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Salazar Torres, Virgilio Mariano
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Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
Schmeer, K. K., Piperata, B. A., Herrera Rodriguez, A., Salazar Torres, V. M. & Centeno Cardenas, F. J. (2015). Maternal resources and household food security: evidence from Nicaragua. Public Health Nutrition, 18(16), 2915-2924
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maternal resources and household food security: evidence from Nicaragua
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2015 (English)In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 18, no 16, p. 2915-2924Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Women (especially mothers) are theorized as critical to reducing household food insecurity through their work and caregiver roles. The present study tests these assumptions, assessing how maternal economic and social resources are associated with food insecurity in households with young children. Design: Data from a population-based sample of households was collected in Leon, Nicaragua (n 443). Data include a newly validated measure of household food insecurity (ELCSA), maternal resource measures, and household economic status and demographics. Regression analysis tests the statistical associations (P<0.05) of maternal resources with household, adult-specific and child-specific food insecurity. Setting: Municipality of Leon, Nicaragua. Subjects: Households with children aged 3-11 years in rural and urban Leon. Results: Only 25 % of households with young children were food secure, with 50 % mildly food insecure and 25 % moderately/severely food insecure. When mothers contributed substantially to household income, the odds of moderate/severe household food insecurity were 34 % lower than when their spouse/partner was the main provider. The odds of food insecurity were 60 % lower when mothers managed household money, 48 % lower when mothers had a secondary (v. primary) education, 65 % higher among single mothers and 16 % lower with each indicator of social support. Results were similar for adult-and child-specific food insecurity. Conclusions: This research provides new evidence that maternal economic and social resources are important for reducing household food insecurity and adult- and child-specific food insecurity. Women's social status, social support and access to economic resources need to be enhanced as a part of policies aimed to reduce food insecurity in high-poverty settings.

Keywords
Latin America, Food insecurity, Gender, Child well-being, Poverty
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120315 (URN)10.1017/S1368980014003000 (DOI)000363043400004 ()25563386 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-05-16 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Salazar, M. & Öhman, A. (2015). Negotiating Masculinity, Violence, and Responsibility: A Situational Analysis of Young Nicaraguan Men’s Discourses on Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 24(2), 131-149
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Negotiating Masculinity, Violence, and Responsibility: A Situational Analysis of Young Nicaraguan Men’s Discourses on Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence
2015 (English)In: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, ISSN 1092-6771, E-ISSN 1545-083X, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 131-149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This situational analysis study aims to explore the discourses that young Nicaraguan men use in their understanding of male intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual abuse toward women. Six urban and 8 rural focus group discussions including 91 men were conducted. Positional maps were used to articulate the positions taken in the data within 2 continuums of variation representing men’s reasoning around control over women and men's responsibility for IPV and sexual abuse (SA). Nicaraguan men's discourses ranged from challenging gender inequality, IPV, and SA to supporting the patriarchal gender order. A key finding shows that a discourse supporting gender equality and men's full responsibility for IPV and SA is fighting to achieve recognition in this setting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2015
Keywords
gender issues, intimate partner violence, rape, sexual abuse
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-115792 (URN)10.1080/10926771.2015.1002652 (DOI)000350133000002 ()
Available from: 2016-02-04 Created: 2016-02-04 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Salazar, M., Dahlblom, K., Solórzano, L. & Herrera, A. (2014). Exposure to intimate partner violence reduces the protective effect that women's high education has on children's corporal punishment: a population-based study. Global Health Action, 7, 24774
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to intimate partner violence reduces the protective effect that women's high education has on children's corporal punishment: a population-based study
2014 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 7, p. 24774-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that women's education is protective against corporal punishment (CP) of children. However, the effect that women's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has on the association between women's education and children's CP has not been studied.

OBJECTIVE: To understand how the interaction between women's exposure to IPV and their education level influences the occurrence of children's CP at the household level.

METHODS: We selected 10,156 women who had at least one child less than 16 years old from cross-sectional data from the 2006-2007 Nicaraguan Demographic and Health Survey. Children's CP was defined as the punishment of children by slapping them, hitting them with a fist, or hitting them with a rope, belt, stick, or other object. IPV was measured by using a conflict tactic scale. The WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20) was used to assess the women's mental health. We computed adjusted risk ratios (ARR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator.

