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Israelsson Larsen, Hanna
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Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Larsson, J., Israelsson, H., Eklund, A. & Malm, J. (2018). Epilepsy, headache, and abdominal pain after shunt surgery for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: the INPH-CRasH study. Journal of Neurosurgery, 128(6), 1674-1683
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epilepsy, headache, and abdominal pain after shunt surgery for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: the INPH-CRasH study
2018 (English)In: Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0022-3085, E-ISSN 1933-0693, Vol. 128, no 6, p. 1674-1683Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE Adverse events related to shunt surgery are common and might have a negative effect on outcome in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). The authors' objectives were to establish the frequencies of epilepsy, headache, and abdominal pain and determine their impact on patient quality of life (QOL), in long-term follow-up after shunt surgery for INPH.

METHODS One hundred seventy-six shunt-treated patients with INPH (mean age 74 years) and 368 age- and sex-matched controls from the population were included. The mean follow-up time after surgery was 21 months (range 6-45 months). Each participant answered a questionnaire regarding present frequency and severity of headache and abdominal pain. Confirmed diagnoses of epilepsy and all prescriptions for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) before and after shunt surgery for INPH were gathered from national registries. Equivalent presurgical and postsurgical time periods were constructed for the controls based on the date of surgery (the division date for controls is referred to as virtual surgery). All registry data covered a mean period of 6 years (range 3-8 years) before surgery/virtual surgery and 4 years (range 2-6 years) after surgery/virtual surgery. Provoked epileptic seizures were excluded. Patient QOL was assessed with the EuroQoL 5-dimension 5-level instrument.

RESULTS Epilepsy was more common in shunt-treated patients with INPH than in controls (4.5% vs 1.1%, respectively; p = 0.023), as was treatment with AEDs (14.8% vs 7.3%, respectively; p = 0.010). No difference was found between the populations before surgery/virtual surgery (epilepsy, 2.3% [INPH] vs 1.1% [control], p = 0.280; AED treatment, 8.5% [INPH] vs 5.4% [control], p = 0.235). New-onset epilepsy and new AED treatment after surgery/virtual surgery were more common in INPH (epilepsy, 2.3% [INPH] vs 0.0% [control], p = 0.011; AED, 8.5% [INPH] vs 3.3% [control], p = 0.015). At follow-up, more patients with INPH than controls experienced headache several times per month or more often (36.1% vs 11.6%, respectively; p < 0.001). Patients with INPH and unilateral headache had more right-sided headaches than controls (p = 0.038). Postural headache was experienced by 16% (n = 27 of 169) of the patients with INPH. Twenty percent (n = 35) of the patients with INPH had persistent abdominal pain. Headache was not correlated to lower QOL. The study was underpowered to draw conclusions regarding QOL in patients with INPH who had epilepsy and abdominal pain, but the finding of no net difference in mean QOL indicates that no correlation between them existed.

CONCLUSIONS Epilepsy, headache, and abdominal pain are common in long-term follow-up in patients after shunt surgery for INPH and are more common among patients with INPH than in the general population. All adverse events, including mild and moderate ones, should be considered during postoperative follow-ups and in the development of new methods for shunt placement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rolling Meadows: American association of neurological surgeons, 2018
Keywords
hydrocephalus, normal pressure, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, postoperative complications, headache, epilepsy, abdominal pain
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139649 (URN)10.3171/2017.3.JNS162453 (DOI)000440653000010 ()28885121 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2018-11-30Bibliographically approved
Andrén, K., Wikkelsö, C., Sundström, N., Agerskov, S., Israelsson, H., Laurell, K., . . . Tullberg, M. (2018). Long-term effects of complications and vascular comorbidity in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a quality registry study. Journal of Neurology, 265(1), 178-186
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term effects of complications and vascular comorbidity in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a quality registry study
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Neurology, ISSN 0340-5354, E-ISSN 1432-1459, Vol. 265, no 1, p. 178-186Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: There is little knowledge about the factors influencing the long-term outcome after surgery for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).

Objective: To evaluate the effects of reoperation due to complications and of vascular comorbidity (hypertension, diabetes, stroke and heart disease) on the outcome in iNPH patients, 2–6 years after shunt surgery.

Methods: We included 979 patients from the Swedish Hydrocephalus Quality Registry (SHQR), operated on for iNPH during 2004–2011. The patients were followed yearly by mailed questionnaires, including a self-assessed modified Rankin Scale (smRS) and a subjective comparison between their present and their preoperative health condition. The replies were grouped according to the length of follow-up after surgery. Data on clinical evaluations, vascular comorbidity, and reoperations were extracted from the SHQR.

