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Forsgren, Sture
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Shah, F., Franklin, K. A., Holmlund, T., Levring Jäghagen, E., Berggren, D., Forsgren, S. & Stål, P. (2019). Desmin and dystrophin abnormalities in upper airway muscles of snorers and patients with sleep apnea. Respiratory Research, 20, Article ID 31.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Desmin and dystrophin abnormalities in upper airway muscles of snorers and patients with sleep apnea
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2019 (English)In: Respiratory Research, ISSN 1465-993X, Vol. 20, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The pathophysiology of obstruction and swallowing dysfunction in snores and sleep apnea patients remains unclear. Neuropathy and to some extent myopathy have been suggested as contributing causes. Recently we reported an absence and an abnormal isoform of two cytoskeletal proteins, desmin, and dystrophin, in upper airway muscles of healthy humans. These cytoskeletal proteins are considered vital for muscle function. We aimed to investigate for muscle cytoskeletal abnormalities in upper airways and its association with swallowing dysfunction and severity of sleep apnea. Cytoskeletal proteins desmin and dystrophin were morphologically evaluated in the uvula muscle of 22 patients undergoing soft palate surgery due to snoring and sleep apnea and in 10 healthy controls. The muscles were analysed with immunohistochemical methods, and swallowing function was assessed using videoradiography. Desmin displayed a disorganized pattern in 21 +/- 13% of the muscle fibres in patients, while these fibers were not present in controls. Muscle fibres lacking desmin were present in both patients and controls, but the proportion was higher in patients (25 +/- 12% vs. 14 +/- 7%, p = 0.009). The overall desmin abnormalities were significantly more frequent in patients than in controls (46 +/- 18% vs. 14 +/- 7%, p < 0.001). In patients, the C-terminus of the dystrophin molecule was absent in 19 +/- 18% of the desmin-abnormal muscle fibres. Patients with swallowing dysfunction had 55 +/- 10% desmin-abnormal muscle fibres vs. 22 +/- 6% in patients without swallowing dysfunction, p = 0.002. Cytoskeletal abnormalities in soft palate muscles most likely contribute to pharyngeal dysfunction in snorers and sleep apnea patients. Plausible causes for the presence of these abnormalities is traumatic snoring vibrations, tissue stretch or muscle overload.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
Muscle, Upper airway dysfunction, Dysphagia, Pathophysiology, Cytoskeletal abnormalities, desmin, dystrophin
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157211 (URN)10.1186/s12931-019-0999-9 (DOI)000459188400003 ()30764835 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-04-08 Created: 2019-04-08 Last updated: 2019-04-08Bibliographically approved
Shah, F., Forsgren, S., Holmlund, T., Jaghagen, E. L., Berggren, D., Franklin, K. A. & Stål, P. (2019). Neurotrophic factor BDNF is upregulated in soft palate muscles of snorers and sleep apnea patients. Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology, 4(1), 174-180
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neurotrophic factor BDNF is upregulated in soft palate muscles of snorers and sleep apnea patients
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2019 (English)In: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology, ISSN 2378-8038, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 174-180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Neuromuscular injuries are suggested to contribute to upper airway collapse and swallowing dysfunction in patients with sleep apnea. Neurotrophins, a family of proteins involved in survival, development, and function of neurons, are reported to be upregulated in limb muscle fibers in response to overload and nerve damage. We aimed to investigate the expression of two important neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), in muscle fibers of uvula from snorers and sleep apnea patients and to compare these findings with pharyngeal function.

Methods: Uvula muscle biopsies from 22 patients and 10 controls were analyzed for BDNF, NGF, and cytoskeletal protein desmin using immunohistochemistry. Pharyngeal swallowing function was assessed using videoradiography.

Results: BDNF, but not NGF, was significantly upregulated in a subpopulation of muscle fibers in snoring and sleep apnea patients. Two major immunoreaction patterns for BDNF were observed; a fine grainy point like BDNF staining was displayed in muscle fibers of both patients and controls (41 +/- 23 vs. 25 +/- 17%, respectively, P = .06), while an abnormal upregulated intense-dotted or disorganized reaction was mainly observed in patients (8 +/- 8 vs. 2 +/- 2%, P = .02). The latter fibers, which often displayed an abnormal immunoreaction for desmin, were more frequent in patients with than without swallowing dysfunction (10 +/- 8 vs. 3 +/- 3%, P = .05).