RESULTS: Women's exposure to IPV was associated with a 10-17% increase in the risk of children's CP. IPV and children's CP were associated with impaired women's mental health. Women's lifetime exposure to emotional IPV and controlling behavior by a partner significantly decreased the protective effect from women's high education level on children's CP. When women were exposed to emotional IPV, the protective effect from having a college education decreased from ARR=0.61 (95% CI 0.47-0.80) to ARR=0.98 (95% CI 0.80-1.19). A similar pattern was found among women exposed to controlling behavior by a partner, the protective effect decreased from ARR=0.71 (95% CI 0.53-0.90) to ARR=0.86 (95% CI 0.70-1.06).

CONCLUSION: This study shows how significant gains in one positive social determinant of children's well-being can be undermined when it interacts with men's violence toward women. Policies that aim to end children's CP must include actions to end women's exposure to IPV.

Keywords
children's corporal punishment, education, interaction, IPV, women
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-93536 (URN)10.3402/gha.v7.24774 (DOI)000341766300001 ()25226419 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-09-24 Created: 2014-09-24 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Salazar, M. & San Sebastian, M. (2014). Violence against women and unintended pregnancies in Nicaragua: a population-based multilevel study. BMC Women's Health, 14, 26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Violence against women and unintended pregnancies in Nicaragua: a population-based multilevel study
2014 (English)In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 14, p. 26-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Despite an increased use of contraceptive methods by women, unintended pregnancies represent one of the most evident violations of women's sexual and reproductive rights around the world. This study aims to measure the association between individual and community exposure to different forms of violence against women (physical/sexual violence by the partner, sexual abuse by any person, or controlling behavior by the partner) and unintended pregnancies.

Methods: Data from the 2006/2007 Nicaraguan Demographic and Health Survey were used. For the current study, 5347 women who reported a live birth in the five years prior to the survey and who were married or cohabitating at the time of the data collection were selected. Women's exposure to controlling behaviors by their partners was measured using six questions from the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Area-level variables were constructed by aggregating the individual level exposures to violence into an exposure measurement of the municipality as a whole (n = 142); which is the basic political division in Nicaragua. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data.

Results: In total, 37.1% of the pregnancies were reported as unintended. After adjusting for all variables included in the model, individual exposure to controlling behavior by a partner (AOR = 1.28, 95% CrI = 1.13-1.44), ever exposure to sexual abuse (AOR = 1.31, 95% CrI = 1.03-1.62), and ever exposure to physical/sexual intimate partner violence (AOR = 1.44, 95% CrI = 1.24-1.66) were significantly associated with unintended pregnancies. Women who lived in municipalities in the highest tertile of controlling behavior by a partner had 1.25 times higher odds of reporting an unintended pregnancy than women living in municipalities in the lowest tertile (AOR = 1.25, 95% CrI = 1.03-1.48).

Conclusions: Nicaraguan women often experience unintended pregnancies, and the occurrence of unintended pregnancies is significantly associated with exposure to different forms of violence against women at both the individual and the municipality level. National policies aiming to facilitate women's ability to exercise their reproductive rights must include actions aimed at reducing women's exposures to violence against women.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-87160 (URN)10.1186/1472-6874-14-26 (DOI)000331982800001 ()
Available from: 2014-04-10 Created: 2014-03-24 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Salazar, M. & Öhman, A. (2014). Who is using the morning-after pill?: Inequalities in emergency contraception use among ever partnered Nicaraguan women; findings from a national survey. International Journal for Equity in Health, 13(1), 61
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who is using the morning-after pill?: Inequalities in emergency contraception use among ever partnered Nicaraguan women; findings from a national survey
2014 (English)In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 61-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

