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Sundman, Ola
Publications (10 of 28) Show all publications
Albán Reyes, D. C., Stridh, K., de Wit, P. P. & Sundman, O. (2019). Is there a diffusion of alkali in the activation of dissolving cellulose pulp at low NAOH stoichiometric excess?. Cellulose (London), 26(2), 1297-1308
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is there a diffusion of alkali in the activation of dissolving cellulose pulp at low NAOH stoichiometric excess?
2019 (English)In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 1297-1308Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We conducted a quantitative study, following the degree of activation (i.e. the transformation to alkali cellulose, denoted as DoA) over time for dissolving cellulose pulp treated with different [NaOH] at low NaOH/anhydroglucose unit stoichiometric ratio (denoted as (r) ≤ 2.6). Our quantitative approach was based on Raman spectroscopy data, evaluated by partial least squares regression modelling. The results show strong influence of the (r) on DoA (increasing from DoA= 45% at (r) = 0.8, to DoA = 85% at (r) = 2.6), and its complex dependence on [NaOH]. At (r) = 0.8 the highest DoA (DoA ≳ 60%) was found at 30% [NaOH], while at (r) =1.3 it was found at 20% [NaOH] (DoA ≳ 80%). Although activation of cellulose happens in minutes at the studied temperature (30 °C), it was found that the reaction may be slow when a low (r) is used. A gradual increase of the DoA from ≈ 30% to ≈ 70% in time was seen when samples were activated with 30% [NaOH] at (r) = 0.8. At the same (r), a similar increase of DoA from ≈ 30 % to ≈ 60 % was also observed when 40% [NaOH] was used. Slow diffusion of NaOH through poorly swollen cellulose fibres is proposed as an explanation for this phenomenon. Lastly, solid-state CP/MAS NMR measurements suggest that at a fixed temperature, the Na-Cell allomorph mostly depends on [NaOH]. However, in the transition area between Na-Cell I and Na-Cell II, its influence might be affected by (r). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Alkali cellulose, Activation, Polymorphs, Cellulose ether, Diffusion
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153345 (URN)10.1007/s10570-018-2104-9 (DOI)000459455200045 ()
Projects
Bio4Energy
Available from: 2018-11-16 Created: 2018-11-16 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Jilal, I., El-Barkany, S., Bahari, Z., Sundman, O., El-Idrissi, A., Abou-Salama, M., . . . Amhamdi, H. (2019). New benzyloxyethyl cellulose (BEC) crosslinked EDTA: synthesis, characterization and application for supramolecular self-assembling nanoencapsulation of Pb (II). In: Materials today: Proceedings: . Paper presented at International Conference on Materials and Environmental Science (ICMES), APR 26-28, 2018, Mohammed Premier Univ, Oujda, MOROCCO (pp. 909-919). Elsevier, 13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New benzyloxyethyl cellulose (BEC) crosslinked EDTA: synthesis, characterization and application for supramolecular self-assembling nanoencapsulation of Pb (II)
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2019 (English)In: Materials today: Proceedings, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 13, p. 909-919Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cellulosic derivatives-modification by Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid dianhydride (EDTAD) leads to an advanced state of the crosslinking degree, which often limits the adsorbent-metal ion interactions at the superficial level. Moreover, the specific area decreases by increasing crosslinking degree, resulting in a degradation of the adsorptive properties of the materials. In the present work, a new synthesis strategy of crosslinkedcellulose derivative with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was proposed. The preparation of the adsorbent was based on the hydrophobation of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) by partial benzylation (DS similar to 1). This helped to obtain a new cellulose derivative (Benzyloxyethyl cellulose (BEC)) soluble in the majority of the usual solvents, and the EDTA grafting reaction was performed under homogeneous conditions to ensure homogenous distribution of the chelating sites. The resulting BEC-EDTA material was then characterized by FT-IR, SEM and TGA. Thus, the Pb (II)-adsorption behavior on the bio-adsorbent was studied at the supramolecular level and the study of changes in adsorbent morphology before and after modification was performed based on SEM images and EDX spectra. Effect of Pb (II) on BEC-EDTA morphology was investigated as well. However, a self-assembly of BEC-EDTA as nanometric rods in the presence of Pb (II) ions was a strong indication of the Pb (II) nano-encapsulation in a stable polymer network. (c) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Cellulose derivatives, BenzyloxyEthylCellulose (BEC), Supramolecular, Self-assembly, Nano-encapsulation, EDTA crosslinking