Conclusion: BDNF is upregulated in the upper airway muscles of snorers and sleep apnea patients, and especially in patients with swallowing dysfunction. Upregulation of BDNF is suggested to be a response to denervation, reinnervation, and repair of injured muscle fibers. Our findings propose that damaged upper airway muscles might heal following treatment for snoring and sleep apnea.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley Periodicals, Inc., 2019
Keywords
Neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve-derived neurotrophic factor GF), snorers, obstructive sleep apnea, OSA, swallowing dysfunction, desmin, neuromuscular injury, nerve, muscle fiber
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157217 (URN)10.1002/lio2.225 (DOI)000459339700027 ()30828636 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-03-25Bibliographically approved
Gaida, J. E., Alfredson, H., Scott, A., Mousavizadeh, R. & Forsgren, S. (2018). Apolipoprotein A1 distribution pattern in the human Achilles tendon. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 28(5), 1506-1513
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Apolipoprotein A1 distribution pattern in the human Achilles tendon
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2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1506-1513Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Metabolic factors such as cholesterol appear to play an important role in the development of Achilles tendinopathy. There is, however, no morphologic proof explaining the link between high cholesterol and tendinopathy. As apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1) is essential for reverse cholesterol transport, it may be related to cholesterol overload in tendon. Nothing is known about Apo-A1 expression in tendon tissue. We examined the distribution of Apo-A1 protein in biopsies from normal and tendinopathy-affected human Achilles tendons, and APOA1 mRNA production from cultured human hamstring tenocytes. Specific immunoreactions for Apo-A1 were detected. The tenocytes showed specific Apo-A1 immunoreactions. These reactions were usually distinct in the tendinopathy specimens. While the tendinopathy specimens often showed granular/small deposit reactions, the slender tenocytes of control specimens did not show this pattern. The magnitude of Apo-A1 immunoreactivity was especially marked in the tendinopathy specimens, as there is a high number of tenocytes. Reactions were also seen in the walls of blood vessels located within the tendon tissue proper of both the normal and tendinopathy tendons and within the peritendinous/fatty tissue of the tendinopathy tendons. The reactions were predominantly in the form of deposit reactions within the smooth muscle layer of the vessel walls. Cultured hamstring tenocytes produced APOA1 mRNA. We demonstrated the presence of Apo-A1 in human tendon tissue. This suggests there may be a link between Achilles tendinopathy and cholesterol metabolism. We hypothesize that Apo-A1 may be important for tenocyte and blood vessel function within tendons.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
Keywords
Apo-A1, HDL-C, immunohistochemistry, reverse cholesterol transport, tendinopathy, tendon
National Category
Medical Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150705 (URN)10.1111/sms.13051 (DOI)000430471900003 ()29315811 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041679099 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2018-12-21Bibliographically approved
Shah, F., Holmlund, T., Levring Jäghagen, E., Berggren, D., Franklin, K. A., Forsgren, S. & Stål, P. (2018). Axon and Schwann Cell Degeneration in Nerves of Upper Airway Relates to Pharyngeal Dysfunction in Snorers and Patients With Sleep Apnea. Chest, 154(5), 1091-1098
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Axon and Schwann Cell Degeneration in Nerves of Upper Airway Relates to Pharyngeal Dysfunction in Snorers and Patients With Sleep Apnea
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2018 (English)In: Chest, ISSN 0012-3692, E-ISSN 1931-3543, Vol. 154, no 5, p. 1091-1098Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiologic mechanism of nocturnal obstruction and swallowing dysfunction commonly occurring in patients with sleep apnea is unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate whether nerve injuries in the upper airways of snorers and patients with sleep apnea are associated with pharyngeal dysfunction and severity of sleep apnea.

METHODS: Twenty-two patients undergoing palatal surgery due to snoring and sleep apnea were investigated for a swallowing dysfunction by using videoradiography. Twelve healthy nonsnoring subjects were included as control subjects. Tissue samples from the soft palate at the base of the uvula were obtained in all patients and control subjects. Nerves and muscle were analyzed with immunohistochemical and morphologic methods, and the findings were correlated with swallowing function and degree of sleep apnea.

RESULTS: In the soft palate of patients, nerve fascicles exhibited a significantly lower density of axons (5.4 vs 17.9 x 10(-3) axons/mu m(2); P = .02), a smaller percentage area occupied by Schwann cells (17.5% vs 45.2%; P = .001) and a larger number of circular shaped Schwann cells lacking central axons (43.0% vs 12.7%; P < 0.001) compared with control subjects. The low density of axons was significantly related to degree of swallowing dysfunction (r = 0.5; P = .03) and apnea-hypopnea index > 5 (P = .03). Regenerating axons were frequently observed in patients compared with control subjects (11.3 +/- 4.2% vs 4.8 +/- 2.4%; P = .02).

