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Berglund, Staffan K.ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9263-9578
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Publications (10 of 26) Show all publications
Lindberg, J., Norman, M., Westrup, B., Domellöf, M. & Berglund, S. K. (2019). Cardiometabolic risk factors in children born with marginally low birth weight: A longitudinal cohort study up to 7 years-of-age. PLoS ONE, 14(4), Article ID e0215866.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cardiometabolic risk factors in children born with marginally low birth weight: A longitudinal cohort study up to 7 years-of-age
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2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 4, article id e0215866Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction Low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) may predict an increased risk of an adverse cardiometabolic profile later in life, but long-term effects in different populations and birth weight strata are still unclear. We explored laboratory markers of cardiometabolic risk in children born with marginally LBW (2000-2500 g). Methods This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study including 285 Swedish marginally LBW children and 95 normal birth weight (NBW, 2501-4500 g) controls. At 3.5 and 7 years of age, blood samples for glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), cholesterol, triglycerides, high-and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) were assessed and compared between the groups. Results No significant differences in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP or blood lipids were observed between marginally LBW and NBW children. At 7 years there was a higher proportion of marginally LBW children with elevated levels of insulin, defined as above the 90th percentile of the control group (21% vs 8.6%, p = 0.038). This association was, however, confounded by maternal ethnicity. In marginally LBW children born small for gestational age (SGA), mean fasting glucose was significantly higher compared to controls (4.7 vs 4.5 mmol/L, p = 0.020). Conclusions There were no significant differences in insulin, insulin resistance, hs-CRP or blood lipids between the marginally LBW children and controls. The subgroup of marginally LBW children born SGA may present early signs of glucose imbalance already at school age.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2019
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158951 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0215866 (DOI)000465019900056 ()31002705 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2019-05-27Bibliographically approved
Berglund, S. K., Chmielewska, A., Starnberg, J., Westrup, B., Hägglöf, B., Norman, M. & Domellöf, M. (2018). Effects of iron supplementation of low-birth-weight infants on cognition and behavior at 7 years: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatric Research, 83, 111-118
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of iron supplementation of low-birth-weight infants on cognition and behavior at 7 years: a randomized controlled trial
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2018 (English)In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 83, p. 111-118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Low-birth-weight infants (LBW) are at an increased risk of iron deficiency that has been associated with impaired neurodevelopment. We hypothesized that iron supplementation of LBW infants improves cognitive scores and reduces behavioral problems until school age.

Methods We randomized 285 marginally LBW (2,000-2,500 g) infants to receive 0, 1, or 2 mg/kg/day of iron supplements from 6 weeks to 6 months of age. At 7 years of age, 205 participants were assessed regarding cognition using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) and behavior using the parental questionnaires Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Five to Fifteen (FTF).

Results There were no significant differences between the intervention groups in WISC-IV or FTF. However, the CBCL scores for externalizing problems were significantly different, in favor of supplemented children (P=0.045). When combining the supplemented groups, they had significantly lower scores for externalizing behavior compared with placebo (median (interquartile range): 44 [34;51] vs. 48.5 [41;56] P=0.013), and their risk ratio (95% confidence interval) for a total behavioral score above the cutoff for clinical problems was 0.31 (0.09-1.0), P=0.054.

Conclusion Lower scores of externalizing behavior in supplemented children support our previous findings at 3 years, and suggest that iron supplementation may have long-lasting effects on behavioral functions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Nature Publishing Group, 2018
Keywords
weeks gestational age, children born, late preterm, deficiency anemia, brain, growth, childhood, disorder, outcomes, risk
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145099 (URN)10.1038/pr.2017.235 (DOI)000426175900019 ()28953856 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-21 Created: 2018-02-21 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
Starnberg, J., Norman, M., Westrup, B., Domellöf, M. & Berglund, S. K. (2018). Lower cognitive test scores at age 7 in children born with marginally low birth weight. Pediatric Research, 83(6), 1129-1135
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lower cognitive test scores at age 7 in children born with marginally low birth weight
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2018 (English)In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 83, no 6, p. 1129-1135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Being born with very low birth weight (<1500 g) is associated with poorer neurocognition later in life. The aim of this study was to explore neurodevelopmental functions in those born with marginally LBW (2000–2500 g).

