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Eckerberg, K., Bonde, I., Kuylenstierna, J., Bäckstrand, K., Kåberger, T., Löfgren, Å., . . . Sörlin, S. (2018). Det klimatpolitiska ramverket: Rapport 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Det klimatpolitiska ramverket: Rapport 2018
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Klimatpolitiska rådet bildades den 1 januari 2018 med uppgift att utvärdera hur regeringens samlade politik är förenlig med de klimatmål som riksdagen och regeringen har beslutat. Detta är rådets första rapport. Här presenteras rådets ledamöter och vårt uppdrag, som en del av Sveriges klimatpolitiska ramverk och dess internationella sammanhang i EU och FN.

I Paris i december 2015 enades världens länder om ett nytt globalt klimatavtal under klimatkonventionen. Parisavtalet är historiskt då det är det första klimatavtalet som nästan alla världens länder står bakom. Processen bakom avtalet involverade också en lång rad andra viktiga aktörer inom näringsliv, forskning, civilsamhälle, städer och regioner.

Efter Parisavtalet har ramverken för att hantera klimatproblemet förstärkts även på europeisk och nationell nivå. I juni 2017 beslutade riksdagen om ett klimatpolitiskt ramverk för Sverige med stöd av en mycket bred majoritet av riksdagens partier. Ramverket innehåller tre delar: långsiktiga mål, ett planerings- och uppföljningssystem samt ett klimatpolitiskt råd. Delar av ramverket är reglerat i en klimatlag.

Det övergripande målet i det klimatpolitiska ramverket är att Sverige senast år 2045 inte har några nettoutsläpp av växthusgaser till atmosfären, för att därefter uppnå negativa utsläpp. Ramverket innehåller även etappmål på vägen mot det långsiktiga målet.

Som en del av den parlamentariska överenskommelsen och det klimatpolitiska ramverket har regeringen inrättat det Klimatpolitiska rådet. Rådets huvuduppdrag är att ”utvärdera hur regeringens samlade politik är förenlig med de klimatmål som riksdag och regering har beslutat”.

Uppdraget att granska regeringens samlade politik understryker klimatfrågans breda och tvärsektoriella karaktär. Att nå målen om ett fossilfritt samhälle utan några nettoutsläpp av växthusgaser inom 25 år innebär en omfattande samhällsförändring i ett komplext samspel mellan mängder av olika faktorer, aktörer och drivkrafter. Klimatfrågan spänner därmed också över i princip samtliga vetenskapliga fält. Det klimatpolitiska rådet består av personer med bred tvär- och mångvetenskaplig kompetens inom naturvetenskap, samhällsvetenskap, humaniora och teknikvetenskap. Till sitt förfogande har rådet ett kansli med tre heltidsanställda.

Under första halvan av 2018 kommer rådet att forma inriktning och planer för arbetet. Klimatpolitiska rådet kommer att koncentrera sitt arbete till hur Sverige ska nå klimatmålen genom utsläppsminskningar och kompletterande åtgärder. Klimatanpassningsfrågor ingår inte i rådets arbetsområde.

Sverige är inte det första landet som instiftar ett klimatpolitiskt råd. I bland annat Storbritannien, Danmark och Finland finns sedan flera år tillbaka liknande organ. I Sverige bidrar redan många andra myndigheter och organisationer på olika sätt med analys och kunskapsunderlag kring klimatpolitiken. Klimatpolitiska rådet har en unik roll bland myndigheter genom sitt fokus på den samhälleliga klimatomställningen, sitt oberoende och sitt breda mandat att utvärdera regeringens samlade politik.

Publisher
p. 42
Series
Klimatpolitiska rådets rapportserie ; 1
Keywords
klimatpolitik, utvärdering, granskning
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
statskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145249 (URN)www.formas.se/PageFiles/22123/Klimatpolitiskarr2018.pdf (DOI)978-91-984671-0-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Eckerberg, K., Hosli, M., Aalberts, T., Bartolini, S., Palan, R., Aart Scholte, J., . . . Winter, S. (2018). Evaluation of the Social Sciences in Norway: Report from Panel 3 – Political Science. Lysaker: Research Council of Norway
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the Social Sciences in Norway: Report from Panel 3 – Political Science
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Panel 3 evaluated 53 units in all, 22 institutional units and 31 research groups. The evaluation included university departments of political science, political scientists working in interdisciplinary units at universities and university colleges, and political scientists working at interdisciplinary research institutes.