CONCLUSIONS: Axon degeneration in preterminal nerves of the soft palate is associated with pharyngeal dysfunction in snorers and patients with sleep apnea. The most likely cause for the nerve injuries is traumatic snoring vibrations and tissue stretch, leading to swallowing dysfunction and increased risk for upper airway obstruction during sleep.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
muscle degeneration, nerve injury, OSA, swallowing dysfunction, upper airways
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153546 (URN)10.1016/j.chest.2018.06.017 (DOI)000449273000023 ()29966666 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20110210Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20140339
Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
Renström, L., Stål, P., Song, Y. & Forsgren, S. (2017). Bilateral muscle fiber and nerve influences by TNF-alpha in response to unilateral muscle overuse: studies on TNF receptor expressions. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 18(1), Article ID 498.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bilateral muscle fiber and nerve influences by TNF-alpha in response to unilateral muscle overuse: studies on TNF receptor expressions
2017 (English)In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 498Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background:

TNF-alpha is suggested to be involved in muscle damage and muscle inflammation (myositis). In order to evaluate whether TNF-alpha is involved in the myositis that occurs in response to muscle overuse, the aim was to examine the expression patterns of TNF receptors in this condition.

Methods:

A rabbit muscle overuse model leading to myositis in the soleus muscle was used. The expression patterns of the two TNF receptors Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor type 1 (TNFR1) and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor type 2 (TNFR2) were investigated. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence were utilized. Immunostainings for desmin, NK-1R and CD31 were made in parallel.

Results:

Immunoreactions (IR) for TNF receptors were clearly observed in white blood cells, fibroblasts and vessel walls, and most interestingly also in muscle fibers and nerve fascicles in the myositis muscles. There were very restricted reactions for these in the muscles of controls. The upregulation of TNF receptors was for all types of structures seen for both the experimental side and the contralateral nonexperimental side. TNF receptor expressing muscle fibers were present in myositis muscles. They can be related to attempts for reparation/regeneration, as evidenced from results of parallel stainings. Necrotic muscle fibers displayed TNFR1 mRNA and TNFR2 immunoreaction (IR) in the invading white blood cells. In myositis muscles, TNFR1 IR was observed in both axons and Schwann cells while TNFR2 IR was observed in Schwann cells. Such observations were very rarely made for control animals.

Conclusions:

The findings suggest that there is a pronounced involvement of TNF-alpha in the developing myositis process. Attempts for reparation of the muscle tissue seem to occur via both TNFR1 and TNFR2. As the myositis process also occurs in the nonexperimental side and as TNF receptors are confined to nerve fascicles bilaterally it can be asked whether TNF-alpha is involved in the spreading of the myositis process to the contralateral side via the nervous system. Taken together, the study shows that TNF-alpha is not only associated with the inflammation process but that both the muscular and nervous systems are affected and that this occurs both on experimental and nonexperimental sides.

Keywords
TNF-alpha, Myositis, Muscle, TNFR1, TNFR2, nerve structures
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141941 (URN)10.1186/s12891-017-1796-6 (DOI)000416424300005 ()29183282 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Spang, C., Renström, L., Alfredson, H. & Forsgren, S. (2017). Marked expression of TNF receptors in human peritendinous tissues including in nerve fascicles with axonal damage: Studies on tendinopathy and tennis elbow. Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions - JMNI, 17(3), 226-236
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marked expression of TNF receptors in human peritendinous tissues including in nerve fascicles with axonal damage: Studies on tendinopathy and tennis elbow
2017 (English)In: Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions - JMNI, ISSN 1108-7161, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 226-236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The peritendinous connective tissues can have importance in chronic tendon pain. Recently cytokine TNF-alpha has been suggested to be involved in tendinopathic processes. It is not known how TNF-alpha and its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 are expressed in peritendinous tissues.

Methods: The objective for this study was to immunohistochemically evaluate the expression patterns of these in the peritendinous tissue located between the plantaris and Achilles tendons and the one located superficially to the extensor origin at the elbow region for patients with tendinopathy/tennis elbow.

