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Bucht, Anders
Publications (10 of 46) Show all publications
Gulin-Sarfraz, T., Jonasson, S., Wigenstam, E., von Haartman, E., Bucht, A. & Rosenholm, J. M. (2019). Feasibility Study of Mesoporous Silica Particles for Pulmonary Drug Delivery: Therapeutic Treatment with Dexamethasone in a Mouse Model of Airway Inflammation. Pharmaceutics, 11(4), Article ID 149.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feasibility Study of Mesoporous Silica Particles for Pulmonary Drug Delivery: Therapeutic Treatment with Dexamethasone in a Mouse Model of Airway Inflammation
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2019 (English)In: Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1999-4923, E-ISSN 1999-4923, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Diseases in the respiratory tract rank among the leading causes of death in the world, and thus novel and optimized treatments are needed. The lungs offer a large surface for drug absorption, and the inhalation of aerosolized drugs are a well-established therapeutic modality for local treatment of lung conditions. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery platforms are gaining importance for use through the pulmonary route. By using porous carrier matrices, higher doses of especially poorly soluble drugs can be administered locally, reducing their side effects and improving their biodistribution. In this study, the feasibility of mesoporous silica particles (MSPs) as carriers for anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of airway inflammation was investigated. Two different sizes of particles on the micron and nanoscale (1 mu m and 200 nm) were produced, and were loaded with dexamethasone (DEX) to a loading degree of 1:1 DEX:MSP. These particles were further surface-functionalized with a polyethylene glycol-polyethylene imine (PEG-PEI) copolymer for optimal aqueous dispersibility. The drug-loaded particles were administered as an aerosol, through inhalation to two different mice models of neutrophil-induced (by melphalan or lipopolysaccharide) airway inflammation. The mice received treatment with either DEX-loaded MSPs or, as controls, empty MSPs or DEX only; and were evaluated for treatment effects 24 h after exposure. The results show that the MEL-induced airway inflammation could be treated by the DEX-loaded MSPs to the same extent as free DEX. Interestingly, in the case of LPS-induced inflammation, even the empty MSPs significantly down-modulated the inflammatory response. This study highlights the potential of MSPs as drug carriers for the treatment of diseases in the airways.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
mesoporous silica particles, pulmonary drug delivery, poorly soluble drugs
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159410 (URN)10.3390/pharmaceutics11040149 (DOI)000467301400004 ()30939753 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved
Wigenstam, E., Elfsmark, L., Ågren, L., Akfur, C., Bucht, A. & Jonasson, S. (2018). Anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic treatment in a rodent model of acute lung injury induced by sulfur dioxide. Clinical Toxicology, 56(12), 1185-1194
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic treatment in a rodent model of acute lung injury induced by sulfur dioxide
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2018 (English)In: Clinical Toxicology, ISSN 1556-3650, E-ISSN 1556-9519, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 1185-1194Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Inhalation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) affects the lungs and exposure to high concentrations can be lethal. The early pulmonary response after inhaled SO2 involves tissue injury, acute neutrophilic lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In rats, long-term pulmonary fibrosis is evident 14 days post-exposure as indicated by analysis of collagen deposition in lung tissue. Early treatment with a single dose of dexamethasone (DEX,10 mg/kg) significantly attenuates the acute inflammatory response in airways. However, this single DEX-treatment is not sufficient for complete protection against SO2-induced injuries.

Methods: Female Sprague–Dawley rats exposed to SO2 (2200 ppm, nose-only exposure, 10 min) were given treatments (1, 5 and 23 h after SO2-exposure) with the anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory substance Pirfenidone (PFD, 200 mg/kg) or DEX (10 mg/kg) to evaluate whether the inflammatory response, AHR and lung fibrosis could be counteracted.

Results: Both treatment approaches significantly reduced the total leukocyte response in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and suppressed pulmonary edema. In contrast to DEX-treatment, PFD-treatment reduced the methacholine-induced AHR to almost control levels and partially suppressed the acute mucosal damage whereas multiple DEX-treatment was the only treatment that reduced collagen formation in lung tissue.