Results: On the smRS, 40% (38–41) of the patients were improved 2–6 years after surgery and around 60% reported their general health condition to be better than preoperatively. Reoperation did not influence the outcome after 2–6 years. The presence of vascular comorbidity had no negative impact on the outcome after 2–6 years, assessed as improvement on the smRS or subjective improvement of the health condition, except after 6 years when patients with hypertension and a history of stroke showed a less favorable development on the smRS.

Conclusion: This registry-based study shows no negative impact of complications and only minor effects of vascular comorbidity on the long-term outcome in iNPH.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
hydrocephalus, normal pressure, dementia, gait, complications, concomitant disease, risk factors, registries
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144413 (URN)10.1007/s00415-017-8680-z (DOI)000419777000023 ()29188384 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2019-05-07Bibliographically approved
Bäcklund, T., Frankel, J., Israelsson, H., Malm, J. & Sundström, N. (2017). Trunk sway in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: quantitative assessment in clinical practice. Gait & Posture, 62-70, Article ID 54.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trunk sway in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: quantitative assessment in clinical practice
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2017 (English)In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, p. 62-70, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In diagnosis and treatment of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), there is need for clinically applicable, quantitative assessment of balance and gait. Using a body worn gyroscopic system, the aim of this study was to assess postural stability of iNPH patients in standing, walking and during sensory deprivation before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage and surgery. A comparison was performed between healthy elderly (HE) and patients with various types of hydrocephalus (ventriculomegaly (VM)).

Methods: Trunk sway was measured in 31 iNPH patients, 22 VM patients and 58 HE. Measurements were performed at baseline in all subjects, after CSF drainage in both patient groups and after shunt surgery in the iNPH group.

Results: Preoperatively, the iNPH patients had significantly higher trunk sway compared to HE, specifically for the standing tasks (p < 0.001). Compared to VM, iNPH patients had significantly lower sway velocity during gait in three of four cases on firm support (p < 0.05). Sway velocity improved after CSF drainage and in forward-backward direction after surgery (p < 0.01). Compared to HE both patient groups demonstrated less reliance on visual input to maintain stable posture.

Conclusions: INPH patients had reduced postural stability compared to HE, particularly during standing, and for differentiation between iNPH and VM patients sway velocity during gait is a promising parameter. A reversible reduction of visual incorporation during standing was also seen. Thus, the gyroscopic system quantitatively assessed postural deficits in iNPH, making it a potentially useful tool for aiding in future diagnoses, choices of treatment and clinical follow-up. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, Trunk sway, Balance, Gait, Gyroscope
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138239 (URN)10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.02.017 (DOI)000405044400011 ()28259041 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Israelsson, H., Carlberg, B., Wikkelsö, C., Laurell, K., Kahlon, B., Leijon, G., . . . Malm, J. (2017). Vascular risk factors in INPH A prospective case- control study (the INPH-CRasH study). Neurology, 88(6), 577-585
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vascular risk factors in INPH A prospective case- control study (the INPH-CRasH study)
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2017 (English)In: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 88, no 6, p. 577-585Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To assess the complete vascular risk factor (VRF) profile of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) using a large sample of representative patients with INPH and populationbased controls to determine the extent to which vascular disease influences INPH pathophysiology. Methods: All patients with INPH who underwent shunting in Sweden in 2008-2010 were compared to age-and sex-matched population-based controls. Inclusion criteria were age 60-85 years and no dementia. The 10 most important VRFs and cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease were prospectively assessed using blood samples, clinical examinations, and standardized questionnaires. Assessed VRFs were hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, psychosocial factors, smoking habits, diet, alcohol intake, cardiac disease, and physical activity. Results: In total, 176 patients with INPH and 368 controls participated. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that hyperlipidemia (odds ratio [OR] 2.380; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.434-3.950), diabetes (OR 2.169; 95% CI 1.195-3.938), obesity (OR 5.428; 95% CI 2.502-11.772), and psychosocial factors (OR 5.343; 95% CI 3.219-8.868) were independently associated with INPH. Hypertension, physical inactivity, and cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease were also overrepresented in INPH. Moderate alcohol intake and physical activity were overrepresented among the controls. The population-attributable risk percentage was 24%. Conclusions: Our findings confirm that patients with INPH have more VRFs and lack the protective factors present in the general population. Almost 25% of cases of INPH may be explained by VRFs. This suggests that INPH may be a subtype of vascular dementia. Targeted interventions against modifiable VRFs are likely to have beneficial effects on INPH.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2017
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139590 (URN)10.1212/WNL.0000000000003583 (DOI)000397342100013 ()28062721 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Israelsson Larsen, H. (2016). Comorbidity and vascular risk factors  associated with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: the INPH-CRasH Study. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comorbidity and vascular risk factors  associated with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: the INPH-CRasH Study
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is a dementia treatable by insertion of a cerebrospinal fluid shunt. It has been suggested that INPH has similar pathophysiological mechanisms as cerebrovascular disease, but the vascular risk factor (VRF) profile of INPH patients has not been assessed using a modern epidemiological approach. The cognitive symptoms of INPH resemble the symptoms of depression, but the prevalence of depression among INPH patients is unknown. In addition, few studies investigate the impact of shunting on the quality of life (QoL), and no study has investigated the impact of comorbidity on QoL in INPH patients.