Results: The nerve fascicles were of two types, one type being homogenously stained for the nerve markers beta III-tubulin and neurofilament and the other showing deficits for these suggesting features of axonal damage. Much more distinct TNFR1/TNFR2 immunoreactions were seen for the latter nerve fascicles. TNFR1 was seen in axons, TNFR2 mainly in Schwann cells. TNFR1 and particularly TNFR2 were seen in walls of parts of blood vessels. The dispersed cells showed frequently TNFR1 and TNFR2 immunoreactivity.

Discussion: These findings suggest that TNF-alpha can be related to degenerative events but also attempts for healing concerning the nerve structures. The marked expression of the TNF-alpha system in the peritendinous tissue suggests an impact of TNF-alpha in tendinopathy/tennis elbow.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
JMNI, 2017
Keywords
TNF, Peritendinous, Tendinopathy, Tennis Elbow, Nerve Degeneration
National Category
Neurosciences Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-140056 (URN)000410545600012 ()28860425 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-10-04 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Gaida, J. E., Alfredson, H., Forsgren, S. & Cook, J. L. (2016). A pilot study on biomarkers for tendinopathy: lower levels of serum TNF-alpha and other cytokines in females but not males with Achilles tendinopathy. BMC Sports Science Medicine and Rehabilitation, 8, Article ID 5.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A pilot study on biomarkers for tendinopathy: lower levels of serum TNF-alpha and other cytokines in females but not males with Achilles tendinopathy
2016 (English)In: BMC Sports Science Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 2052-1847, Vol. 8, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Achilles tendinopathy is a painful musculoskeletal condition that is common among athletes, and which limits training capacity and competitive performance. The lack of biomarkers for tendinopathy limits research into risk factors and also the evaluation of new treatments. Cytokines and growth factors involved in regulating the response of tendon cells to mechanical load have potential as biomarkers for tendinopathy. Methods: This case-control study compared serum concentration of cytokines and growth factors (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, bFGF, PDFG-BB, IFN-gamma, VEGF) between individuals with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and controls. These were measured in fasting serum from 22 individuals with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and 10 healthy controls. Results were analysed in relation to gender and physical activity pattern. Results: TNF-alpha concentration was lower in the entire tendinopathy group compared with the entire control group; none of the other cytokines were significantly different. TNF-alpha levels were nevertheless highly correlated with the other cytokines measured, in most of the subgroups. Analysed by gender, TNF-alpha and PDGF-BB concentrations were lower in the female tendinopathy group but not the male tendinopathy group. A trend was seen for lower IL-1 beta in the female tendinopathy group. Physical activity was correlated with TNF-alpha, PDGF-BB and IL-1 beta to varying extents for control subgroups, but not for the female tendinopathy group. No correlations were seen with BMI or duration of symptoms. Conclusions: This pilot study indicates a lower level of TNF-alpha and PDGF-BB, and to some extent IL-1 beta among females, but not males, in the chronic phase of Achilles tendinopathy. It is suggested that future studies on tendinopathy biomarkers analyse male and female data separately. The lack of correlation between cytokine level and physical activity in the female tendinopathy group warrants further study.

Keywords
Cytokines, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Biomarkers, Musculoskeletal pain
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-129997 (URN)10.1186/s13102-016-0026-0 (DOI)000386701500001 ()26925234 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-01-12 Created: 2017-01-11 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Spang, C. & Forsgren, S. (2015). Choline acetyltransferase and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor AChR alpha 7 in experimental myositis. Paper presented at 4th International Symposium on Non-neuronal Acetylcholine. International Immunopharmacology, 29(1), 189-194
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Choline acetyltransferase and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor AChR alpha 7 in experimental myositis
2015 (English)In: International Immunopharmacology, ISSN 1567-5769, E-ISSN 1878-1705, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 189-194Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is not known to what extent a non-neuronal cholinergic system is involved in myositis (muscle inflammation) evoked by marked muscle overuse. Therefore, in the present study, a recently established rabbit myositis model was used and the expression patterns of ChAT and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor AChR alpha 7 (alpha 7nAChR) were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were used. The model leads to myositis including occurrence of muscle fiber necrosis. It was found that the infiltrating white blood cells as well the walls of small blood vessels exhibited immunoreactivity for both ChAT and alpha 7nAChR There was also pronounced immunoreactivity for these in the white blood cells that had coalesced within the necrotic muscle fibers. The findings show that there is a presence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in the situation of muscle inflammation. Cholinergic effects may be highly involved in the inflammation-modifying events that occur in muscle overuse.

