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Pienaar, Jaco
Publications (10 of 40) Show all publications
De Beer, L. T., Pienaar, J. & Rothmann, S. J. (2016). Job Burnout, Work Engagement and Self-reported Treatment for Health Conditions in South Africa. Stress and Health, 32(1), 36-46
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Job Burnout, Work Engagement and Self-reported Treatment for Health Conditions in South Africa
2016 (English)In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the study being reported here was to investigate the relationship of job burnout and work engagement with self-reported received treatment for health conditions (cardiovascular condition, high cholesterol, depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome), while controlling for age, gender, smoking and alcohol use. The sample comprised 7895 employees from a broad range of economic sectors in the South African working population. A cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Structural equation modelling methods were implemented with a weighted least squares approach. The results showed that job burnout had a positive relationship with self-reported received treatment for depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. Work engagement did not have any significant negative or positive relationships with the treatment for these health conditions. The results of this study make stakeholders aware of the relationship between job burnout, work engagement and self-reported treatment for health conditions. Evidence for increased reporting of treatment for ill-health conditions due to burnout was found. Therefore, attempts should be made to manage job burnout to prevent ill-health outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120072 (URN)10.1002/smi.2576 (DOI)000371070500005 ()
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2018-11-01Bibliographically approved
De Witte, H., Pienaar, J. & De Cuyper, N. (2016). Review of 30 Years of Longitudinal Studies on the Association Between Job Insecurity and Health and Well-Being: Is There Causal Evidence?. Australian psychologist, 51(1), 18-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review of 30 Years of Longitudinal Studies on the Association Between Job Insecurity and Health and Well-Being: Is There Causal Evidence?
2016 (English)In: Australian psychologist, ISSN 0005-0067, E-ISSN 1742-9544, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 18-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: In this review article, we present an overview of the results of longitudinal studies on the consequences of job insecurity for healthand well-being. We discuss the evidence for normal causation (“Does job insecurity influence outcomes?”), reversed causation (“Do specificoutcomes predict job insecurity?”), and reciprocal causation. We also review the various theories used to develop the hypotheses and whethertheory has been used at all.

Method: Scientific and scholarly databases were searched to find all existing articles. We found 57 longitudinal studies published since 1987 ina variety of countries throughout the world. All articles were summarised in an encompassing table.

Results: The results show strong evidence for normal causation, in which job insecurity influences both psychological well-being and somatichealth over time. The results were somewhat dependent on the type of outcome variable analysed, with clear evidence regarding exhaustion(burnout), general mental/psychological well-being, self-rated health, and a variety of somatic complaints. For aspects such as job satisfaction,work engagement, and psychosomatic complaints, the results suggested normal causation in one half to two thirds of the studies only. Reversedor reciprocal causation was rarely studied, and when studied, rarely found.

Conclusions: Job insecurity influences health and well-being over time, rather than the other way round. Limitations and suggestions for futureresearch are discussed.