Broadly speaking, Norwegian Political Science is doing well. Our assessments of the scientific output across institutes and research groups show that the impact varies between fair and excellent, even though we underline the limitations of such an oversimplified classification scheme. The panel observes variation in the scientific quality impact of institutions, especially within the Oslo region compared with most other parts of Norway. The majority of subdisciplines are well covered. A substantial number of studies focus on conflict, peace and policy studies (food, climate, energy etc.). Much of the research focuses on Norway and is directly relevant to Norwegian society. Some of the work makes significant theoretical contributions, but most of it mainly offers a strong empirical dimension.

However, some areas receive relatively little attention, such as classical and modern political theory, political economy and political history. The range of comparative work could also be broader. Given the available human capital, funding and other resources, the panel finds that Political Science in Norway is not realising its full potential. There is a tendency – at both the research institutes and universities – to rely too much on policy-oriented research funding, which might be an obstacle to pursuing more innovative and ground-breaking conceptual work. Likewise, the recruitment of a new generation of political scientists in the form of PhD students and postdocs is largely driven by project funding, thereby limiting their scope to develop their own topics or ideas. A few institutions have accessed international (mainly EU) funding, but the many smaller units lack the scale and resources required to compete for such funds. These researchers would do well to develop (counter-) strategies that enable them to participate in larger projects, including H2020 proposals. Diversification of funding is a general recommendation for the majority of evaluated units.

The panel’s assessment of research groups revealed considerable variation between the institutes with regard to their purpose and ‘social life’. The panel considers a constructive and enabling research environment to be the most valuable function of a research group, while at the same time ensuring that individual researchers have autonomy to develop their own research agendas. The panel notes that many of the high-scoring research groups have a good support structure within their departments or institutions, whereas some of the weaker ones lack such support. Joint activities aimed at raising scientific quality, such as regular work-in-progress seminars, article or book manuscript review sessions, mock research grant interviews, staff retreats, and (international) guest speakers, are ways of going forward. More could also be done to target high-profile international journals and publishers, while maintaining a broader perspective on modes of scientific output beyond peer-reviewed articles.

In light of the considerable organisational fragmentation of Political Science in Norway, and corresponding problems of scale, more collaboration across institutions within the country is generally desirable. Researcher mobility within Norway and internationally could also be expanded. This could to help to bring political science environments closer together, both in their research and in PhD and postdoc training, thereby strengthening Political Science as a discipline.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lysaker: Research Council of Norway, 2018. p. 286
Keywords
evaluation, research, political science, Norwegian political science research
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
statskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-149574 (URN)978-82-12-03695-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-23 Created: 2018-06-23 Last updated: 2018-06-27Bibliographically approved
Eckerberg, K., Mertz, O., Liljeblom, E., Helmersson-Bergmark, K., Mitchell, J. & Vestergaard, N. (2018). Evaluation of the Social Sciences in Norway: Report from the Principal Evaluation Committee. Lysaker: Research Council of Norway
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the Social Sciences in Norway: Report from the Principal Evaluation Committee
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the evaluation of Social Science research in Norway (SAMEVAL) was to review the present state of social science research in Norway as a basis for recommendations on the future development of research. The evaluation covered six research areas: geography, economics, political science, sociology, social anthropology and the economic-administrative research area. It included 3005 social scientists in total and 42 institutions, both 27 faculties/departments at universities and university colleges, and 15 publicly financed social science research institutes. The evaluation further comprised 136 research groups within those institutions.

Based on the six disciplinary evaluation reports, the principal committee finds that a large number of institutions and research groups are performing well across the social sciences, above the Nordic and OECD averages in terms of the bibliometric analysis (Damvad 2017). A high proportion of the research groups evaluated are performing very well. The distribution of scientific grades is rather even among the six evaluated disciplines, and centred around the two grades good and very good, but with Social Anthropology and Economics performing particularly well compared to international standards. Still, there is an opportunity to get much more out of the social science research, to make further international impact, advance theoretical debates and develop critical thinking. The principal committee therefore calls for striking a better balance between basic and applied research. For institutions with high levels of core funding, this might involve directly allocating core funding to basic research. Elsewhere, more funding might be allocated to ‘free research’ in pursuit of more theoretically driven research as formulated by the researchers themselves rather than steered by programmatic topics.