Keywords
Myositis, Muscle overuse, Cholinergic system, Necrosis, White blood cells
National Category
Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-113440 (URN)10.1016/j.intimp.2015.05.053 (DOI)000365365500032 ()26086364 (PubMedID)
Conference
4th International Symposium on Non-neuronal Acetylcholine
Available from: 2015-12-18 Created: 2015-12-18 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Forsgren, S., Alfredson, H. & Andersson, G. (2015). Further proof of the existence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in the human Achilles tendon: Presence of the AChR alpha 7 receptor in tendon cells and cells in the peritendinous tissue. International Immunopharmacology, 29(1), 195-200
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Further proof of the existence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in the human Achilles tendon: Presence of the AChR alpha 7 receptor in tendon cells and cells in the peritendinous tissue
2015 (English)In: International Immunopharmacology, ISSN 1567-5769, E-ISSN 1878-1705, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 195-200Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Human tendon cells have the capacity for acetylcholine (ACh) production. It is not known if the tendon cells also have the potential for ACh breakdown, nor if they show expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor AChR alpha 7 (alpha 7nAChR). Therefore, tendon tissue specimens from patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy/tendinosis and from normal midportion Achilles tendons were examined. Reaction for the degradative enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was found in some tenocytes in only a few tendinopathy tendons, and was never found in those of control tendons. Tenocytes displayed more regularly alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity. However, there was a marked heterogeneity in the degree of this reaction within and between the specimens. alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity was especially pronounced for tenocytes showing an oval/widened appearance. There was a tendency that the magnitude of alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity was higher in tendinopathy tendons as compared to control tendons. A stronger alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity than seen for tenocytes was observed for the cells in the peritendinous tissue. It is likely that the alpha 7nAChR may be an important part of an auto-and paracrine loop of non-neuronal ACh that is released from the tendon cells. The effects may be related to proliferative and blood vessel regulatory functions as well as features related to collagen deposition. ACh can furthermore be of importance in leading to anti-inflammatory effects in the peritendinous tissue, a tissue nowadays considered to be of great relevance for the tendinopathy process. Overall, the findings show that tendon tissue, a tissue known to be devoid of cholinergic innervation, is a tissue in which there is a marked non-neuronal cholinergic system.

Keywords
Cholinergic, Nicotinic, Achilles, Tendons, Tenocytes
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-113448 (URN)10.1016/j.intimp.2015.04.055 (DOI)000365365500033 ()25981114 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-12-18 Created: 2015-12-18 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Spang, C., Harandi, V. M., Alfredsson, H. & Forsgren, S. (2015). Marked innervation but also signs of nerve degeneration in between the Achilles and plantaris tendons and presence of innervation within the plantaris tendon in midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions - JMNI, 15(2), 197-206
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marked innervation but also signs of nerve degeneration in between the Achilles and plantaris tendons and presence of innervation within the plantaris tendon in midportion Achilles tendinopathy
2015 (English)In: Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions - JMNI, ISSN 1108-7161, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 197-206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The plantaris tendon is increasingly recognised as an important factor in midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Its innervation pattern is completely unknown. Methods: Plantaris tendons (n=56) and associated peritendinous tissue from 46 patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy and where the plantaris tendon was closely related to the Achilles tendon were evaluated. Morphological evaluations and stainings for nerve markers [general (PGP9.5), sensory (CGRP), sympathetic (TH)], glutamate NMDA receptor and Schwann cells (S-100β) were made. Results: A marked innervation, as evidenced by evaluation for PGP9.5 reactions, occurred in the peritendinous tissue located between the plantaris and Achilles tendons. It contained sensory and to some extent sympathetic and NMDAR1-positive axons. There was also an innervation in the zones of connective tissue within the plantaris tendons. Interestingly, some of the nerve fascicles showed a partial lack of axonal reactions. Conclusion: New information on the innervation patterns for the plantaris tendon in situations with midportion Achilles tendinopathy has here been obtained. The peritendinous tissue was found to be markedly innervated and there was also innervation within the plantaris tendon. Furthermore, axonal degeneration is likely to occur. Both features should be further taken into account when considering the relationship between the nervous system and tendinopathy

Keywords
Plantaris Tendon, Achilles Tendinopathy, Pain, Innervation, Peritendinous Connective Tissue
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103312 (URN)000356001800011 ()
Available from: 2015-05-20 Created: 2015-05-20 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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