Keywords
causation, health, job insecurity, longitudinal studies, review study, well-being
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120069 (URN)10.1111/ap.12176 (DOI)000368841000004 ()
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Van Wyk, S. M., de Beer, L. T., Pienaar, J. & Schaufeli, W. B. (2016). The psychometric properties of a workplace boredom scale (DUBS) within the South African context. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 42(1), Article ID UNSP a1326.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The psychometric properties of a workplace boredom scale (DUBS) within the South African context
2016 (English)In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, ISSN 0258-5200, E-ISSN 2071-0763, Vol. 42, no 1, article id UNSP a1326Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Orientation: Boredom at work has been shown to be a concern for individuals and organisations. At the time of this research, no validated scale was available to measure and investigate workplace boredom within the South African context. Research purpose: To determine the psychometric properties of the Dutch Boredom Scale (DUBS) within the South African context. Motivation for the study: No reliable and valid scale for workplace boredom was available in South Africa at the time of the current research. Boredom at work has been found to affect organisations negatively in other countries. Insights are needed into workplace boredom and how it affects the outcomes of organisations in South Africa. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional research approach was utilised. A random convenience sample (N = 490) was obtained from organisations within the manufacturing and logistics sector. In order to validate the DUBS, the factor structure, construct validity (convergent and discriminant validity) and scale reliability were investigated. A mediation model was also tested with structural equation modelling to ascertain predictive validity. Main findings: The results showed that the one-factor structure of the DUBS could be confirmed and that this factor had acceptable reliability. In terms of convergent validity, all of the item indicators loaded significantly on the workplace boredom construct, and the relationship between workplace boredom and work underload revealed that they were positively correlated with medium effect size. Furthermore, work engagement and organisational commitment were correlated negatively in terms of practical significance with workplace boredom. A structural mediation model showed that work underload was significantly and positively associated with boredom, which in turn had significant negative relations to both work engagement and organisational commitment. No significant direct relations were found from work underload to either work engagement or organisational commitment. Instead, bootstrapping showed that there was an indirect-only relationship from work underload to work engagement and organisational commitment through workplace boredom - indicating full mediation. Practical/managerial implications: Management should not neglect workplace boredom, as results indicate that it may adversely impact work engagement and organisational commitment. Therefore, workplace boredom should be a concern not only for individuals, but also for the organisation at large. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the limited research available on workplace boredom in South Africa by providing evidence of acceptable psychometric properties for a workplace boredom scale.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AOSIS Publishing, 2016
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120071 (URN)10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1326 (DOI)000382622100013 ()
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Sverke, M., Hellgren, J., Pienaar, J., Lu, C.-Q. & Falkenberg, H. (2016). What do we feel and do when our organization changes?: Organizational change, down-sizing, job insecurity, employment contracts, part-time, flexible and temporary working.. In: Chmiel, F. Fraccaroli, & M. Sverke (Ed.), An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective (Third Edition).: . Chichester: Wiley.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What do we feel and do when our organization changes?: Organizational change, down-sizing, job insecurity, employment contracts, part-time, flexible and temporary working.
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2016 (English)In: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective (Third Edition). / [ed] Chmiel, F. Fraccaroli, & M. Sverke, Chichester: Wiley. , 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chichester: Wiley., 2016
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120075 (URN)
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07
Pienaar, J. & De Witte, H. (2016). Work locus of control and sense of coherence as antecedents of job insecurity. South African Journal of Business Management, 47(3), 35-43
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work locus of control and sense of coherence as antecedents of job insecurity
2016 (English)In: South African Journal of Business Management, ISSN 2078-5585, E-ISSN 2078-5976, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 35-43Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has highlighted various antecedents of job insecurity, both in cross-sectional research and in a recent meta-analysis. A review of this literature indicates that work locus of control actually is the only personality antecedent that has received considerable attention, while sense of coherence may also be an important factor to consider. Data on biographical variables, cognitive and affective job insecurity, work locus of control and sense of coherence were gathered from employees across 3 organisations (N=718), presenting two different sectors (chemical industry and financial services), by means of anonymous surveys. Data were analysed by means of correlations and regression analyses. Results indicate that both work locus of control and sense of coherence play a role in predicting job insecurity, even after controlling for biographical variables. Considering their individual contributions, it is suggested here that sense of coherence may be even more important than work locus of control as a personality antecedent of job insecurity.

National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120067 (URN)000383939100004 ()
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
De Beer, L. T., Pienaar, J. & Rothmann, S. J. (2016). Work overload, burnout, and psychological ill-health symptoms: a three-wave mediation model of the employee health impairment process. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 29(4), 387-399
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work overload, burnout, and psychological ill-health symptoms: a three-wave mediation model of the employee health impairment process
2016 (English)In: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, ISSN 1061-5806, E-ISSN 1477-2205, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 387-399Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and Objectives: The study reported here investigated the causal relationships in the health impairment process of employee well-being, and the mediating role of burnout in the relationship between work overload and psychological ill-health symptoms, over time. The research is deemed important due to the need for longitudinal evidence of the health impairment process of employee well-being over three waves of data. Design: A quantitative survey design was followed. Participants constituted a longitudinal sample of 370 participants, at three time points, after attrition. Methods: Descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling methods were implemented. Results: Work overload at time one predicted burnout at time two, and burnout at time two predicted psychological ill-health symptoms at time three. Indirect effects were found between work overload time one and psychological ill-health symptoms time three via burnout time two, and also between burnout time one and psychological ill-health symptoms time three, via burnout time two. Conclusions: The results provided supportive evidence for an “indirect-only” mediation effect, for burnout's causal mediation mechanism in the health impairment process between work overload and psychological ill-health symptoms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keywords
Longitudinal mediation, indirect effect, burnout, health impairment process, job demands
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120065 (URN)10.1080/10615806.2015.1061123 (DOI)000374959800004 ()
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
De Beer, L., Pienaar, J. & Rothmann, I. J. (2015). Designated and non-designated employee experiences in post-apartheid South Africa: Examples of informative hypothesis testing.. The International Journal of Human Resource Management.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designated and non-designated employee experiences in post-apartheid South Africa: Examples of informative hypothesis testing.
2015 (English)In: The International Journal of Human Resource Management.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120062 (URN)10.1080/09585192.2015.1020446 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07
De Beer,, L., Pienaar, J. & Rothmann,, J. I. . (2014). Job burnout’s relationship with sleep difficulties in the presence of control variables: A self-report study.. South African Journal of Psychology.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Job burnout’s relationship with sleep difficulties in the presence of control variables: A self-report study.
2014 (English)In: South African Journal of Psychology.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119773 (URN)
Available from: 2016-04-26 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2018-06-07
De Beer, L. T., Pienaar, J. & Rothmann, J. S. . (2013). Investigating the reversed causality of engagement and burnout in job demands-resources theory. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 39(1), Article ID a1055.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the reversed causality of engagement and burnout in job demands-resources theory
2013 (English)In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, ISSN 0258-5200, E-ISSN 2071-0763, Vol. 39, no 1, article id a1055Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Orientation: Reversed causality is an area that has not commanded major attention within the South African context, specifically pertaining to engagement, burnout and job demands resources. Therefore, this necessitated an investigation to elucidate the potential effects.

