umu.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Carelli, Maria GraziaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5937-8409
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 53) Show all publications
Åström, E., Rönnlund, M., Adolfsson, R. & Carelli, M. G. (2018). Depressive symptoms and time perspective in older adults:: associations beyond personality and negative life events. Aging & Mental Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depressive symptoms and time perspective in older adults:: associations beyond personality and negative life events
2018 (English)In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To examine the extent to which time perspective, an individual’s habitual way of relating to the past, the present, and the future time frames, accounts for variations in self-reported depressive symptoms among older adults.

Method: Four hundred two participants (60–90 years) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and the Swedish Zimbardo Time perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI). The influence of personality as reflected by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and self-reported negative life events (NLEs) were controlled for in hierarchic regression analyses.

Results: The six S-ZTPI dimensions accounted for 24.5% of the variance in CES-D scores beyond age and gender. Half of the variance remained when the TCI factors and NLEs were controlled for. Past Negative, Future Negative, and Past Positive (inverse association) were the significant unique predictors. Significant age interactions were observed for two S-ZTPI dimensions, with a diminished association to depressive symptoms for Future Negative and a magnified association for Present Fatalistic with higher age.

Conclusions: The results demonstrate a substantial relation between facets of time perspective and depressive symptoms in old age. They also indicate an age-related shift in the relative importance from concerns about of the future (Future Negative) to the present (Present Fatalistic) with increased age. In young old-age, when the future is more ‘open’, future worries (Future Negative) may be a more frequent source of distress. In late senescence, perceived threats to autonomy (e.g. physical health problems and cognitive deficits), as reflected by higher scores on Present Fatalistic, may instead have more bearing on mood state.

Keywords
Depressive symptoms, time perspective, older adults, personality, negative life events
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153376 (URN)10.1080/13607863.2018.1506743 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-11-19 Created: 2018-11-19 Last updated: 2019-02-11
Rönnlund, M. & Carelli, M. G. (2018). Deviations from a balanced time perspective in late adulthood: associations with current g and g in youth. Intelligence, 71, 8-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deviations from a balanced time perspective in late adulthood: associations with current g and g in youth
2018 (English)In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 71, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated relations between general cognitive ability (g) and aspects of time perspective, i.e. habitual ways of relating to the past, present, and future, in a sample of older adults (60-90 years, N = 438). In main focus was a measure of deviations from a balanced time perspective (DBTP), reflecting the differences between proposed ideal and observed score profile on the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI). A current g factor reflecting four cognitive markers was negatively related to DBTP (beta = -0.31), with a higher estimate (beta = -0.40) for a latent DBTP factor. For a subset of male participants (n = 129), cognitive test score from age 18 were retrieved. In that sample the g factor in youth predicted DBTP scores obtained around 52 years later (beta = -0.31, p < .01) nearly as well as current g (beta = -0.39). In line with prior studies, the Present Fatalistic dimension was a main source of the covariation of g and DBTP, but deviation scores for each of the three temporal frames (past, present, future) were significantly associated with g as well. Variations in recent stress did not account for these associations. Multi-group latent level analyses revealed a magnified g-DBTP association in old-old age (beta = -0.57 and beta = -0.81 in the old-old group for a latent DBTP factor), with a similar pattern for Present Fatalistic and Past Negative. Together, the results demonstrate a substantial association between g and time perspective in late adulthood, a relationship that may have been established early as judged from a relation to the age 18 g factor. A magnified association in in old-old age might reflect a more noticeable impact of age-related cognitive deficits on everyday functioning and thereby aspects of time perspective (e.g. increase present fatalism). Impairments in cognitive processes that allow for a flexible shift between temporal frames could also be factor, something which needs to be evaluated in future studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Aging, General intelligence, Time perspective, Present fatalism
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153045 (URN)10.1016/j.intell.2018.09.002 (DOI)000450289200002 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 345-2003-3883Swedish Research Council, 315-2004-6977
Available from: 2018-11-03 Created: 2018-11-03 Last updated: 2018-12-18Bibliographically approved
Åström, E., Seif, A., Wiberg, B. & Carelli, M. G. (2018). Getting "stuck" in the future or the past: Relationships between dimensions of time perspective, executive functions, and repetitive negative thinking in anxiety. Psychopathology, 51, 362-370
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Getting "stuck" in the future or the past: Relationships between dimensions of time perspective, executive functions, and repetitive negative thinking in anxiety
2018 (English)In: Psychopathology, ISSN 0254-4962, E-ISSN 1423-033X, Vol. 51, p. 362-370Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background/Aim: Anxiety disorders are associated with impairments in several aspects of cognitive processing. In this study we investigated three such aspects, i.e., time perspective, repetitive negative thinking (worry and rumination),and executive functioning, in persons with anxiety disorders compared to healthy controls and examined the influence of negative past and negative future time perspective and executive functioning on worry and rumination.