The objective of this dissertation was to present the VRF profile of INPH and to investigate the hypothesis that INPH may be a subgroup of vascular dementia. Additional objectives were to assess the prevalence of depression in INPH patients and to investigate the impact of shunting and comorbidities on QoL in INPH.

In the first cohort, the prevalence of possible INPH was assessed through clinical and radiological examinations in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA), consecutively admitted to the same hospital during 2006-2008. In the second cohort, VRFs, vascular disease and QoL were analysed in INPH patients consecutively shunted 2008-2010 in five out of six neurosurgical centres in Sweden. Patients remaining after inclusion (n=176, within the age-span 60-85 years and not having dementia) were compared to population-based age- and gender-matched controls (n=368, same inclusion criteria as for the INPH patients). Assessed VRFs were: hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, psychosocial factors (stress and depression), smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity and, dietary pattern. Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease as well as QoL were also assessed. Parameters were assessed through questionnaires, clinical examinations, measurements, ECG and, blood samples.

In the first cohort, 4% of the TIA patients had clinically and radiologically verified INPH. In the second cohort, VRFs were overrepresented among the INPH patients compared with the controls. The VRFs independently associated with INPH were: hyperlipidemia (Odds ratio (OR): 2.4, 95%CI: 1.4-4.0), diabetes (OR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.2-3.9), obesity (OR: 5.4, 95%CI: 2.5-11.8) and, psychosocial factors (OR: 5.3, 95%CI: 3.2-8.9). When adding the VRFs that were overrepresented in INPH, although not independently (physical inactivity and hypertension), these six VRFs accounted for 24% of the INPH cases in the elderly population (population attributable risk %: 24). Depression was overrepresented in shunted INPH patients compared to the controls (46% vs. 13%, p<0.001) and the main predictor for low QoL was a coexisting depression (p<0.001).

In conclusion, the results of the INPH-CRasH study are consistent with a vascular pathophysiological component of INPH and indicate that INPH may be subgroup of vascular dementia. In clinical care and research, a complete risk factor analysis as well as screening for depression and a measurement for quality of life should be included in the work-up of INPH patients. The effect of targeted interventions against modifiable VRFs and anti-depressant treatment in INPH patients should be evaluated. 

Abstract [sv]

Idiopatisk normaltryckshydrocefalus (INPH, från engelskans ”idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus”) är en neurokirurgiskt behandlingsbar demens. Behandlingen är att operera in en shunt som dränerar cerebrospinalvätska från ventriklarna. Det har föreslagits att INPH skulle kunna orsakas av liknande patofysiologiska mekanismer som vid cerebrovaskulär sjukdom, men den vaskulära riskfaktorprofilen hos INPH-patienter har aldrig undersökts i en modern epidemiologisk studie. De kognitiva symtomen vid INPH påminner om symtomen vid depression, men prevalensen av depression hos INPH-patienter är okänd. Få studier undersöker hur shuntning påverkar livskvalitet och ingen studie har undersökt hur komorbiditet påverkar livskvaliteten vid INPH.

Syftet med den här avhandlingen var att undersöka den vaskulära riskfaktorprofilen hos INPH-patienter samt att utforska hypotesen att INPH skulle kunna vara en undergrupp till vaskulär demens. Ytterligare ett syfte med avhandlingen var att undersöka hur många INPH-patienter som har depression samt undersöka hur shunting och komorbiditet påverkar livskvalitet vid INPH.