Conclusions: To enable an accurate extrapolation of animal derived data to humans, a detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the injury, and potential treatment options, is needed. The findings of the present study suggest that treatments with the capability to reduce both AHR, the inflammatory response, and fibrosis are needed to achieve a comprehensive mitigation of the acute lung injury caused by SO2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Sulfur dioxide, chemical-induced lung injury, animal models, pirfenidone, dexamethasone, flammation, respiratory mechanics, fibrosis
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157613 (URN)10.1080/15563650.2018.1479527 (DOI)000457739200003 ()29923422 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-27 Created: 2019-03-27 Last updated: 2019-03-27Bibliographically approved
Ekdahl, K. N., Davoodpour, P., Ekstrand-Hammarström, B., Fromell, K., Hamad, O. A., Hong, J., . . . Nilsson, B. (2018). Contact (kallikrein/kinin) system activation in whole human blood induced by low concentrations of alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 14(3), 735-744
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contact (kallikrein/kinin) system activation in whole human blood induced by low concentrations of alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles
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2018 (English)In: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, ISSN 1549-9634, E-ISSN 1549-9642, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 735-744Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Iron-oxide nanoparticles (NPs) generated by environmental events are likely to represent health problems. α-Fe2O3 NPs were synthesized, characterized and tested in a model for toxicity utilizing human whole blood without added anticoagulant. MALDI-TOF of the corona was performed and activation markers for plasma cascade systems (complement, contact and coagulation systems), platelet consumption and release of growth factors, MPO, and chemokine/cytokines from blood cells were analyzed. The coronas formed on the pristine α-Fe2O3 NPs contained contact system proteins and they induced massive activation of the contact (kinin/kallikrein) system, as well as thrombin generation, platelet activation, and release of two pro-angiogeneic growth factors: platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, whereas complement activation was unaffected. The α-Fe2O3 NPs exhibited a noticeable toxicity, with kinin/kallikrein activation, which may be associated with hypotension and long-term angiogenesis in vivo, with implications for cancer, arteriosclerosis and pulmonary disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
α-Fe2O3 NPs, Contact/kallikrein system, Innate immunity
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147323 (URN)10.1016/j.nano.2017.12.008 (DOI)000429528900010 ()29277639 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Thors, L., Koch, M., Wigenstam, E., Koch, B., Hagglund, L. & Bucht, A. (2017). Comparison of skin decontamination efficacy of commercial decontamination products following exposure to VX on human skin. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 273, 82-89
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of skin decontamination efficacy of commercial decontamination products following exposure to VX on human skin
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2017 (English)In: Chemico-Biological Interactions, ISSN 0009-2797, E-ISSN 1872-7786, Vol. 273, p. 82-89Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The decontamination efficacy of four commercially available skin decontamination products following exposure to the nerve agent VX was evaluated in vitro utilizing a diffusion cell and dermatomed human skin. The products included were Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), the Swedish decontamination powder 104 (PS104), the absorbent Fuller's Earth and the aqueous solution alldecontMED. In addition, various decontamination procedures were assessed to further investigate important mechanisms involved in the specific products, e.g. decontamination removal from skin, physical removal by sponge swabbing and activation of degradation mechanisms. The efficacy of each decontamination product was evaluated 5 or 30 min after dermal application of VX (neat or diluted to 20% in water).

The RSDL-lotion was superior in reducing the penetration of VX through human skin, both when exposed as neat agent and when diluted to 20% in water. Swabbing with the RSDL-sponge during 2 min revealed decreased efficacy compared to applying the RSDL-lotion directly on the skin for 30 min. Decontamination with Fuller's Earth and alldecontMED significantly reduced the penetration of neat concentration of VX through human skin. PS104-powder was insufficient for decontamination of VX at both time-points, independently of the skin contact time of PS104. The PS104-slurry (a mixture of PS104-powder and water), slightly improved the decontamination efficacy. Comparing the time-points for initiated decontamination revealed less penetrated VX for RSDL and Fuller's Earth when decontamination was initiated after 5 min compared to 30 min post-exposure, while alldecontMED displayed similar efficacy at both time-points. Decontamination by washing with water only resulted in a significant reduction of penetrated VX when washing was performed 5 min after exposure, but not when decontamination was delayed to 30 min post-exposure of neat VX.