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159885 (URN)10.1016/j.matpr.2019.04.055 (DOI)000468613900055 ()
Conference
International Conference on Materials and Environmental Science (ICMES), APR 26-28, 2018, Mohammed Premier Univ, Oujda, MOROCCO
Available from: 2019-06-10 Created: 2019-06-10 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Jilal, I., El Barkany, S., Bahari, Z., Sundman, O., El Idrissi, A., Abou-Salama, M., . . . Amhamdi, H. (2018). New quaternized cellulose based on hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) grafted EDTA: Synthesis, characterization and application for Pb (II) and Cu (II) removal. Carbohydrate Polymers, 180, 156-167
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New quaternized cellulose based on hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) grafted EDTA: Synthesis, characterization and application for Pb (II) and Cu (II) removal
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2018 (English)In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 180, p. 156-167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, new quaternized cellulose derivative based on Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) is successfully prepared in homogeneous medium. The resulted product is characterized using spectroscopy techniques (FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR). At the supramolecular level, the x-ray patterns show that a high hydrogen bond density occurs by grafting EDTA on the HEC fibers. The new adsorbent (HEC-EDTA) shows a high adsorption capacity of heavy metals (Pb (II) and Cu (II)) from aqueous metals solutions. The adsorption of the both metal ions follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, while the adsorption isotherms are well described by the Langmuir model. The qm values are determined for Pb (II) and Cu (II), respectively. For each metal, the equilibrium adsorption time is found to be 30 min. Moreover, the HEC-EDTA adsorption capacity is strongly dependent on the pH value; and the adsorption is favorable for pH values ​​between 4 and 6. Moreover, the results show a high affinity toward Cu (II) than Pb (II).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Quaternized cellulose, EDTAEdta, Adsorption capacity, Lead, Copper, Langmuir isotherm
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151193 (URN)10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.10.012 (DOI)000416369800018 ()29103491 (PubMedID)
Projects
Bio4Energy
Available from: 2018-09-04 Created: 2018-09-04 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Jilal, I., El Barkany, S., Bahari, Z., Sundman, O., El Idrissi, A., Salhi, A., . . . Amhamdi, H. (2018). Unconventional synthesis, characterization and theoretical study (HF and DFT computations) of new cellulosic copper complex: benzyloxyethyl cellulose copper (CuBEC). Cellulose (London), 25(8), 4375-4388
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unconventional synthesis, characterization and theoretical study (HF and DFT computations) of new cellulosic copper complex: benzyloxyethyl cellulose copper (CuBEC)
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2018 (English)In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 4375-4388Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The partial hydrophobization of hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC), by incorporating benzyl entities, was successfully performed. So, cavities with binding sites enable to encapsulate the copper ion (Cu(II)) by coordination interaction result from. The resulting product (BEC, DS ae 1) thus contained two types of chelating sites: 2,2'-oxydiethanol and 2,2'-(ethane-1,2-diylbis (oxy))diethanol. The complex formed upon reaction with Cu(II) (labeled CuBEC) was studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy, and the results indicate strong ligand-metal charge transfer transitions of O -> Cu. The chemical structures of HEC, BEC and CuBEC were characterized by FTIR and NMR (H-1, H-1 DOSY, C-13 DEPT-135 and C-13) and UV-Vis spectroscopy was investigated. Furthermore, the crystalline order and the thermal stability were studied based on XRD patterns and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The structural results indicated that the copper ion has been encapsulated in square planar geometry formed by the two oxygen atoms of free hydroxyethyl (unbenzylated), the oxygen of the osidic bond and that of the hydroxyl of C-3 of adjacent anhydroglucose unit. A theoretical study was conducted using Hartree-Fock and density functional theory computations; the experimental results were in good agreement with the Theoretical ones. [GRAPHICS]

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Hydroxyethyl cellulose, Benzylation, Cellulose-copper complex, Square planar, HF and DFT computations
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150654 (URN)10.1007/s10570-018-1909-x (DOI)000438276000007 ()
Projects
Bio4Energy
