometry (62kg, 181cm vs. 60kg, 171.5cm). The test setup consisted of a rigid metallic frame representing a standard seating position of a right front passenger. The THOR dummy model predictions were compared to the mechanical THOR dummy test results. The THUMS-predicted number of fractured ribs were compared to the number of fractured ribs in the PMHS. Results: THOR sled tests showed that the SB seat belt system decreased chest deflection significantly without increasing the forward displacement of the head. The THOR model and the THOR physical dummy predicted a 13- and 7-mm reduction in peak chest deflection, respectively. Peak diagonal belt force in the mechanical test with the reference belt was 5,582N and the predicted force was 4,770N. The THOR model also predicted lower belt forces with the SB system than observed in the tests (5,606vs. 6,085N). THUMS predicted somewhat increased head displacement for the SB system compared to the reference system. Peak diagonal force with the reference belt was 4,000N and for the SB system it was 5,200N. The PMHS test with the SB belt resulted in improved kinematics and a smaller number of rib fractures (2vs. 5 fractures) compared to the reference belt. Conclusion: Concepts for a belt system that can reduce the load on the chest of the occupant in a crash and thereby reduce the number of injured occupants, in particular the elderly, was proposed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keywords
PMHS, seat belt, frontal impact, THOR, THUMS
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126775 (URN)10.1080/15389588.2016.1201204 (DOI)000383897600021 ()27586113 (PubMedID)
Note

Special Issue: Supplement 1.

Available from: 2016-10-17 Created: 2016-10-13 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Sunnevång, C. (2016). Characteristics of nearside car crashes: an integrated approach to side impact safety. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics of nearside car crashes: an integrated approach to side impact safety
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Approximately 1.25 million people globally are killed in traffic accidents yearly. To achieve the UN Global Goal of a 50% reduction of fatal and serious injuries in 2020 a safer infrastructure, as well as new safety technologies, will be needed. Side crashes represent 20% of all serious and 25 % of fatal injuries. The overall aim of this thesis is to provide guidelines for improved side impact protection. First, by characterizing nearside crashes and injury outcome, including injuries from the farside occupant, for non-senior and senior front seat occupants. Second, to determine whether the WorldSID dummy provides opportunities for improved in-crash occupant protection. And third, by relating in-crash occupant protection to pre-crash countermeasures, to explore a holistic approach for side crashes using the integrated safety chain from safe driving to crash.

Methods: NASS/CDS data for both older and modern vehicles was used to provide exposure, incidence, and risk for fatal injury as well as detailed injury distribution and crash characteristics. The WorldSID dummy was compared to Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in impactor tests at high and low severities to demonstrate the possibilities of this tool. Crash tests were performed to evaluate WorldSID crash test dummy assessments of injuries found in the NASS/CDS data. The integrated safety chain was used to demonstrate how to evaluate occupant protection in side crashes from a larger perspective, involving infrastructure and Automated Emergency Braking.

Result: Most side crashes occur at intersections. The head, thorax, and pelvis are the most frequently injured body regions, and seniors have a higher risk for rib fractures compared to non-seniors. The WorldSID dummy response was similar to the PMHS response at the higher impact speed, but not at the lower. In conjunction with improved airbags infrastructural change, and the use of Automated Emergency Braking, can effectively reduce the number of fatalities and injured occupants in side impacts.