Methods: This was originally a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of early iron supplementation in 285 marginally LBW children. Herein, we explored the combined marginally LBW group and compared their results to 95 normal birth weight (NBW; 2501–4500 g) controls in an observational design. At 7 years, a pediatric psychologist tested the children using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC IV), Beery–Buktenica developmental test of Visual–Motor Integration (Beery VMI), and Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch).

Results: The marginally LBW children had lower verbal comprehension intelligence quotient (IQ) (104 vs. 107, P=0.004), lower VMI scores (96.5 vs. 100, P=0.028), and lower total mean TEA-Ch scores (8.5 vs. 9.7, P=0.006), compared to controls. Also, the marginally LBW children group had a higher proportion of children below −1 SD for VMI and TEA-Ch.

Conclusions: Marginally LBW children had lower verbal comprehension IQ, lower visual–motor integration, and lower attention performance than NBW children, suggesting an increased risk of cognitive difficulties in early school age

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Pediatrics
Research subject
Pediatrics; Neurology; Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144211 (URN)10.1038/pr.2018.35 (DOI)000436345400009 ()29538361 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85049120412 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-26 Created: 2018-01-26 Last updated: 2018-09-21Bibliographically approved
Torres-Espinola, F. J., Berglund, S. K., Garcia, S., Perez-Garcia, M., Catena, A., Rueda, R., . . . Campoy, C. (2018). Visual evoked potentials in offspring born to mothers with overweight, obesity and gestational diabetes. PLoS ONE, 13(9), Article ID e0203754.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual evoked potentials in offspring born to mothers with overweight, obesity and gestational diabetes
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 9, article id e0203754Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes (GD) during pregnancy may negatively affect neurodevelopment in the offspring. However, the mechanisms are unclear and objective measures of neurodevelopment in infancy are scarce. We hypothesized that these maternal metabolic pathologies impair cortical visual evoked potentials (cVEPs), a proxy for visual and neuronal maturity.

Design: The PREOBE study included 331 pregnant women stratified into four groups; normal weight (controls), overweight, obesity, and GD (the latter including mothers with normal weight, overweight and obesity). In a subsample of the offspring at 3 months (n = 157) and at 18 months (n = 136), we assessed the latencies and amplitudes of the P100 wave from cVEPs and calculated visual acuity.

Results: At 3 months of age, visual acuity was significantly poorer in offspring born to GD mothers. At 18 months of age, there were no differences in visual acuity but infants born to GD mothers had significantly longer latencies of cVEPs when measured at 15', and 30' of arc. The group differences at 30' remained significant after confounder adjustment (mean [SD] 121.0 [16.0] vs. 112.6 [7.6] ms in controls, p = 0.007) and the most prolonged latencies were observed in offspring to GD mothers with concurrent overweight (128.9 [26.9] ms, p = 0.002) and obesity (118.5 [5.1] ms, p = 0.020).

Conclusions: Infants born to mothers with GD, particularly those with concurrent overweight or obesity, have prolonged latencies of visual evoked potentials at 18 months of age, suggesting that this maternal metabolic profile have a long lasting, non-optimal, effect on infants' brain development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library Science, 2018
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153816 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0203754 (DOI)000444683000074 ()30208080 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-12-11 Created: 2018-12-11 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, J., Norman, M., Westrup, B., Domellöf, M. & Berglund, S. K. (2017). Lower systolic blood pressure at age 7 y in low-birth-weight children who received iron supplements in infancy: results from a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 106(2), 475-480
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lower systolic blood pressure at age 7 y in low-birth-weight children who received iron supplements in infancy: results from a randomized controlled trial
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2017 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 475-480Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Low birth weight (LBW) (≤2500 g) is associated with iron deficiency in infancy and high blood pressure (BP) later in life.

Objective: We investigated the effect of iron supplementation that was given to LBW infants on midchildhood BP.

Design: The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial that included 285 marginally LBW (2000–2500-g) infants at 2 Swedish centers between May 2004 and November 2007. The infants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or 1 or 2 mg Fe · kg−1 · d−1 from 6 wk to 6 mo of age. In secondary analyses at the age of 7 y, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the prevalence of children with BP within the hypertensive range (>90th percentile) were compared between the groups.