Method: Thirty-six psychiatric outpatients with anxiety disorders (mean age = 30.83, SD 11.74; 30 females and 6 males) and 44 healthy controls (mean age = 28.89, SD 9.54; 24 females and 20 males) completed inventories of time perspective and repetitive negative thinking, and tasks measuring executive functioning (shifting and inhibition).

Results: The groups (patient vs. control) differed significantly on all time perspective dimensions (past, present, and future), with largest effect sizes observed for negative past and negative future. Regression analyses with executive functioning, negative past, and negative future time perspectives as predictors, and worry and rumination as outcomes, showed that negative past time perspective was the best predictor for rumination, whereas negative future time perspective more strongly predicted worry. Executive functioning was not a significant predictor of either worry or rumination.

Conclusions: Individuals with anxiety disorders demonstrated systematic biases in all time perspective dimensions, particularly negative past and negative future time perspective, which was further related to worry and rumination. Thus, interventions targeting temporal focus may be one way of reducing repetitive negative thinking. A major limitation of this study was the use of a cross-section design. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
S. Karger, 2018
Keywords
Anxiety, Anxiety disorders, Time perspective, Executive functions, Repetitive negative thinking, Worry, Rumination
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Clinical Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146263 (URN)10.1159/000494882 (DOI)30522113 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2012-650
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form

Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Rönnlund, M., Åström, E., Adolfsson, R. & Carelli, M. G. (2018). Perceived stress in adults aged 65 to 90: Relations to facets of time perspective and COMT Val158Met polymorphism. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 378.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceived stress in adults aged 65 to 90: Relations to facets of time perspective and COMT Val158Met polymorphism
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 378Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined the relation between perceived stress and time perspective (views of past, present, future) in a population-based sample of older adults (65-90 years, N = 340). The Perceived Questionnaire (PSQ index) was used to measure stress and the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) was used to operationalize time perspective. Unlike the original inventory, S-ZTPI separates positive and negative aspects of a future time perspective and we hypothesized that the Future Negative (FN) scale would be important to account for variations in stress. Additionally, associations with Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism were examined, motivated by prior associations of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with stress (or "anxiety") related personality traits. In line with the hypotheses, FN was the strongest predictor of PSQ index scores in multiple regression analyses. In a related vein, the dichotomization of the unitary Future scale increased the association between PSQ scores and a measure of deviations from a balanced time perspective, i.e., the difference between a proposed optimal and observed ZTPI profile. Finally, higher levels of stress as well as higher scores on FN were observed in COMT Val/Val carriers, at least among men. This suggests a shared dopaminergic genetic influence on these variables. Collectively, the results demonstrate that perceived stress is closely linked to time perspective and highlight the need to take negative aspects of a future temporal orientation into account to understand this relation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
perceived stress,  time perspective,  Catechol-O-Methyltransferase,  older adults,  Val(158)Met polymorphsim
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145694 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00378 (DOI)000428077500002 ()29623060 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-14 Created: 2018-03-14 Last updated: 2018-08-07Bibliographically approved
Zambianchi, M. & Carelli, M. G. (2018). Positive attitudes towards technologies and facets of well-being in older adults. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 37(3), 371-388
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Positive attitudes towards technologies and facets of well-being in older adults
2018 (English)In: Journal of Applied Gerontology, ISSN 0733-4648, E-ISSN 1552-4523, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 371-388Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current study investigates the relevance of positive attitudes toward Internet technologies for psychological well-being and social well-being in old age. A sample of 245 elderly people (Mean age = 70; SD =9.1) filled in the Psychological Well-Being Questionnaire, the Social Well-Being Questionnaire, and Attitudes Toward Technologies Questionnaire (ATTQ). Favorable attitudes toward Internet technologies showed positive correlations with overall social well-being and all its components with the exception of social acceptance. Positive correlations with overall psychological well-being and two of its components, namely, personal growth and purpose in life, were also found. Two hierarchical multiple regression models underscored that positive attitudes toward Internet technologies constitute the most important predictor of social well-being, and it appears to be a significant predictor for psychological well-being as well. Results are discussed and integrated into the Positive Technology theoretical framework that sustains the value of technological resources for improving the quality of personal experience and well-being.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Thousand oaks: Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
Internet technologies, old age, well-being
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120047 (URN)10.1177/0733464816647825 (DOI)000424754600006 ()27146263 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2012-650 and 2015-02199
Note