In conclusion, early initiated decontamination with the RSDL-lotion, containing both absorption and degrading properties, allowed to act on skin for 30 min was superior in preventing VX from penetrating human skin. Adding water during decontamination resulted in increased penetration of neat VX, however, water in the decontaminant removal process did not influence the decontamination efficacy. From our study on commercially available decontaminants, it is recommended that future product developments should include both strong absorbents and efficient nerve agent degrading components.

Keywords
In vitro, Human skin, Decontamination, VX
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138418 (URN)10.1016/j.cbi.2017.06.002 (DOI)000406467500009 ()28601555 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Thors, L., Lindberg, S., Johansson, S., Koch, B., Koch, M., Hagglund, L. & Bucht, A. (2017). RSDL decontamination of human skin contaminated with the nerve agent VX. Toxicology Letters, 269, 47-54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RSDL decontamination of human skin contaminated with the nerve agent VX
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2017 (English)In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 269, p. 47-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dermal exposure to low volatile organophosphorus compounds (OPC) may lead to penetration through the skin and uptake in the blood circulation. Skin decontamination of toxic OPCs, such as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents, might therefore be crucial for mitigating the systemic toxicity following dermal exposure. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) has been shown to reduce toxic effects in animals dermally exposed to the nerve agent VX. In the present study, an in vitro flow-through diffusion cell was utilized to evaluate the efficacy of RSDL for decontamination of VX exposed to human epidermis. In particular, the impact of timing in the initiation of decontamination and agent dilution in water was studied. The impact of the lipophilic properties of VX in the RSDL decontamination was additionally addressed by comparing chemical degradation in RSDL and decontamination efficacy between the VX and the hydrophilic OPC triethyl phosphonoacetate (TEPA). The epidermal membrane was exposed to 20, 75 or 90% OPC diluted in deionized water and the decontamination was initiated 5,10, 30, 60 or 120 min post exposure. Early decontamination of VXwith RSDL, initiated 5-10 min after skin exposure, was very effective. Delayed decontamination initiated 30-60 min post-exposure was less effective but still the amount of penetrated agent was significantly reduced, while further delayed start of decontamination to 120 min resulted in very low efficacy. Comparing.RSDL decontamination of VX with that of TEPA showed that the decontamination efficacy at high agent concentrations was higher for VX. The degradation mechanism of VX and TEPA during decontamination was dissected by P-31 NMR spectroscopy of the OPCs following reactions with RSDL and its three nucleophile components. The degradation rate was clearly associated with the high pH of the specific solution investigated; i.e. increased pH resulted in a more rapid degradation. In addition, the solubility of the OPC in RSDL also influenced the degradation rate since the degradation of VX was significantly faster when the NMR analysis was performed in the organic solvent acetonitrile compared to water. In conclusion, we have applied the in vitro flow-through diffusion cell for evaluation of skin decontamination procedures of human epidermis exposed to OPCs. It was demonstrated that early decontamination is crucial for efficient mitigation of epidermal penetration of VX and that almost complete removal of the nerve agent from the skin surface is possible. Our data also indicate that the pH of RSDL together with the solubility of OPC in RSDL are of primary importance for the decontamination efficacy.