All of the panels were struck by the large number of institutions pursuing social science research, spread extensively over the country, with many research units separated even within a particular region. Creating critical mass of disciplinary research in rather small research groups and/or multidisciplinary environments therefore constitutes a considerable challenge. Various forms of national as well as international networking and collaboration within the disciplines is therefore imperative. The situation also calls for more strategic thought both by the Government and by the respective institutions as to who should do what, and how this might be sufficiently funded. In addition, the principal committee suggests that the PhD education could be strengthened by national coordination given the small numbers of disciplinary PhD students in almost all environments except the Oslo region.

Interdisciplinary research is a strong feature of the Norwegian research landscape as compared with many other countries. Partly, this could be a reaction to the stronger emphasis on strategic and/or thematic research but it is also likely a response to resolving the issue of many small social science environments. While the strong interdisciplinary research is a considerable asset, there are also associated risks in how to assure sufficient disciplinary depth and methodological innovation in such research.

The SAMEVAL evaluation called for assessing societal relevance and impact of social science research. However, a majority of institutions reported largely their dissemination activities, rather than the relevance and impact for different societal actors, suggesting that the methods and application of such assessments need to be further discussed and developed. Overall, however, there is no doubt that Norwegian social science has considerable relevance for a large range of public and private societal actors and activities, and that a large number of ‘good practice’ research impact cases were displayed by the social science institutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lysaker: Research Council of Norway, 2018. p. 51
Keywords
evaluation, research, Norwegian social science
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-149573 (URN)978-82-12-03691-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-23 Created: 2018-06-23 Last updated: 2018-06-27Bibliographically approved
Eckerberg, K. & Bjärstig, T. (2017). Learning through on-going evaluation of EIP-Agri in Sweden. In: Kristina Svels (Ed.), Proceedings of the XXVII Congress. Uneven processes of Rural Change: On Diversity, Knowledge and Justice: . Paper presented at The XXVII European Society for Rural Sociology Congress (pp. 186-188). Krakow
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning through on-going evaluation of EIP-Agri in Sweden
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the XXVII Congress. Uneven processes of Rural Change: On Diversity, Knowledge and Justice / [ed] Kristina Svels, Krakow, 2017, p. 186-188Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Krakow: , 2017
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139697 (URN)978-83-947775-0-0 (ISBN)
Conference
The XXVII European Society for Rural Sociology Congress
Projects
Löpande lärande utvärdering av EIP-Agri
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Eckerberg, K. & Buizer, M. (2017). Promises and dilemmas in forest fire management decision-making: exploring conditions for community engagement in Australia and Sweden. Forest Policy and Economics, 80, 133-140
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Promises and dilemmas in forest fire management decision-making: exploring conditions for community engagement in Australia and Sweden
2017 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 80, p. 133-140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prescribed burning, to prevent larger fires or to encourage ecological restoration, is a highly contested practice, raising both complex practical questions relating to safety and techniques, and deep philosophical questions about the relationship between people and nature. Previous research either analyses conflict in forest fire management, or argues for social learning but does not discuss how this might happen. We explore what community engagement in fire management might contribute, and how policy conditions enable or constrain deliberative practices in fire management in two very different countries, Sweden and Australia. In Sweden, burning is gradually emerging on foresters' and nature conservationists' agendas, whereas in Australia, prescribed burning has been practiced and debated on a relatively broad scale for some time. Both countries rely much on technical expertise, while merging this with local knowledge in transformative processes in which conflicts and difference have a place could enhance the quality of the debates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Forest fire management, prescribed burning, forest fire debates, participation, community engagement, forest governance, ecological restoration, forest conflict
National Category
Forest Science Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
statskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133081 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2017.03.020 (DOI)000403118800014 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2009-450
Available from: 2017-03-31 Created: 2017-03-31 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Eckerberg, K., Bjärstig, T., Miljand, M. & Mancheva, I. (2017). Tio års erfarenheter med LONA – lokala naturvårdssatsningen: Intresse, deltagande och lärande inom naturvård och friluftsliv. Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tio års erfarenheter med LONA – lokala naturvårdssatsningen: Intresse, deltagande och lärande inom naturvård och friluftsliv
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

LONA har nu pågått i över tio år, och den stora majoriteten av kommunerna i Sverige har sökt och även fått bidrag. Därmed utgör LONA den största nationella satsningen hittills för att åstadkomma ett breddat intresse och ökat lokalt initiativtagande i arbetet med lokal naturvård och friluftsliv – helt i linje med regeringens intention och i enlighet med internationella åtaganden. Syftet att involvera fler olika lokala aktörer i naturvårdsarbetet har nåtts genom att mer än hälften av kommunerna gjort detta i stor utsträckning eller helt och hållet i sina beviljade LONA-projekt.