IntroductionFew studies have described the inequalities in hormonal emergency contraception (HEC) use in developing countries. Thus, the main aim of this manuscript is to study socio-demographic inequalities in HEC use among Nicaraguan women, and to study if inequalities in HEC use arise from exposure to different forms of intimate partner violence (IPV).MethodsData from a national cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2007 was used. This study included data from 8284 ever partnered, non-sterilized women. Separate multivariate logistic regressions with each form of IPV were conducted to study how different forms of IPV were associated with HEC. Women¿s age, residency, education, socioeconomic status, parity, and current use of reversible contraception were included in the multivariate logistic regressions to obtain adjusted odds ratios showing inequalities in HEC use.ResultsSix percent of the women had ever used HEC (95% CI 5.1-6.9). Multivariate analyses showed that urban residency, higher education, and higher socioeconomic status were significantly associated with higher odds of ever using HEC, and age was associated with decreased odds of HEC use. A key finding of this study is that after controlling for socio-demographic factors, the odds of using HEC were higher for those women ever exposed to emotional IPV (AOR 1.58, 95%CI 1.16-2.00), physical IPV (AOR 1.82, 95%CI 1.30-2.55), sexual IPV (AOR 1.63, 95%CI 1.06-2.52), and controlling behavior by partner (AOR 1.51 95%CI 1.13-2.00) than those not exposed.ConclusionsThis study provides sound evidence supporting the hypothesis that there are inequalities in HEC use even in countries where inequalities in use to other forms of contraceptive technology has been reduced. HEC use among Nicaraguan women is strongly influenced by individual factors such as age, residency, educational level, socioeconomic status, and exposure to different forms of IPV. It is paramount that actions are taken to diminish these gaps.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2014
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-91964 (URN)10.1186/s12939-014-0061-y (DOI)000341668200001 ()24989177 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-08-19 Created: 2014-08-19 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Goicolea, I., Öhman, A., Salazar Torres, M., Morras, I. & Edin, K. (2012). Condemning violence without rejecting sexism?: Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador. Global Health Action, 5, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Condemning violence without rejecting sexism?: Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador
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2012 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 5, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men - five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists - and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme 'too much gender equality leads to IPV' emerged, while among the activists the theme 'gender inequality is the root of IPV'. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.

Keywords
intimate partner violence, qualitative content analysis, gender, masculinities, gender equality, machismo, Ecuador
National Category
Gender Studies Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-57447 (URN)10.3402/gha.v5i0.18049 (DOI)000305702000001 ()
Available from: 2012-07-23 Created: 2012-07-23 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Torres, V. M., Goicolea, I., Edin, K. & Öhman, A. (2012). 'Expanding your mind': the process of constructing gender-equitable masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in reproductive health or gender training programs. Global Health Action, 5
Open this publication in new window or tab >>'Expanding your mind': the process of constructing gender-equitable masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in reproductive health or gender training programs
2012 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Traditional forms of masculinity strongly influence men's and women's wellbeing.

OBJECTIVE: This study has two aims: (i) to explore notions of various forms of masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in programs addressing sexual health, reproductive health, and/or gender equality and (ii) to find out how these young men perceive their involvement in actions aimed at reducing violence against women (VAW).

DESIGN: A qualitative grounded theory study. Data were collected through six focus groups and two in-depth interviews with altogether 62 young men.

RESULTS: Our analysis showed that the informants experienced a process of change, labeled 'Expanding your mind', in which we identified four interrelated subcategories: The apprentice, The responsible/respectful man, The proactive peer educator, and 'The feminist man'. The process showed how an increased awareness of gender inequities facilitated the emergence of values (respect and responsibility) and behavior (thoughtful action) that contributed to increase the informant's critical thinking and agency at individual, social, and political levels. The process was influenced by individual and external factors.

CONCLUSIONS: Multiple progressive masculinities can emerge from programs challenging patriarchy in this Latin American setting. The masculinities identified in this study show a range of attitudes and behaviors; however, all lean toward more equitable gender relations. The results suggest that learning about sexual and reproductive health does not directly imply developing more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors or a greater willingness to prevent VAW. It is paramount that interventions to challenge machismo in this setting continue and are expanded to reach more young men.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CoAction Publishing, 2012
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-60186 (URN)10.3402/gha.v5i0.17262 (DOI)000307159600001 ()22870066 (PubMedID)
Note

Financial support: Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University and the Umeå Center for Gender Studies.

Available from: 2012-10-04 Created: 2012-10-04 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Salazar, M., Högberg, U., Valladares, E. & Persson, L.-Å. (2012). Intimate partner violence and early child growth: a community-based cohort study in Nicaragua. BMC Pediatrics, 12, 82
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intimate partner violence and early child growth: a community-based cohort study in Nicaragua
2012 (English)In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 12, p. 82-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: This study analyses whether a mother's exposure to different forms of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during pregnancy was associated with the index child linear growth, and whether these associations were modified by the gender of the child.