Available from: 2018-08-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Reyes, D. C., Gorzsas, A., Stridh, K., de Wit, P. & Sundman, O. (2017). Alkalization of dissolving cellulose pulp with highly concentrated caustic at low NaOH stoichiometric excess. Carbohydrate Polymers, 165, 213-220
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alkalization of dissolving cellulose pulp with highly concentrated caustic at low NaOH stoichiometric excess
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2017 (English)In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 165, p. 213-220Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a quantitative study, using Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis, to determine the degree of activation of softwood sulphite dissolving cellulose pulp by aqueous sodium hydroxide. We have chosen industrially relevant conditions, including low stoichiometric ratio of NaOH/Anhydroglucose Unit (AGU) <2 and highly concentrated caustic (>= 45% w/w [NaOH]). A design of experiments is used to investigate the effects of simultaneous variation of a set of key parameters on the degree of activation (i.e. transformation to alkali cellulose, denoted as DoA): (a) the NaOH/AGU stoichiometric ratio, denoted (r); (b) the concentration of NaOH, denoted [NaOH]; (c) temperature, denoted (T); and (d) reaction time, denoted (t). Solid-state C-13 CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy was applied to investigate the reproducibility of the experiments and to select the range for (t). According to the model, (r) is found to have a statistically significant effect on DoA (increasing from DoA= 6-30% at the lowest (r)=0.8, to DoA= 48-87% at the highest (r)=1.8), together with [NaOH]. The influence of [NaOH] depends strongly on (r). The other studied variables are found to be insignificant in the model and has a complicated influence on the activation. In particular, (T) is found to be unimportant in the studied range (30-60 degrees C), but increasing (t) from 5 to 25 min shows a positive influence on DoA, depending on both (r) and [NaOH]. A mercerisation mechanism that is controlled by diffusion is proposed to explain these phenomena. 

National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-134689 (URN)10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.02.045 (DOI)000399261900024 ()
Projects
Bio4Energy
Available from: 2017-06-22 Created: 2017-06-22 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Albán Reyes, D. C., Eliasson, B., Karlsson, L., de Wit, P., Svedberg, A. & Sundman, O. (2016). Activation of dissolving celluloses pulp for viscose and cellulose ether production. In: Ola Sundman (Ed.), The 7th workshop on cellulose, regenerated cellulose and cellulose derivatives: . Paper presented at The 7th workshop on cellulose, regenerated cellulose and cellulose derivatives, Örnsköldsvik, November 15-16, 2016 (pp. 29-30). Umeå ; Karlstad: Umeå university ; Karlstad university
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Activation of dissolving celluloses pulp for viscose and cellulose ether production
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2016 (English)In: The 7th workshop on cellulose, regenerated cellulose and cellulose derivatives / [ed] Ola Sundman, Umeå ; Karlstad: Umeå university ; Karlstad university , 2016, p. 29-30Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mercerisation of cellulose by alkali treatment is the most common procedure used to activate natural cellulose fibres into many commercial cellulosic materials. During mercerisation, the NaOH solution enters the cellulose fibres, transforming them into a swollen and a highly reactive material called alkali cellulose (Na-Cell). In case NaOH is completely washed out of the cellulose structure, Na-Cell turns into Cellulose II upon drying.

Traditionally the cellulose is mercerised by suspending it in a 15-20 % NaOH solution. The result is a high (15-25 mol/mol) NaOH: Anhydroglucose  molar ratio (r) and mercerisation in these conditions have been extensively studied. However, in modern production of cellulose ethers, the mercerisation conditions are often very different. The main reason is that any excess of water and OH--ions used during the mercerisation can later react with different chemicals in the process, thus forming unwanted by-products e.g. methanol. One way to avoid this kind of side reaction is by using low-water-content mercerisation conditions, i.e. low (r) = 0.8-1.8 mol/mol and high NaOH concentration (45-55% w/w). The traditional mercerisation is a suspension process while the cellulose during the latter process, i.e low-water-content mercerisation conditions, remains quite “dry”. Thus, although the chemical reaction principles of activation of cellulose for both viscose and cellulose ethers processes are the same, the activation conditions used are often very different. Therefore, the different dependencies of process parameters as well as any similarities between the processes are interesting.