Keywords
Human skin, Decontamination, RSDL, Organophosphorus compounds, Agent degradation
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133771 (URN)10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.02.001 (DOI)000397369700006 ()28179194 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-05-03 Created: 2017-05-03 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Sonnek, K. M., Martensson, T., Veiback, E., Tunved, P., Grahn, H., von Schoenberg, P., . . . Bucht, A. (2017). The impacts of a Laki-like eruption on the present Swedish society. Natural Hazards, 88(3), 1565-1590
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impacts of a Laki-like eruption on the present Swedish society
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2017 (English)In: Natural Hazards, ISSN 0921-030X, E-ISSN 1573-0840, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 1565-1590Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we analyse and discuss the possible impacts on the Swedish society of a volcanic eruption on Iceland, emitting ash particles and large quantities of sulphur dioxide. A scenario was developed, based on the historical Laki eruption of 1783-1784, to describe the content of a potential sulphur fog over time in Sweden. Due to its high complexity and the many uncertainties in the underpinning scientific data, the scenario was developed using a cross-disciplinary approach incorporating experts from different scientific fields. An analysis of the impacts of the hazard on human health, environment and technical equipment was then performed and, finally, representatives from national authorities assessed the overall societal challenges in responding to the consequences of a massive volcanic eruption. The analysis shows that it is the peak concentrations of sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid rather than the longer periods of moderate concentrations that contribute most to the negative consequences for human health and environment. Altogether, three societal challenges were identified: the ability to compile and disseminate relevant information fast enough, to perform continuous measurements of concentrations of different substances in affected areas and to meet the large demand for medical care.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2017
Keywords
Laki-like eruption, National risk assessment, Sulphur fog, Scenario development, Dispersion modelling, Health impacts
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142876 (URN)10.1007/s11069-017-2933-0 (DOI)000406767000013 ()
Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Wigenstam, E., Elfsmark, L., Koch, B., Bucht, A. & Jonasson, S. (2016). Acute respiratory changes and pulmonary inflammation involving a pathway of TGF-beta 1 induction in a rat model of chlorine-induced lung injury. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 309, 44-54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute respiratory changes and pulmonary inflammation involving a pathway of TGF-beta 1 induction in a rat model of chlorine-induced lung injury
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2016 (English)In: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, ISSN 0041-008X, E-ISSN 1096-0333, Vol. 309, p. 44-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigated acute and delayed respiratory changes after inhalation exposure to chlorine (Cl-2) with the aim to understand the pathogenesis of the long-term sequelae of Cl-2-induced lung-injury. In a rat model of nose-only exposure we analyzed changes in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammatory responses in airways, expression of pro-inflammatory markers and development of lung fibrosis during a time course from 5 h up to 90 days after a single inhalation of Cl-2. A single dose of dexamethasone (10 mg/Kg) was administered 1 h following Cl-2-exposure. A 15-min inhalation of 200 ppm Cl-2 was non-lethal in Sprague-Dawley rats. At 24 h post exposure, Cl-2-exposed rats displayed elevated numbers of leukocytes with an increase of neutrophils and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and edema was shown both in lung tissue and the heart At 24 h, the inflammasome-associated cytokines IL-1 beta and IL-18 were detected in BAL Concomitant with the acute inflammation a significant AHR was detected. At the later time-points, a delayed inflammatory response was observed together with signs of lung fibrosis as indicated by increased pulmonary macrophages, elevated TGF-beta expression in BAL and collagen deposition around airways. Dexamethasone reduced the numbers of neutrophils in BAL at 24 h but did not influence the AHR. Inhalation of Cl-2 in rats leads to acute respiratory and cardiac changes as well as pulmonary inflammation involving induction of TGF-beta 1. The acute inflammatory response was followed by sustained macrophage response and lack of tissue repair. It was also found that pathways apart from the acute inflammatory response contribute to the Cl(2-)induced respiratory dysfunction. 