Research purpose: To investigate the reversed causal hypotheses of burnout and engagement in job demands-resources theory over time.

Motivation for the study: Organisations and researchers should be made aware of the effects that burnout and engagement could have over time on resources and demands.

Research design, approach and method: A longitudinal design was employed. The availability sample (n = 593) included participants from different demographic backgrounds. A survey was used to measure all constructs at both points in time. Structural equation modelling techniques were implemented with a categorical estimator to investigate the proposed hypotheses.

Main findings: Burnout was found to have a significant negative longitudinal relationship with colleague support and supervisor support, whilst the negative relationship with supervisor support over time was more prominent. Engagement showed only one significant but small, negative relationship with supervisor support over time. All other relationships were statistically non-significant.

Practical/managerial implications: This study makes organisations aware of the relationship between burnout and relationships at work over time. Proactive measures to promote relationships at work, specifically supervisor support, should be considered in addition to combatting burnout itself and promoting engagement.

Contribution/value-add: This study provides insights and information on reversed causality, namely, the effects that engagement and burnout can have over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cape Town: AOSIS, 2013
Keywords
Work Engagement, Burnout, Reversed Causality, Job Resources, Job Demands
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119768 (URN)10.4102/sajip.v39i1.1055 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-04-26 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2019-05-06Bibliographically approved
De Beer, L., Pienaar, J. & Rothmann Jr, S. (2013). Linking employee burnout to medical aid provider expenditure. SAMJ South African Medical Journal, 103(2), 89-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking employee burnout to medical aid provider expenditure
2013 (English)In: SAMJ South African Medical Journal, ISSN 0256-9574, E-ISSN 2078-5135, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 89-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background. Healthcare has become a major expense. Burnout and its connection with psychological and physical health is well researched, yet little research has been done on the connection between burnout and financial outcomes, specifically as indicated by the costs incurred by medical aid providers as a result of members' claims. Objective. To investigate the connection between employee burnout and medical aid claims and expenditure data in a sample from the private sector. Method. A cross-sectional design was used. The sample comprised 3 182 participants. The available objective medical aid expenditure data connected with each participant were: total insured benefits, general practitioner visits, specialist visits, general practitioner insured benefits, and claims for medicine. A low and a high burnout group were extracted, based on comorbidity of the two core components of burnout. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was then applied to investigate the differences in estimated marginal means of the expenditures on the low and the high burnout contrast groups, while controlling for age and gender. Results. The high burnout group frequented a general practitioner more often, and the medical aid provider expenditure was nearly double that of the low burnout group, on all the variables. Specialist visits did not show a significant result. Conclusion. High burnout is associated with a higher expenditure by a medical aid provider, compared with low burnout, per member. Stakeholders should therefore address burnout to reduce expenditure and promote health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cape Town: Medical Association of South Africa, 2013
Keywords
Medical aid, work stress, burnout, psychological ill health
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119766 (URN)10.7196/SAMJ.6060 (DOI)000315764100014 ()23374303 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-26 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved

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