I den första kohorten undersöktes kliniska och radiologiska fynd som tydde på INPH hos de patienter som blivit diagnostiserade med en TIA (från engelskans: transient ischemic attack) 2006-2008 på Norrlands Universitetssjukhus i Umeå. I den andra kohorten undersöktes konsekutivt shuntade INPH-patienter 2008-2010 från fem av sex neurokirurgiska kliniker i Sverige. De patienter som inkluderades i studien (n=176, ålder: 60-85 år, ej dementa) jämfördes med köns- och åldersmatchade kontroller från normalpopulationen (n=368, samma inklusionskriterier som för INPH-patienterna). De riskfaktorer som undersöktes var: hypertension, hyperlipidemi, diabetes, fetma, psykosociala faktorer (stress och depression), rökning, alkohol, fysisk aktivitet och diet. Även kardiovaskulära och cerebrovaskulära sjukdomar undersöktes, liksom perifer vaskulär sjukdom samt livskvalitet. Datainsamling skedde genom frågeformulär, kliniska undersökningar, mätningar, EKG och blodprov.

I den första kohorten hade 4% av TIA-patienterna kliniskt och radiologiskt verifierad INPH. I den andra kohorten var vaskulära riskfaktorer överrepresenterade hos INPH-patienterna jämfört med iv normalpopulationen. Hyperlipidemi (OR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.4-4.0), diabetes (OR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.2-3.9), fetma (OR: 5.4, 95%CI: 2.5-11.8) och psykosociala faktorer (OR: 5.3, 95%CI: 3.2-8.9) var associerade med INPH oberoende av kön, ålder och de andra riskfaktorerna. Hypertension och fysisk inaktivitet var också associerade med INPH, dock inte oberoende av övriga riskfaktorer. Sammanlagd PAR% (från engelskans: population attributable risk %) för de här sex riskfaktorerna var 24%. INPH-patienterna hade depression i högre utsträckning än kontrollerna (46% vs. 13%, p<0.001), och depression var den viktigaste prediktorn för låg livskvalitet.

Resultaten tyder på att vaskulär sjukdom och vaskulära riskfaktorer är involverade i den patofysiologiska mekanismen vid INPH. INPH kan vara en undergrupp till vaskulär demens. En fullständig riskfaktoranalys och screening för depression bör ingå i den preoperativa utvärderingen såväl som i forskning på INPH-patienter, och ett mått på livskvalitet bör införas. Effekten av riktade insatser mot såväl vaskulära riskfaktorer som depression vid INPH bör utvärderas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2016. p. 88 + 4 artiklar
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1805
Keywords
hydrocephalus, normal pressure, vascular disease, vascular risk factors, elderly, depression, case control study, epidemiology, dementia, vascular dementia, small vessel disease, cerebrovascular disease, transient ischemic attack
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120175 (URN)978-91-7601-471-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-05-27, Bergasalen, Södra entrén, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-05-12 Created: 2016-05-10 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Israelsson, H., Allard, P., Eklund, A. & Malm, J. (2016). Symptoms of Depression are Common in Patients With Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: The INPH-CRasH Study. Neurosurgery, 78(2), 161-168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Symptoms of Depression are Common in Patients With Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: The INPH-CRasH Study
2016 (English)In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 161-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: If patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) also have depression, this could have important clinical ramifications in assessment and management of their cognitive function and response to shunting. In many dementias, depression is overrepresented, but the prevalence of depression in shunted patients with INPH is unknown.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this case-control study was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of depression in shunted INPH patients compared with population-based controls.

METHODS: INPH patients consecutively shunted from 2008 to 2010 in Sweden were analyzed. Patients remaining after inclusion (within 60-85 years and not having dementia, ie, mini-mental state examination >=23) had a standardized visit to their healthcare provider and answered an extensive questionnaire. Age- and sex-matched population-based controls underwent the same procedure. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale 15 (suspected depression defined as >=5 points, suspected severe depression as >=12 points). This study is part of the INPH-CRasH study.

RESULTS: One hundred seventy-six INPH patients and 368 controls participated. After adjustment for age, sex, cerebrovascular disease, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, patients had a higher mean depression score (patients: 4.9 ± 3.7 SD, controls: 1.9 ± 2.3 SD; OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6, P < .001), more patients had suspected depression (46% vs 13%, OR 6.4, 95% CI 3.8-10.9, P < .001), and more patients had suspected severe depression (7.3% vs 0.6%, OR 14.4, 95% CI 3.0-68.6, P < .005).