Article first published online: May 3, 2016

Available from: 2016-05-05 Created: 2016-05-05 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Todorov, I., Kubik, V., Carelli, M. G., Del Missier, F. & Mäntylä, T. (2018). Spatial offloading in multiple task monitoring. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 30(2), 230-241
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial offloading in multiple task monitoring
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 230-241Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coordinating multiple tasks requires a high degree of cognitive control, and individuals with limited executive functions often show difficulties in everyday multitasking. We tested the hypothesis that demands on executive control can be alleviated by internally representing the temporal pattern of goals and deadlines as spatial relations. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session by monitoring deadlines of four clocks running at different rates, along with separate tasks of executive functioning and spatial ability. In Experiment 1, individual and gender-related differences in spatial ability (mental rotation) predicted multitasking performance, beyond the contributions of both the updating and inhibition components of executive functioning, and even when spatial cues were eliminated from the layout of the monitoring task. Experiment 2 extended these findings by showing that concurrent spatial load impaired task monitoring accuracy, and that these detrimental effects were accentuated when spatial abilities were compromized due to fluctuation in female sex hormones. These findings suggest that multiple task monitoring involves working memory-related functions, but that these cognitive control demands can be offloaded by relying on spatial relation processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
multitasking, spatial ability, executive functioning, cognitive offloading
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144792 (URN)10.1080/20445911.2018.1436551 (DOI)000427718100008 ()
Available from: 2018-02-14 Created: 2018-02-14 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Rönnlund, M. & Carelli, M. G. (2018). Time Perspective Biases Are Associated With Poor Sleep Quality, Daytime Sleepiness, and Lower Levels of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Adults. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 1356.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time Perspective Biases Are Associated With Poor Sleep Quality, Daytime Sleepiness, and Lower Levels of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Adults
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1356Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined the extent to which individual differences in time perspective, i.e., habitual way of relating to the personal past, present, and future, are associated with sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in a sample of older adults. The participants (N = 437, 60-90 years) completed the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ), a the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), and two ratings of subjective well-being (SWB) (life satisfaction, happiness). Based on established relationships between dimension of time perspective and other variables (e.g., depression) and relations between negative retrospection (rumination) and negative prospection (worry) in prior studies, we expected higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative to be linked to poor sleep quality and (indirectly) increased daytime sleepiness. Moreover, we examined the possibility that variations in perceived sleep and sleepiness during the day mediates the expected association between an aggregate measure of deviations from a so called balanced time perspective (DBTP) and SWB. In regression analyses controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, and work status), higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative predicted poorer sleep quality and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Additionally, most of the association between time perspective and daytime sleepiness was accounted for by individual differences in sleep quality. Finally, structural equation modeling yielded results consistent with the hypothesis that variations in sleep mediate part of the negative relationship between DBTP and SWB. Given that good sleep is essential to multiple aspects of health, future studies evaluating relationships between time perspective and adverse health outcomes should consider sleep quality as a potentially contributing factor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
time perspective, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, deviations from a balanced time perspective, older adults
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151552 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01356 (DOI)000442665400001 ()
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, 1988-0082:17Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, J2001-0682Swedish Research Council, F377/1988-2000Swedish Research Council, 2015-02199Swedish Research Council, 345-2003-3883Swedish Research Council, 315-2004-6977
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-11Bibliographically approved
do Rego Leite, U., Roazzi, A., Campello de Souza, B. & Carelli, M. G. (2017). A Brazilian Validation of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory for Children - ZTPI-C. In: Proceeding of the 16th International FacetTheory Conference, Netanya, Israel. June 26-29, 2017: . Paper presented at 16th International Facet Theory Conference, June 27th-28th, 2017, Netanya, Israel.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Brazilian Validation of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory for Children - ZTPI-C
2017 (English)In: Proceeding of the 16th International FacetTheory Conference, Netanya, Israel. June 26-29, 2017, 2017Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The present study aims to create and validate aversion of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory for children based on itemsadapted from the original adult ZTPI scale and the Negative Future Subscale.For that purpose, an instrument containing 69 items, divided into six maincategories (past, present, and future, each with positive and negativeperceptions), was applied to 675 boys and girls aged from 8 to 12 years frompublic and private schools in Brazil. Cluster analyses done on the items ofeach of the six categories, and a total of 27 items were removed due to theirdistance to the centroid. The remaining 42 items were then submitted to an SSAand the resulting diagram partitioned into a polar structure according to the principles of Facet Theory.The specific structure found was interpreted in terms of Zimbardo et al. (1999) time perspective framework as well as  children's temporal knowledge and its development.