Conclusion: Future focus for side impact protection should be on intersection crashes, improved occupant protection for senior occupants, and protection for and from the farside occupant, reducing injury risk to the head, thorax, and pelvis. The WorldSID dummy has the ability to reproduce humanlike responses in lateral and oblique impacts. However, at a low crash severity, chest deflection could be underestimated, which must be taken into consideration when evaluating, for example, pre-crash inflated side airbags. Analyzing nearside crashes using the integrated safety chain shows that speed management by means of roundabouts is an efficient countermeasure reducing the number of injurious crashes, as well as reducing variations in crash severity. In combination with an Automated Emergency Braking a large part of side crashes could be avoided or crash severity mitigated. Rather than developing structures and airbags for high-speed crashes, it is important to consider alternative countermeasures. Hence the need for an integrated approach to side impacts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2016. p. 58
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1855
Keywords
side impact, WorldSID, thorax, injuries, side airbag, sidokollision, WorldSID, thorax, injuries, side airbag
National Category
Surgery
Research subject
biomechanics; Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126985 (URN)978-91-7601-587-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-11-11, NUS 1D - Tandläkarhögskolan, Hörsal D, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-10-25 Created: 2016-10-25 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Sunnevång, C., Pipkorn, B. & Boström, O. (2015). Assessment of Bilateral Thoracic Loading on the Near-Side Occupant Due to Occupant-to-Occupant Interaction in Vehicle Crash Tests. Traffic Injury Prevention, 16(Supplement 2), S217-S223
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Bilateral Thoracic Loading on the Near-Side Occupant Due to Occupant-to-Occupant Interaction in Vehicle Crash Tests
2015 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 16, no Supplement 2, p. S217-S223Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: This study aims, by means of the WorldSID 50th percentile male, to evaluate thoracic loading and injury risk to the near-side occupant due to occupant-to-occupant interaction in combination with loading from an intruding structure.Method: Nine vehicle crash tests were performed with a 50th percentile WorldSID male dummy in the near-side (adjacent to the intruding structure) seat and a THOR or ES2 dummy in the far-side (opposite the intruding structure) seat. The near-side seated WorldSID was equipped with 6 + 6 IR-Traccs (LH and RH) in the thorax/abdomen enabling measurement of bilateral deflection. To differentiate deflection caused by the intrusion, and the deflection caused by the neighboring occupant, time history curves were analyzed. The crash tests were performed with different modern vehicles, equipped with thorax side airbags and inflatable curtains, ranging from a compact car to a large sedan, and in different loading conditions such as car-to-car, barrier, and pole tests. Lateral delta V based on vehicle tunnel acceleration and maximum residual intrusion at occupant position were used as a measurement of crash severity to compare injury measurements.Result: In the 9 vehicle crash tests, thoracic loading, induced by the intruding structure as well as from the far-side occupant, varied due to the size and structural performance of the car as well as the severity of the crash. Peak deflection on the thoracic outboard side occurred during the first 50ms of the event. Between 70 to 150ms loading induced by the neighboring occupant occurred and resulted in an inboard-side peak deflection and viscous criterion. In the tests where the target vehicle lateral delta V was below 30km/h and intrusion less than 200mm, deflections were low on both the outboard (20-40mm) and inboard side (10-15mm). At higher crash severities, delta V 35km/h and above as well as intrusions larger than 350mm, the inboard deflections (caused by interaction to the far-side occupant) were of the same magnitude or even higher (30-70mm) than the outboard deflections (30-50mm).Conclusion: A WorldSID 50th percentile male equipped with bilateral IR-Traccs can detect loading to the thorax from a neighboring occupant making injury risk assessment feasible for this type of loading. At crash severities resulting in a delta V above 35km/h and intrusions larger than 350mm, both the inboard deflection and VC resulted in high risks of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3+ injury, especially for a senior occupant.

Keywords
side impact, crash test, injury mechanisms, occupant-to-occupant interaction, WorldSID
National Category
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-110997 (URN)10.1080/15389588.2015.1061665 (DOI)000362330800030 ()26436235 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-11-17 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Sunnevang, C., Sui, B., Lindkvist, M. & Krafft, M. (2015). Census Study of Real-Life Near-Side Crashes with Modern Side Airbag-Equipped Vehicles in the United States. Traffic Injury Prevention, 16(Supplement 1), S117-S124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Census Study of Real-Life Near-Side Crashes with Modern Side Airbag-Equipped Vehicles in the United States
2015 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 16, no Supplement 1, p. S117-S124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the crash characteristics, injury distribution, and injury mechanisms for Maximum Abbreviated Injury Score (MAIS) 2+ injured belted, near-side occupants in airbag-equipped modern vehicles. Furthermore, differences in injury distribution for senior occupants compared to non-senior occupants was investigated, as well as whether the near-side occupant injury risk to the head and thorax increases or decreases with a neighboring occupant. Method: National Automotive Sampling System's Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data from 2000 to 2012 were searched for all side impacts (GAD L&R, all principal direction of force) for belted occupants in modern vehicles (model year > 1999). Rollovers were excluded, and only front seat occupants over the age of 10 were included. Twelve thousand three hundred fifty-four MAIS 2+ injured occupants seated adjacent to the intruding structure (near-side) and protected by at least one deployed side airbag were studied. To evaluate the injury risk influenced by the neighboring occupant, odds ratio with an induced exposure approach was used. Result: The most typical crash occurred either at an intersection or in a left turn where the striking vehicle impacted the target vehicle at a 60 to 70 degrees angle, resulting in a moderate change of velocity (delta-V) and intrusion at the B-pillar. The head, thorax, and pelvis were the most frequent body regions with rib fracture the most frequent specific injury. A majority of the head injuries included brain injuries without skull fracture, and non-senior rather than senior occupants had a higher frequency of head injuries on the whole. In approximately 50% of the cases there was a neighboring occupant influencing injury outcome. Conclusion: Compared to non-senior occupants, the senior occupants sustained a considerably higher rate of thoracic and pelvis injuries, which should be addressed by improved thorax side airbag protection. The influence on near-side occupant injury risk by the neighboring occupant should also be further evaluated. Furthermore, side airbag performance and injury assessments in intersection crashes, especially those involving senior occupants in lower severities, should be further investigated and side impact dummy biofidelity and injury criteria must be determined for these crash scenarios.