CONCLUSION: Symptoms of depression are overrepresented in INPH patients compared with the population, despite treatment with a shunt. Screening for depression should be done in the evaluation of INPH patients in order to find and treat a coexisting depression.

Keywords
Case-control studies, Dementia, Depression, Depressive disorder, Follow-up studies, GDS 15, drocephalus, Normal pressure
National Category
Psychiatry Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-116731 (URN)10.1227/NEU.0000000000001093 (DOI)000368585600001 ()26528670 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-02-19 Created: 2016-02-11 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Israelsson, H., Birgander, R., Ambarki, K., Eklund, A. & Malm, J. (2012). Ventriculomegaly and balance disturbances in patients with TIA. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 125(3), 163-170
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ventriculomegaly and balance disturbances in patients with TIA
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2012 (English)In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 125, no 3, p. 163-170Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives -  Dilated ventricles and gait disturbances are common in the elderly, and these are also features of the treatable syndrome idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). Many studies report an association between hypertension, vascular disease and INPH. The objective of this study was to study the frequency of ventriculomegaly, with or without hydrocephalic symptoms, in patients who had suffered from a transitory ischaemic attack (TIA).

Methods -  Gait, Romberg sign, tandem standing and one-leg stance were consecutively evaluated in elderly >24 h after a TIA. Ventricular size, white matter lesions and atrophy were assessed on computed tomography scans. Exclusion criteria were conditions possibly influencing the balance tests.

Results -  Seventy-six patients with TIA out of 105 were included. Ventriculomegaly [Evans Index (EI) > 0.30] was observed in 19.7% and very large ventricles (EI > 0.33) in 7.9%. Ventriculomegaly was found in 58% of the patients with a previous 'history of balance or gait disturbance', but only in 12% of those without any prior disturbance (chi-square test; P = 0.0009). Three out of 76 patients with TIA (3.9%) fulfilled both radiological and clinical criteria for 'possible INPH'.

Conclusion -  Ventriculomegaly is a common finding in elderly. One out of 20 patients with TIA may suffer from INPH, existing before and independent of the TIA diagnosis. Therefore, patients presenting with ventriculomegaly and gait/balance disturbances not attributable to other causes should be referred to a hydrocephalus centre or a neurologist with special interest in INPH.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2012
Keywords
cerebral ventriculomegaly, hydrocephalus, normal pressure, transient ischaemic attack, postural balance, gait
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-44948 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0404.2011.01520.x (DOI)21554255 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-15 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Ambarki, K., Israelsson, H., Wåhlin, A., Birgander, R., Eklund, A. & Malm, J. (2010). Brain ventricular size in healthy elderly: comparison between evans index and volume measurement.. Neurosurgery, 67(1), 94-99
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brain ventricular size in healthy elderly: comparison between evans index and volume measurement.
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2010 (English)In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 94-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: A precise definition of ventricular enlargement is important in the diagnosis of hydrocephalus as well as in assessing central atrophy. The Evans index (EI), a linear ratio between the maximal frontal horn width and the cranium diameter, has been extensively used as an indirect marker of ventricular volume (VV). With modern imaging techniques, brain volume can be directly measured. OBJECTIVE: To determine reference values of intracranial volumes in healthy elderly individuals and to correlate volumes with the EI. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (3 T) was performed in 46 healthy white elderly subjects (mean age +/- standard deviation, 71 +/- 6 years) and in 20 patients (74 +/- 7 years) with large ventricles according to visual inspection. VV, relative VV (RVV), and EI were assessed. Ventricular dilation was defined using VV and EI by a value above the 95th percentile range for healthy elderly individuals. RESULTS: In healthy elderly subjects, we found VV = 37 +/- 18 mL, RVV = 2.47 +/- 1.17%, and EI = 0.281 +/- 0.027. Including the patients, there was a strong correlation between EI and VV (R = 0.94) as well as between EI and RVV (R = 0.95). However, because of a wide 95% prediction interval (VV: +/-45 mL; RVV: +/- 2.54%), EI did not give a sufficiently good estimate of VV and RVV. CONCLUSION: VV (or RVV) and the EI reflect different properties. The exclusive use of EI in clinical studies as a marker of enlarged ventricles should be questioned. We suggest that the definition of dilated ventricles in white elderly individuals be defined as VV >77 mL or RVV >4.96 %. Future studies should compare intracranial volumes with clinical characteristics and prognosis.