De LONA-åtgärder som beviljats berör de flesta nationella miljömålen, men som förväntat dominerar Ett rikt växt- och djurliv och God bebyggd miljö. De flesta åtgärderna är relativt små, den typiska åtgärden har en total budget, inklusive egenfinansiering, om cirka 56 000 kr. Omkring en tredjedel av projekten inkluderar ideella föreningar, vilka möjliggjorts genom att ideellt arbete får räknas som medfinansiering. Både projektens storlek och andelen projekt med ideella samarbetspartners har varit relativt stabilt över åren.

De flesta LONA-projekten handlar om framtagande av underlag, informationsspridning eller kunskapsuppbyggnad medan en tredjedel rör restaurering, skydd och förvaltning. Under perioden 2010-2016 har en viss minskning av insatser riktade mot människa/friluftsliv skett till förmån för insatser riktade mot naturvärden – trots den ökade politiska prioriteringen av lokalt friluftsliv. Åtgärder riktade mot kulturvärden liksom områdesskydd utgör en marginell andel. Betydligt fler än hälften av LONAprojekten berör tätortsnära områden i linje med regeringens ambitioner, men vi ser också att mindre kommuner i glesbygden lyckats väl att stå sig i konkurrensen om LONA-medel. Av de projekt som beviljats medel drivs majoriteten av en kommun, följt av kommun och förening i samverkan och därefter av en ideell förening.

Inriktningen på LONA-projekten varierar endast marginellt beroende på vem som driver projektet. Även om samtliga län har kommuner som beviljats medel utmärker sig Skåne, Västra Götalands och Stockholms län med både flest LONA-projekt och beviljade medel.

LONA-stödet är mycket uppskattat bland kommunerna, där åtta av tio kommuner anser att LONA i stor utsträckning eller helt och hållet stämmer överens med den egna kommunens behov av stöd vad gäller naturvård. Motsvarande siffra för friluftsliv är sju av tio kommuner. För många större kommuner är LONA visserligen ett välkommet tillskott, men utgör inte en förutsättning för kommunens arbete med naturvård och friluftsliv. I många mindre kommuner är LONA helt avgörande för att de ska kunna satsa på lokalt naturvårds- och friluftsarbete. Fördelningen av medel har skett så att dessa kommuner också beviljats mest bidrag räknat per invånare. Flertalet kommuner uppger att LONA utgör en väsentlig del av kommunens budget för naturvård, medan budgetandelen är något mindre för friluftsliv. Särskilt i kommuner som har förmånen att ha en kommunekolog har LONA starkt bidragit till att fler insatser inom naturvård och friluftsliv blir genomförda. LONA-programmet tillåter att ett och samma projekt finansieras med olika stödformer såsom Landsbygdsprogrammet och LIFE, så länge som enskilda åtgärder som har fått LONA-bidrag inte medfinansieras av dessa anslag. Genom möjligheten att kombinera olika stödformer har LONA fått ytterligare mervärde. Majoriteten av kommunerna framhåller fördelen med LONA är att det är relativt enkelt att söka, särskilt i jämförelse med EU-stöd.

Deltagandet av externa aktörer i lokala naturvårds- och friluftslivsprojekt har ökat genom LONA, men vi ser också att det finns en skillnad mellan större och mindre kommuner i detta avseende. Mindre kommuner har ofta begränsade egna resurser vilket gör att de gärna tar hjälp av ideella föreningar, medan många större kommuner har möjlighet att driva projekten helt själva. Vissa kommuner väljer därför medvetet att inte involvera externa aktörer. Vår undersökning tyder på att när det gäller involvering av ideella organisationer är det kanske snarare skilda arbetssätt än regler som påverkar. Regelverket har dock viss påverkan på involveringen av privata företag, som också mer sällan finns med i projekten, eftersom vissa frågetecken kring hur vinstdrivande företag kan driva respektive medverka i LONA-projekt fortsatt återstår att reda ut.