The presentation summarises the findings presented in two papers which described the influence of the different parameters on the mercerisation/activation of softwood Sulphite dissolving pulp in viscose production conditions (Albán Reyes et al. 2016) and cellulose derivatives production conditions (Albán Reyes et al.) respectively. In the individual studies this has been done by analysing the degree of transformation (DoT) of dissolving pulp to Na-cellulose (or more correctly cellulose II after washing and upon drying) as a function of simultaneous variation of [NaOH], temperature, and reaction time varied using design of experiment. Also the (r) was varied for samples mercerised at dry conditions. A combination of Raman imaging and multivariate data analysis have been used to study the DoT to Cellulose II.

It was found that the mercerisation under the different conditions was dependent on different parameters. For traditional mercerisation, on the one hand, the temperature was shown to be important for the DoT and showed negative correlation with the data, while [NaOH] showed a positive correlation. On the other hand, at low-water-content mercerisation conditions the (r) was overall most important while the temperature showed no statistical importance in a Partial least squares analysis. Traditional mercerisation gave much higher DoT than the low-water-content mercerisation. Thus,  the data for low-water-content mercerisation was further examined at the different (r). The same chemistry is always expected and the different influences of the parameters seen is understood and discussed in terms of the different physical reaction mechanisms.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå ; Karlstad: Umeå university ; Karlstad university, 2016
Keywords
cellulose, swelling, NaOH, cellulose ether production
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-128501 (URN)
Conference
The 7th workshop on cellulose, regenerated cellulose and cellulose derivatives, Örnsköldsvik, November 15-16, 2016
Available from: 2016-12-05 Created: 2016-12-05 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved
Jogunola, O., Eta, V., Hedenström, M., Sundman, O., Salmi, T. & Mikkola, J.-P. (2016). Ionic liquid mediated technology for synthesis of cellulose acetates using different co-solvents. Carbohydrate Polymers, 135, 341-348
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ionic liquid mediated technology for synthesis of cellulose acetates using different co-solvents
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2016 (English)In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 135, p. 341-348Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, cellulose acetate was synthesized under homogeneous conditions. Cellulose was first dispersed in acetone, acetonitrile, 1,5-diazabicyclo(4.3.0)non-5-ene (DBN) or dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and the resulting suspension was dissolved in an ionic liquid, 1,5-diazabicyclo(4.3.0)non-5-enium acetate [HDBN][OAc] at 70 °C for 0.5 h. It was possible to dissolve more than 12 wt% cellulose with a degree of polymerization in the range of 1000–1100. The dissolved cellulose was derivatized with acetic anhydride (Ac2O) to yield acetylated cellulose. As expected, the use of the co-solvents improved the acetylation process significantly. In fact, cellulose acetates with different properties could be obtained in half an hour, thus facilitating rapid processing. When DBN was used as the dispersing agent (the precursor of the ionic liquid), the problems associated with recycling of the ionic liquid were significantly reduced. In fact, additional [HDBN][OAc] was obtained from the interaction of the DBN and the by-product, acetic acid (from Ac2O). However, the cellulose acetate obtained in this manner had the lowest DS. Consequently, the native cellulose and acetylated celluloses were characterized by means of 1H- and 13C-NMR, FT-IR, GPC/SEC and by titration. The cellulose acetates produced were soluble in organic solvents such as acetone, chloroform, dichloromethane and DMSO which is essential for their further processing. It was demonstrated that the ionic liquid can be recovered from the system by distillation and re-used in consecutive acetylation batches.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Cellulose acetylation, Cellulose dissolution, Ionic liquid, Dispersing agents, Cellulose acetates, Recycling
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-108874 (URN)10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.08.092 (DOI)000363822500043 ()26453886 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84941670432 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Bio4Energy
Available from: 2015-09-17 Created: 2015-09-16 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Sundman, O., Albán Reyes, D. C., Svedberg, A. & Hellström, S. (2016). On the origin of the spectroscopic signals of cellulose II-type in sulphite dissolving pulp. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, 31(1), 54-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the origin of the spectroscopic signals of cellulose II-type in sulphite dissolving pulp
2016 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sulphite dissolving pulp was fractionated and the differences in the spectroscopic signals between the fines and bulk cellulose were investigated. Raman spectroscopy and CP/MAS 13C NMR were used as spectroscopic techniques while fines content and particle size was investigated using Pulpeye®. Also the molecular weight distribution was analysed with size exclusion chromatography and the carbohydrate composition was investigated using ion chromatography. The spectral data were investigated with the use of multivariate data analysis and both Raman spectroscopy and NMR measurements indicated a higher content of a cellulose II type material in the small particles than in the bulk cellulose. The molecular weight distribution measure-ments showed a higher content of low molecular weight material in the fines fractions, and this was concluded from the ion chromatography data to probably originate from both hemicelluloses and low molecular weight cellulose. As a conclusion it was hypothesised that regeneration of hemicellulose and low molecular weight cellulose, as a result of process parameters, occurred on the fines in particular.