Keywords
occupant-to-occupant interaction, senior occupants, injury mechanisms, in-depth study, side impact
National Category
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106503 (URN)10.1080/15389588.2015.1022895 (DOI)000355404600016 ()26027963 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-07-16 Created: 2015-07-14 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Stigson, H., Gustafsson, M., Sunnevang, C., Krafft, M. & Kullgren, A. (2015). Differences in Long-Term Medical Consequences Depending on Impact Direction Involving Passenger Cars. Traffic Injury Prevention, 16, S133-S139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in Long-Term Medical Consequences Depending on Impact Direction Involving Passenger Cars
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2015 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 16, p. S133-S139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: There is limited knowledge of the long-term medical consequences for occupants injured in car crashes in various impact directions. Thus, the objective was to evaluate whether injuries leading to permanent medical impairment differ depending on impact direction. Methods: In total, 36,743 injured occupants in car crashes that occurred between 1995 and 2011 were included. All initial injuries (n = 61,440) were classified according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2005. Injured car occupants were followed for at least 3years to assess permanent medical impairment. The data were divided into different groups according to impact direction and levels of permanent impairment. The risk of permanent medical impairment was established for different body regions and injury severity levels, according to AIS. Results: It was found that almost 12% of all car occupants sustained a permanent medical impairment. Given an injury, car occupants involved in rollover crashes had the highest overall risk to sustain a permanent medical impairment. Half of the head injuries leading to long-term consequences occurred in frontal impacts. Far-side occupants had almost the same risk as near-side occupants. Occupants who sustained a permanent medical impairment from cervical spine injuries had similar risk in all impact directions (13%) except from rollover (17%). However, these injuries occurred more often in rear crashes. Most of the injuries leading to long-term consequences were classified as minor injuries by AIS for all impact directions. Conclusions: Studying crash data from a perspective of medical impairment is important to identify injuries that might not be prioritized only considering the AIS but might lead to lower quality of life for the occupant and also costs for society. These results can be used for road transport system strategies and for making priority decisions in vehicle design.

Keywords
impairment, rollover, rear impact, side impact, front impact, injury outcome
National Category
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106502 (URN)10.1080/15389588.2015.1014999 (DOI)000355404600018 ()26027966 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-07-16 Created: 2015-07-14 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lopez-Valdes, F. J., Juste, O., Pipkorn, B., Garcia-Munoz, I., Sunnevang, C., Dahlgren, M. & Alba, J. J. (2014). A Comparison of the Performance of Two Advanced Restraint Systems in Frontal Impacts. Traffic Injury Prevention, 15, S119-S125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparison of the Performance of Two Advanced Restraint Systems in Frontal Impacts
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2014 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 15, p. S119-S125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The goal of the study is to compare the kinematics and dynamics of the THOR dummy in a frontal impact under the action of 2 state-of-the-art restraint systems.

Methods: Ten frontal sled tests were performed with THOR at 2 different impact speeds (35 and 9km/h). Two advanced restraint systems were used: a pretensioned force-limiting belt (PT+FL) and a pretensioned belt incorporating an inflatable portion (PT+BB). Dummy measurements included upper and lower neck reactions, multipoint thoracic deflection, and rib deformation. Data were acquired at 10,000Hz. Three-dimensional motion of relevant dummy landmarks was tracked at 1,000Hz. Results are reported in a local coordinate system moving with the test buck.

Results: Average forward displacement of the head was greater when the PT+FL belt was used (35km/h: 376.3 +/- 16.1mm [PT+BB] vs. 393.6 +/- 26.1mm [PT+FL]; 9km/h: 82.1 +/- 26.0mm [PT+BB] vs. 98.8 +/- 0.2mm [PT+FL]). The forward displacement of T1 was greater for the PT+FL belt at 35km/h but smaller at 9km/h. The forward motion of the pelvis was greater when the PT+BB was used, exhibiting a difference of 82mm in the 9km/h tests and 95.5mm in the 35km/h test. At 35km/h, upper shoulder belt forces were similar (PT+FL: 4,756.8 +/- 116.6N; PT+BB: 4,957.7 +/- 116.4N). At 9km/h, the PT+BB belt force was significantly greater than the PT+FL one. Lower neck flexion moments were higher for the PT+BB at 35km/h but lower at 9km/h (PT+FL: 34.2 +/- 3.5 Nm; PT+BB: 26.8 +/- 2.1 Nm). Maximum chest deflection occurred at the chest upper left region for both belts and regardless of the speed.