Methods: A pregnancy cohort of 478 women in Leon, Nicaragua, resulted in 461 live births. From this group, 81% (375/461) children were available for anthropometric follow-up at 40 to 46 months. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess the association between IPV and height-for-age Z-scores, adjusting for confounding factors.

Results: Sixty-three percent (236/375) of the mothers had been exposed to some form of IPV during pregnancy (emotional, physical, sexual or controlling behavior). After adjustment for confounding factors, maternal exposure to any IPV during pregnancy was associated with 0.24 lower mean height-for-age Z-scores (p = 0.02). A separate analysis of each IPV type showed that emotional, physical or sexual IPV during pregnancy were not significantly associated with lower mean height-for-age Z-scores, whereas ever exposure to controlling behavior by the father of the child was related to 0.29 lower mean height-for-age Z-scores (p < 0.01) When stratified by gender, these associations remained significant only for young girls.

Conclusions: This study has contributed to the growing amount of evidence pointing to the pervasive effect of different forms of IPV on child health. Our study highlights the relevance of maternal autonomy for linear child growth, especially for young girls in the Nicaraguan context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2012
Keywords
Intimate partner violence, Child growth, Gender
National Category
Pediatrics Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-58920 (URN)10.1186/1471-2431-12-82 (DOI)000307404700001 ()
Available from: 2012-09-07 Created: 2012-09-06 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Salazar, M., Valladares, E. & Högberg, U. (2012). Questions about intimate partner violence should be part of contraceptive counselling: findings from a community-based longitudinal study in Nicaragua. Journal of family planning and reproductive health care, 38(4), 221-228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Questions about intimate partner violence should be part of contraceptive counselling: findings from a community-based longitudinal study in Nicaragua
2012 (English)In: Journal of family planning and reproductive health care, ISSN 1471-1893, E-ISSN 2045-2098, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 221-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: The study aim was to examine whether exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with reversible contraceptive use in ever-pregnant partnered women. The authors conducted a longitudinal panel study in León municipality, Nicaragua. At baseline (2002-2003), 478 pregnant women were interviewed and 398 were available for questioning about contraceptive use 40-47 months after childbirth. IPV was assessed at baseline and follow-up, with women classified as never abused, ending abuse, continued abuse or new abuse. Reversible contraceptive use was defined as women using any form of contraception apart from sterilisation. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were used to assess the association between reversible contraceptive use, IPV patterns and IPV exposures at follow-up. RESULTS: Eighty percent of the women were not pregnant and with a partner at follow-up. Half were using reversible contraceptives and 28% were sterilised. Women exposed to a continued abuse pattern (AOR 2.50, 95% CI 1.04-5.99), and those exposed to emotional (AOR 2.80, 95% CI 1.32-5.95), physical (AOR 3.60, 95% CI 1.15-11.10) or any IPV at follow-up (AOR 2.59, 95% CI 1.24-5.40) had higher odds of reversible contraceptive use than those not exposed, even after adjusting for demographic factors. No significant differences in the type of reversible contraceptive used were found between women exposed or not to IPV. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: IPV exposure was associated with more reversible contraceptive use. Abuse inquiring at health facilities providing contraceptives should be implemented to identify women exposed to IPV and provide adequate support.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, England: BMJ Publishing Group, 2012
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-59946 (URN)10.1136/jfprhc-2011-000043 (DOI)22167533 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-09-27 Created: 2012-09-27 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Salazar, M., Högberg, U., Valladares, E. & Öhman, A. (2012). The supportive process for ending intimate partner violence after pregnancy: the experience of nicaraguan women. Violence against Women, 18(11), 1257-1278
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The supportive process for ending intimate partner violence after pregnancy: the experience of nicaraguan women
2012 (English)In: Violence against Women, ISSN 1077-8012, E-ISSN 1552-8448, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 1257-1278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This grounded theory study found that Nicaraguan mothers exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy eventually acted to protect their children and themselves. They experienced ending abuse as an empowerment process characterized by a cognitive change in women's attitudes toward partner abuse and the emergence of help-seeking strategies that lead to ending violence with or without ending the relationship. This process was facilitated by a supportive environment that challenged abusive behaviors as well as being asked about abuse during their last pregnancy. Although environmental changes can facilitate ending abuse, Nicaragua's public institutions must be strengthened to reach women in need.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-64352 (URN)10.1177/1077801212470549 (DOI)23334814 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-01-24 Created: 2013-01-24 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
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