Keywords
Aged, brain ventricular volume and healthy elderly, cerebrospinal fluid, cerebral ventricles, hydrocephalus, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-34864 (URN)10.1227/01.NEU.0000370939.30003.D1 (DOI)000278875400025 ()20559096 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-06-22 Created: 2010-06-22 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Israelsson, H., Eklund, A. & Malm, J.CSF shunting improves long-term quality of life in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: the INPH-CRasH Study.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CSF shunting improves long-term quality of life in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: the INPH-CRasH Study
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction

Measurements of quality of life (QoL) are important when evaluating a surgical method. However, QoL after shunting in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is seldom assessed. The objective of this study was to assess QoL in a large cohort of shunted INPH patients, compared to the population, and investigate which factors influence QoL in INPH.

 

Methods

All INPH patients shunted in Sweden 2008-2010 were scrutinized. Population-based controls were age- and gender-matched to the patients. One hundred and seventy-six INPH patients and 368 controls were included. QoL was assessed using the EQ5D5L instrument, measuring overall QoL and health status in five dimensions. Independency, measured by accommodation and need for in-home care, and comorbidities were assessed. Patients were followed up 6-45 months after surgery (mean follow-up time: 21 months).

 

Results

Shunted INPH patients had lower QoL than controls (p<0.001). The patients’ health status in mobility, self-care, daily activities, and anxiety/depression was worse than the controls both before and after surgery (p<0.001). Shunting improved QoL (p<0.001) and health status in all dimensions (p<0.005). The main predictors of low QoL in INPH were depression (p<0.001) and severity of gait disturbance (p=0.001). Fewer INPH patients than controls lived independently (45% vs 85%, p<0.001) Time after shunting had no influence on QoL.

 

Interpretation

Improvement in QoL after shunting in INPH is long lasting, but shunted INPH patients do not reach the same level of QoL as the population. Depression and severity of gait disturbance are the strongest predictors of low QoL in INPH. 

Keywords
normal pressure hydrocephalus, quality of life
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120174 (URN)
Available from: 2016-05-10 Created: 2016-05-10 Last updated: 2019-11-19
Israelsson, H., Carlberg, B., Wikkelsö, C., Laurell, K., Kahlon, B., Leijon, G., . . . Malm, J.Vascular risk factors contribute to idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: the INPH-CRasH Study.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vascular risk factors contribute to idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: the INPH-CRasH Study
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Objective

The objective was to determine the complete modern vascular risk factor (VRF) profile of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) using a large sample of representative INPH-patients and population-based controls, in order to confirm the impact of vascular disease on INPH pathophysiology.

 

Methods

All shunted INPH-patients in Sweden 2008-2010 were compared to age- and gender-matched population-based controls. Inclusion criteria: 60-85 years and mini mental state estimation ³23. The ten most important modern VRFs as well as cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease were prospectively assessed through blood samples, by-protocol clinical examinations and standardized questionnaires. Investigated VRFs: hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, psychosocial factors, smoking, diet, alcohol intake, cardiac disease and, physical activity.

 

Results

After exclusion, 176 INPH-patients and 368 controls participated. Using multivariable logistic regression, hyperlipidemia (OR: 2.380, 95%CI: 1.434-3.950), diabetes (OR: 2.169, 95%CI: 1.195-3.938), obesity (OR: 5.428, 95%CI: 2.502-11.772) and, psychosocial factors (OR: 5.343, 95%CI: 3.219-8.868) were independently associated with INPH. Hypertension, physical inactivity, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease were overrepresented in INPH, although not independently. The protective factors: moderate alcohol intake and physical activity were overrepresented among the controls. The population attributable risk percentage was 24%.

 

Conclusions

Our findings confirm that INPH-patients have a more dangerous VRF-profile and lack the protective factors present in the population. Almost one quarter of INPH could be explained by VRF, suggesting that INPH possibly may be a subgroup of vascular dementia. Targeted interventions against modifiable VRF are likely to have beneficial effects in INPH.

Keywords
normal pressure hydrocephalus, vascular risk factors, vascular disease
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120173 (URN)
Available from: 2016-05-10 Created: 2016-05-10 Last updated: 2018-06-07
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