Keywords
Cellulose pulp, Fines, Crystallinity, Regenerated cellulose, 13C-CP/MAS NMR, Raman spectroscopy
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117459 (URN)10.3183/NPPRJ-2016-31-01-p054-060 (DOI)000371253400007 ()
Projects
Bio4Energy
Available from: 2016-03-01 Created: 2016-03-01 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Albán Reyes, D. C., Skoglund, N., Svedberg, A., Eliasson, B. & Sundman, O. (2016). The influence of different parameters on the mercerisation of cellulose for viscose production. Cellulose (London), 23(2), 1061-1072
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of different parameters on the mercerisation of cellulose for viscose production
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2016 (English)In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 1061-1072Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A quantitative analysis of degree of transformation from a softwood sulphite dissolving pulp to alkalised material and the yield of this transformation as a function of the simultaneous variation of the NaOH concentration, denoted [NaOH], reaction time and temperature was performed. Samples were analysed with Raman spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis and these results were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Gravimetry was used to measure the yield. The resulting data were related to the processing conditions in a Partial Least Square regression model, which made it possible to explore the relevance of the three studied variables on the responses. The detailed predictions for the interactive effects of the measured parameters made it possible to determine optimal conditions for both yield and degree of transformation in viscose manufacturing. The yield was positively correlated to the temperature from room temperature up to 45 A degrees C, after which the relation was negative. Temperature was found to be important for the degree of transformation and yield. The time to reach a certain degree of transformation (i.e. mercerisation) depended on both temperature and [NaOH]. At low temperatures and high [NaOH], mercerisation was instantaneous. It was concluded that the size of fibre particles (mesh range 0.25-1 mm) had no influence on degree of transformation in viscose processing conditions, apparently due to the quick reaction with the excess of NaOH.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2016
Keywords
Mercerisation, Cellulose I, Cellulose II, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, Multivariate data analysis
National Category
Polymer Technologies Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119633 (URN)10.1007/s10570-016-0879-0 (DOI)000373136400005 ()2-s2.0-84957694846 (Scopus ID)
Projects
bio4Energy
Available from: 2016-05-11 Created: 2016-04-25 Last updated: 2020-01-13Bibliographically approved
Raut, D. G., Sundman, O., Su, W., Virtanen, P., Sugano, Y., Kordas, K. & Mikkola, J.-P. (2015). A morpholinium ionic liquid for cellulose dissolution. Carbohydrate Polymers, 130, 18-25
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A morpholinium ionic liquid for cellulose dissolution
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2015 (English)In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 130, p. 18-25Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of substituted morpholinium ionic salts and allyl ammonium acetates were prepared. Amongst those, N-allyl-N-methylmorpholinium acetate ([AMMorp][OAc]) was found to dissolve cellulose readily without any pre-processing of native cellulose. At 120 degrees C, [AMMorp][OAc] could dissolve 30 wt%, 28 wt% and 25 wt% of cellulose with degree of polymerization (DPn) - 789, 1644 and 2082 respectively, in 20 min. Importantly, SEC analysis indicated that no discernible changes occurred in terms of the degree of polymerization of the different celluloses after regeneration. Furthermore, when comparing the cellulose dissolution capability of these newly synthesized ionic liquids, it is evident that the combination of all three constituents - the morpholinium cation, the existence of an allyl group and choosing the acetate anion are essential for efficient cellulose dissolution. The structure and morphology of the regenerated cellulosic materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, TGA, CP/MAS C-13 NMR and FTIR, respectively.

Keywords
Cellulose, Dissolution, Ionic liquid, Morpholinium, Allyl, Acetate
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106593 (URN)10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.04.032 (DOI)000357244900003 ()26076596 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-07-28 Created: 2015-07-24 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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