Keywords
Time perspective, children's temporal knowledge
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142606 (URN)
Conference
16th International Facet Theory Conference, June 27th-28th, 2017, Netanya, Israel
Available from: 2017-12-06 Created: 2017-12-06 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Wiberg, B., Sircova, A., Wiberg, M. & Carelli, M. G. (2017). Balanced time perspective: developing empirical profile and exploring its stability over time. In: Aleksandra Kostić, Derek Chadee (Ed.), Time perspective: theory and practice (pp. 63-95). London: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Balanced time perspective: developing empirical profile and exploring its stability over time
2017 (English)In: Time perspective: theory and practice / [ed] Aleksandra Kostić, Derek Chadee, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 63-95Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Balanced time perspective (BTP) is characterized by flexible switching between a person's past, present and future time orientations, depending on situational demands, personal resources, experiences, and social evaluations. The present study aimed to explore the psychological characteristics of people with a BTP profile and attain a deeper understanding of the BTP construct. Seven people with BTP profiles were investigated using in-depth interviews, self-report instruments, and a projective test. By testing the participants on two occasions within an 18-month interval, we investigated the stability of BTP. Analyses showed that participants were aware of the "now" and had a synchronicity between the present and the past, and also between the present and the future. Results indicated a degree of temporal stability in the BTP profile and that people's interpretations and interactions within the surrounding context of events influences their time perspectives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017
Keywords
Time perspective, BTP
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Clinical Psychology; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142601 (URN)10.1057/978-1-137-60191-9_4 (DOI)9781137601902 (ISBN)9781137601919 (ISBN)
Projects
Time perspective
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2012-650
Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
Rönnlund, M., Åström, E. & Carelli, M. G. (2017). Time Perspective in Late Adulthood: aging patterns in past, present and future dimensions, deviations from balance, and associations with subjective well-being. Timing & Time Perception, 5, 77-98
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time Perspective in Late Adulthood: aging patterns in past, present and future dimensions, deviations from balance, and associations with subjective well-being
2017 (English)In: Timing & Time Perception, ISSN 2213-445X, E-ISSN 2213-4468, Vol. 5, p. 77-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We examined cross-sectional aging patterns for subscales of the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in a population-based sample of older adults (60–90 years; N = 447). Alternative methods to assess time perspective balance (DBTP, involving a single Future dimension; S-BTP; and DBTP-E, including in addition, Future Negative), were compared and their relations to subjective well-being (SWB) were examined. Significant negative age relations were observed for Past Negative and Future Negative with a clear age-related increase in Present Fatalistic, while Past Positive, Present Hedonistic, and Future Positive were relatively stable across age. A significant age-related increase in deviation from balance was observed across methods (Cohen’s ds 0.28–0.57), with the highest value for DBTP-E. Overall, S-BTP and DBTP-E were more strongly associated with SWB than DBTP (r = −0.40), with the highest value for DBTP-E (r = −0.53). Analyses of separate age groups (60–65 vs. 70–75 vs. 80–90 years) revealed a trend of weakened association with balance in old-old age, for S-BTP and DBTP-E in particular. This seemed to reflect the fact that negative views of the future are strongly related to SWB in young-old adults but diminish in importance in late senescence (80–90 years). Potential factors behind the observed patterns of results, including deficits in cognitive functioning and physical health to account for the age-related increase in present fatalism, and the potential role of a self-transcendent future time perspective for well-being in old-old age, are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Brill Academic Publishers, 2017
Keywords
Time perspective, aging, balanced time perspective, cross-sectional, subjective well-being
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131737 (URN)10.1163/22134468-00002081 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2012-650Swedish Research Council, 2015–02199
Available from: 2017-02-20 Created: 2017-02-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5937-8409

Search in DiVA

Show all publications