Results: BP was analyzed via intention to treat in 189 children (66%). The mean ± SD SBP was 103 ± 8.1, 101 ± 7.5, and 101 ± 7.8 mm Hg in children who had received the placebo (n = 70), 1 mg Fe · kg−1 · d−1 (n = 54), or 2 mg Fe · kg−1 · d−1 (n= 65), respectively. When the iron-supplemented groups were combined in covariate-adjusted analyses, the mean SBP in LBW children who had received iron supplementation in infancy was 2.2 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.3, 4.2 mm Hg) lower than in those who were unsupplemented (P = 0.026). Multivariate logistic regression showed that iron supplementation in infancy reduced the odds of having an SBP within the hypertensive range at 7 y of age (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.96). For DBP, there were no significant differences between the intervention groups.

Conclusions: LBW children who receive iron supplementation (1 or 2 mg Fe · kg−1 · d−1) in infancy have lower SBP at 7 y. This (to our knowledge) novel observation suggests that the increased risk of hypertension that is observed in children and adults who are born small might be reduced with early micronutrient interventions.

Keywords
Barker hypothesis, blood pressure, cardiovascular risk, early programming, hypertension, iron supplementation, low birth weight
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138590 (URN)10.3945/ajcn.116.150482 (DOI)000406672300009 ()
Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Berglund, S. K., Torres-Espinola, F. J., Garcia-Valdes, L., Teresa Segura, M., Martinez-Zaldivar, C., Padilla, C., . . . Campoy, C. (2017). The impacts of maternal iron deficiency and being overweight during pregnancy on neurodevelopment of the offspring. British Journal of Nutrition, 118(7), 533-540
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impacts of maternal iron deficiency and being overweight during pregnancy on neurodevelopment of the offspring
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2017 (English)In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 533-540Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Both maternal Fe deficiency (ID) and being overweight or obese (Ow/Ob, BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) may negatively affect offspring brain development. However, the two risk factors correlate and their independent effects on infant neurodevelopment are unclear. PREOBE is a prospective observational study that included 331 pregnant Spanish women, of whom 166 had pre-gestational Ow/Ob. Fe status was analysed at 34 weeks and at delivery, and babies were assessed using Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment at 18 months. In confounder-adjusted analyses, maternal ID at 34 weeks was associated with lower composite motor scores at 18 months (mean 113.3 (SD 9.9) v. 117.1 (SD 9.2), P=0.039). Further, the offspring of mothers with ID at delivery had lower cognitive scores (114.0 (SD 9.7) v. 121.5 (SD 10.9), P = 0.039) and lower receptive, expressive and composite (99.5 (SD 8.6) v. 107.6 (SD 8.3), P= 0.004) language scores. The negative associations between maternal ID at delivery and Bayley scores remained even when adjusting for maternal Ow/Ob and gestational diabetes. Similarly, maternal Ow/Ob correlated with lower gross motor scores in the offspring (12.3 (SD 2.0) v. 13.0 (SD 2.1), P = 0.037), a correlation that remained when adjusting for maternal ID. In conclusion, maternal ID and pre-gestational Ow/Ob are both negatively associated with Bayley scores at 18 months, but independently and on different subscales. These results should be taken into account when considering Fe supplementation for pregnant women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2017
Keywords
iron, overweight, obesity, infant neurodevelopment, Bayley test
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141481 (URN)10.1017/S0007114517002410 (DOI)000413169700006 ()28965494 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-20 Created: 2017-11-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, J., Norman, M., Westrup, B., Domellöf, M. & Berglund, S. (2016). BLOOD PRESSURE AND METABOLIC MARKERS IN MARGINALLY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN AT 7 YEARS OF AGE. Paper presented at The 6th Congress of the European Academy of Paediatric Societies, October 21-25, 2016, Geneva, Switzerland. European Journal of Pediatrics, 175(11), 1543-1543
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BLOOD PRESSURE AND METABOLIC MARKERS IN MARGINALLY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN AT 7 YEARS OF AGE
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2016 (English)In: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 175, no 11, p. 1543-1543Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer, 2016
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130469 (URN)10.1007/s00431-016-2785-8 (DOI)000390040700423 ()
Conference
The 6th Congress of the European Academy of Paediatric Societies, October 21-25, 2016, Geneva, Switzerland
Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Chmielewska, A., Berglund, S., Lindberg, J., Mikael, N., Westrup, B. & Domellöf, M. (2016). HEAD GROWTH AND NEURODEVELOPMENT UNTIL 7 YEARS OF AGE: A STUDY IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS. Paper presented at The 6th Congress of the European Academy of Paediatric Societies, October 21-25, 2016, Geneva, Switzerland. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS, 175(11), 1485-1485
Open this publication in new window or tab >>HEAD GROWTH AND NEURODEVELOPMENT UNTIL 7 YEARS OF AGE: A STUDY IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS
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2016 (English)In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS, ISSN 0340-6199, Vol. 175, no 11, p. 1485-1485Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer, 2016
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130470 (URN)10.1007/s00431-016-2785-8 (DOI)000390040700279 ()
Conference
The 6th Congress of the European Academy of Paediatric Societies, October 21-25, 2016, Geneva, Switzerland
Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Berglund, S. K., Kriström, B., Björn, M., Lindberg, J., Westrup, B., Norman, M. & Domellöf, M. (2016). Marginally low birth weight increases the risk of underweight and short stature at three and a half years of age. Acta Paediatrica, 105(6), 610-617
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marginally low birth weight increases the risk of underweight and short stature at three and a half years of age
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2016 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 105, no 6, p. 610-617Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIM: Little is known about the long-term health of marginally low birth weight (LBW) children. This study characterised growth among infants weighing 2,000g-2,500g and explored the prevalence and predictors of sustained growth restriction.