Conclusion: The comparison of the performance of different restraints requires assessing occupant kinematics and dynamics from a global point of view. Even if the force acting on the chest is similar, kinematics can be substantially different. The 2 advanced belts compared here showed that while the PT+BB significantly reduced peak and resultant chest deflection, the resulting kinematics indicated an increased forward motion of the pelvis and a reduced rotation of the occupant's torso. Further research is needed to understand how these effects can influence the protection of real occupants in more realistic vehicle environments.

Keywords
seatbelt, pretensioners, front impact, belted, occupant kinematics, crash dummies
National Category
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106161 (URN)10.1080/15389588.2014.936410 (DOI)000354471600017 ()25307376 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-07-10 Created: 2015-07-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Sunnevång, C., Hynd, D., Carroll, J. & Dahlgren, M. (2014). Comparison of the THORAX Demonstrator and HIII sensitivity to crash severity and occupant restraint variation. In: : . Paper presented at IRCOBI Conference 2014 (pp. 377-388).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of the THORAX Demonstrator and HIII sensitivity to crash severity and occupant restraint variation
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120770 (URN)
Conference
IRCOBI Conference 2014
Available from: 2016-05-20 Created: 2016-05-20 Last updated: 2018-06-07
Sunnevang, C., Lecuyer, E., Hynd, D., Carroll, J., Kruse, D. & Bostrom, O. (2014). Evaluation of Near-Side Oblique Frontal Impacts Using THOR With SD3 Shoulder. Traffic Injury Prevention, 15(Supplement 1), S96-S102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Near-Side Oblique Frontal Impacts Using THOR With SD3 Shoulder
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2014 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 15, no Supplement 1, p. S96-S102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Within the EC Seventh Framework project THORAX, the Mod-Kit THOR was upgraded with a new thorax and shoulder. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the THOR ATD met a set of prerequisites to a greater extent than Hybrid III and by that measure whether the dummy could serve as a potential tool for future evaluation of serious head and chest injuries in near-side oblique frontal impacts.

Method: A small-overlap/oblique sled system was used to reflect occupant forces observed in oblique frontal crashes. The head and thoracic response from THOR was evaluated for 3 combinations: belt only with no deformation of the driver's side door (configuration A), belt only in combination with a predeformed door (configuration B), and prepretensioning belt and driver airbag (PPT+DAB) in combination with a predeformed door (configuration C). To evaluate head injury risk, the head injury criterion (HIC) and brain injury criteria (BrIC) were used. For evaluation of the thoracic injury risk, 3 injury criteria proposed by the THORAX project were evaluated: Dmax, DcTHOR, and strain (dummy rib fractures).

Results: Unlike Hybrid III, the THOR with SD3 shoulder interacted with the side structure in a near-side oblique frontal impact. HIC values for the 3 test configurations corresponded to a 90% (A) and 100% (B and C) risk of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ head injury, and BrIC values resulted in a 100% risk of AIS 2+ head injury in configurations A and B. In C the risk was reduced to 75%. The AIS 2+ thoracic injury risks based on Dmax were similar (14-18%) for all tests. Based on DcTHOR, AIS 2+ injury risk increased from 29 to 53% as the predeformed door side was introduced (A to B), and the risk increased, to 64%, as a PPT+DAB was added (C). Considering the AIS 2+ injury risk based on strain, tests in A resulted in an average of 3 dummy rib fractures (17%). Introducing the predeformed door (B) increased the average of dummy fractures to 5 (39%), but in C the average number of dummy rib fractures decreased to 4 (28%).

Conclusions: THOR with an SD3 shoulder should be the preferred ATD rather than the Hybrid III for evaluating head and thorax injuries in oblique frontal impacts. Thoracic interaction with the predeformed door was not well captured by the 3D IR-Traccs; hence, use of deflection as an injury predictor in oblique loading is insufficient for evaluating injury risk in this load case. However, injury risk evaluation may be performed using the strain measurements, which characterize loading from seat belt and airbag as well as the lateral contribution of the structural impact in the loading condition used in this study.

Keywords
oblique impact, thorax injury, head injury, THOR, near-side
National Category
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106162 (URN)10.1080/15389588.2014.934367 (DOI)000354471600014 ()25307404 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-07-10 Created: 2015-07-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lindkvist, M., Kjaer, C. & Sunnevang, C. (2014). Side Collision Induced Pelvis Fracturers in Modern Cars. Traffic Injury Prevention, 15, S273-S274
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Side Collision Induced Pelvis Fracturers in Modern Cars
2014 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 15, p. S273-S274Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
National Category
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106160 (URN)000354471600048 ()
Available from: 2015-07-10 Created: 2015-07-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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