Keywords
Chlorine, Chemical-induced lung injury, Airway hyperresponsiveness, Respiratory mechanics, flammation
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127946 (URN)10.1016/j.taap.2016.08.027 (DOI)000384510800006 ()27586366 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Thors, L., Koch, B., Koch, M., Hägglund, L. & Bucht, A. (2016). In vitro human skin penetration model for organophosphorus compounds with different physicochemical properties. Toxicology in Vitro, 32, 198-204
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In vitro human skin penetration model for organophosphorus compounds with different physicochemical properties
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2016 (English)In: Toxicology in Vitro, ISSN 0887-2333, E-ISSN 1879-3177, Vol. 32, p. 198-204Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A flow-through diffusion cell was validated for in vitro human epidermal penetration studies of organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) applied by infinite dosing. By testing OPCs with similar molecular weight but different physicochemical properties, it was shown that hydrophilic and lipophilic properties are major determinants for the penetration rate. Lipophilic OPCs displayed maximum cumulative penetration in the 20-75% agent concentration range whereas the hydrophilic OPCs displayed maximum cumulative penetration at 10 or 20% agent concentration. Low penetration was observed for all agents at 1% agent concentration or when applied as neat agents. The impact of the receptor solution composition was evaluated by comparing the penetration using receptor solutions of different ratios of ethanol and water. For diluted OPCs, a high concentration of ethanol in the receptor solution significantly increased the penetration compared to lower concentrations. When OPCs were applied as neat agents, the composition of the receptor solution only affected the penetration for one of four tested compounds. In conclusion, the flow-through diffusion cell was useful for examining the penetration of OPCs through the epidermal membrane. It was also demonstrated that the penetration rates of OPCs are strongly influenced by dilution in water and the receptor fluid composition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
In vitro skin penetration, Human skin, Epidermal membrane, Organophosphorus compounds
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119654 (URN)10.1016/j.tiv.2016.01.003 (DOI)000372760900022 ()26778740 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-29 Created: 2016-04-25 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Wigenstam, E., Elfsmark, L., Bucht, A. & Jonasson, S. (2016). Inhaled sulfur dioxide causes pulmonary and systemic inflammation leading to fibrotic respiratory disease in a rat model of chemical-induced lung injury. Toxicology, 368, 28-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inhaled sulfur dioxide causes pulmonary and systemic inflammation leading to fibrotic respiratory disease in a rat model of chemical-induced lung injury
2016 (English)In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 368, p. 28-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inhalation of high concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) affects the lungs and can be immediately dangerous to life. We examined the development of acute and long-term effects after exposure of SO2 in Sprague-Dawley rats, in particular inflammatory responses, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and lung fibrosis. Animals were subjected to a single exposure of 2200 ppm SO2 during 10 min and treated with a single dose of the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid dexamethasone 1 h following exposure. Exposed rats showed labored breathing, decreased body-weight and an acute inflammation with neutrophil and macrophage airway infiltrates 5 h post exposure. The acute effects were characterized by bronchial damage restricted to the larger bronchi with widespread injured mucosal epithelial lining. Rats displayed hyperreactive airways 24 h after exposure as indicated by increased methacholine-induced respiratory resistance. The inflammatory infiltrates remained in lung tissue for at least 14 days but at the late time-point the dominating granulocyte types had changed from neutrophils to eosinophils. Analysis of immunoregulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and airways implicated mixed macrophage phenotypes (M-1/M-2) and T helper cell activation of both T(H)1 and T(H)2 subtypes. Increased expression of the pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF beta 1 was detected in airways 24 h post exposure and remained increased at the late time-points (14 and 28 days). The histopathology analysis confirmed a significant collagen deposition 14 days post exposure. Treatment with dexamethasone significantly counteracted the acute inflammatory response but was insufficient for complete protection against SO2-induced adverse effects, i.e. treatment only provided partial protection against AHR and the long-term fibrosis.

National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-128481 (URN)10.1016/j.tox.2016.08.018 (DOI)000387199300004 ()27565714 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-05 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, Å., Bergström, U., Ågren, L., Österlund, L., Sandström, T. & Bucht, A. (2015). Differential cellular responses in healthy mice and in mice with established airway inflammation when exposed to hematite nanoparticles. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 288(1), 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differential cellular responses in healthy mice and in mice with established airway inflammation when exposed to hematite nanoparticles
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2015 (English)In: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, ISSN 0041-008X, E-ISSN 1096-0333, Vol. 288, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory and immunological responses in airways and lung-draining lymph nodes (LDLNs), following lung exposure to iron oxide (hematite) nanoparticles (NPs). The responses to the hematite NPs were evaluated in both healthy non-sensitized mice, and in sensitized mice with an established allergic airway disease. The mice were exposed intratracheally to either hematite NPs or to vehicle (PBS) and the cellular responses were evaluated on days 1, 2, and 7, post-exposure. Exposure to hematite NPs increased the numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes in the airways of non-sensitized mice on days 1 and 2 post-exposure; at these time points the number of lymphocytes was also elevated in the LDLNs. In contrast, exposing sensitized mice to hematite NPs induced a rapid and unspecific cellular reduction in the alveolar space on day 1 post-exposure; a similar decrease of lymphocytes was also observed in the LDLN. The results indicate that cells in the airways and in the LDLN of individuals with established airway inflammation undergo cell death when exposed to hematite NPs. A possible explanation for this toxic response is the extensive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pro-oxidative environment of inflamed airways. This study demonstrates how sensitized and non-sensitized mice respond differently to hematite NP exposure, and it highlights the importance of including individuals with respiratory disorders when evaluating health effects of inhaled nanomaterials.

Keywords
Iron oxide, alpha-Fe2O3, Hematite, Inflammation, Reactive oxygen species, Nanoparticles
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-110557 (URN)10.1016/j.taap.2015.07.001 (DOI)000362145600001 ()26163175 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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