METHOD: This prospective observational trial followed the weight and height of 281 Swedish marginally LBW children from birth to 3.5 years of age. Children with a standard deviation score (SDS) for body mass index or height below -2 were considered underweight and short respectively.

RESULTS: The mean SDS for weight and height showed a rapid increase before 12-19 weeks of age. The most rapid weight gain was in infants born small for gestational age. However, at 3.5 years of age, 9.5% of the children remained underweight and 6.5% had short stature. Regression models showed that slow weight gain before 19 weeks of age was the strongest predictor for lasting underweight, while slow height gain before 19 weeks of age and male sex were associated with short stature.

CONCLUSION: Marginally LBW infants were more likely to be underweight and have a short stature at 3.5 years of age and the absence of catch-up growth during the first five months after birth identified those at highest risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keywords
Catch-up growth, Growth velocity, Height, Preterm infant, Small for gestational age
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118662 (URN)10.1111/apa.13356 (DOI)000376265400016 ()26849678 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-03-29 Created: 2016-03-29 Last updated: 2019-04-01Bibliographically approved
Berglund, S. K., García-Valdes, L., Torres-Espinola, F. J., Segura, M. T., Martínez-Zaldivar, C., Aguilar, M. J., . . . Campoy, C. (2016). Maternal, fetal and perinatal alterations associated with obesity, overweight and gestational diabetes: an observational cohort study (PREOBE). BMC Public Health, 16, Article ID 207.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maternal, fetal and perinatal alterations associated with obesity, overweight and gestational diabetes: an observational cohort study (PREOBE)
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2016 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, article id 207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Maternal overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes (GD) have been negatively associated with offspring development. Further knowledge regarding metabolic and nutritional alterations in these mother and their offspring are warranted.

Methods: In an observational cohort study we included 331 pregnant women from Granada, Spain. The mothers were categorized into four groups according to BMI and their GD status; overweight (n:56), obese (n:64), GD (n:79), and healthy normal weight controls (n:132). We assessed maternal growth and nutritional biomarkers at 24 weeks (n = 269), 34 weeks (n = 310) and at delivery (n = 310) and the perinatal characteristics including cord blood biomarkers.

Results: Obese and GD mothers had significantly lower weight gain during pregnancy and infant birth weight, waist circumference, and placental weight were higher in the obese group, including a significantly increased prevalence of macrosomia. Except for differences in markers of glucose metabolism (glucose, HbA1c, insulin and uric acid) we found at some measures that overweight and/or obese mothers had lower levels of transferrin saturation, hemoglobin, Vitamin B12 and folate and higher levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ferritin, and cortisol. GD mothers had similar differences in hemoglobin and C-reactive protein but higher levels of folate. The latter was seen also in cord blood.

Conclusions: We identified several metabolic alterations in overweight, obese and GD mothers compared to controls. Together with the observed differences in infant anthropometrics, these may be important biomarkers in future research regarding the programming of health and disease in children.

Keywords
Pregnancy, Maternal overweight, Maternal obesity, Gestational diabetes, Offspring, Fetal nutrition, Early programming, Vitamin B12, Folate, Iron status, Glucose metabolism
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118978 (URN)10.1186/s12889-016-2809-3 (DOI)000371865400001 ()26931143 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-05-03 Created: 2016-04-07 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9263-9578

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