Kommunekologer, och då särskilt i större kommuner, är starkt drivande inom LONAarbetet, följt av andra kommunala tjänstemän och ideella organisationer inom miljö och naturvård, fiskevård, byalag m.m. I mindre kommuner finns en starkare tendens att ideella föreningar tar initiativ till och engagerar sig både i naturvårds- och friluftslivsprojekten jämfört med stora kommuner. Inom naturvården finns redan etablerade nätverk att vända sig till, medan det inom friluftslivet i högre grad handlar om att skapa nya nätverk för att skapa och genomföra LONA-projekt. Kommunal samordning och samarbete via kommunförbund lyfts fram som värdefullt av flera kommuner, och en generell trend är att samverkan och kunskapsutbyte mellan kommuner har ökat över tid. Även kommunernas kontakter med olika lokala nätverk har ökat.

Det finns ett fortsatt stort upplevt behov av att skydda fler tätortsnära områden, och LONA ses som mycket viktigt för det långsiktiga arbetet både för naturvård och friluftsliv. LONA upplevs särskilt viktigt för det långsiktiga arbetet för friluftsliv, medan det inom naturvården också finns en del andra stödformer att tillgå. Särskilt de mindre kommunerna har fått möjlighet genom LONA att arbeta med tätortsnära natur, och där kan LONA-stödet vara helt avgörande. En stor mängd naturområden har gjorts tillgängliga och blivit populära besöksmål. Uppmärksamhet i lokala media ger mersmak både bland tjänstemän och politiker, vilket gör att frågorna hamnat på kommunens agenda. Lärandet har ökat, och då särskilt i naturvårdsfrågor. Många kommuner har upprättat naturvårdsprogram och friluftsplaner baserade på kunskapsunderlag framtagna inom ramen för olika typer av LONA-projekt, vilket bidrar till långsiktighet. LONA har även bidragit till att en mängd naturskolor och naturpedagogik i förskolor fått resurser, vilket även det har potentialen att långsiktigt påverka barnens förståelse och upplevelser av naturen. Bilden av LONAs effekter på lite längre sikt är dock splittrad, där särskilt intresset för att inrätta fler lokala naturreservat inte verkar ha ökat särskilt mycket generellt sett, och endast en tredjedel av kommunerna uppger att tillgängligheten i skyddade naturområden har ökat. Likaså finns en risk att mer kontinuerlig skötsel och återkommande åtgärder för naturvård och friluftsliv inte blir av, särskilt i mindre kommuner där kommunens budget har svårt att räcka till. Vi bör komma ihåg att LONA-projekten generellt är små och att man inte kan förvänta sig att de löser alla prioriteringsproblem hos kommuner med knapp ekonomi.

Samtidigt pekar allt på att LONA har haft en positiv inverkan på intresset för naturvård och friluftsliv hos kommunala politiker och ännu mer hos allmänheten. Detta har resulterat i ökade resurser för lokalt naturvårdsarbete, medan friluftslivsbudgeten stärkts i mindre grad. Det ökade intresset har också gjort att naturvård respektive friluftsliv nu upplevs integrerats bättre i kommunernas översiktsplanering än tidigare. Dessutom har skolornas och förskolornas nyttjande av tätortsnära naturområden ökat genom att kommunerna satsar mer än tidigare på projekt kopplade till lärande. Slutligen ser vi att LONA har stimulerat till att skapa projekt som riktar sig till nyanlända svenskar, även om det fortfarande bara är vissa kommuner som nyttjat LONA för detta ändamål är det möjligt att vi får se mer av detta framöver.

Det har varit en stark betoning inom LONA på lärande och erfarenhetsutbyte, och Naturvårdsverket och länsstyrelserna har bidragit till informationsspridning och vägledning med flera olika metoder. I vår utvärdering ingick att analysera hur dessa fungerat. En allmän bild är att det funnits ett aktivt stöd under hela programtiden som uppskattats stort, och att kommunerna därmed haft tillgång till information om både tidigare projekt, goda exempel, relevant expertis och arenor för erfarenhetsutbyte. De olika vägledningsmetoderna kompletterar varandra och riktar sig till olika målgrupper.

Sammantaget har både länsstyrelsernas LONA-handläggare och kommunernas kontaktpersoner upplevt Naturvårdsverkets metoder som ändamålsenliga och viktiga för att skapa delaktighet, kunskap och förståelse för vad LONA kan och bör åstadkomma.

Abstract [en]

The Local Nature Conservation Programme (LONA) was initiated by the Swedish government in 2004 and has now been ongoing more than ten years. The great majority of Swedish municipalities have applied for and received funding for LONA projects. A total of 300 MSEK was allocated to 1 530 projects in 260 municipalities plus at least as much in local funding. After a short break, LONA was taken up again in 2010-2016 with 237 MSEK national funding to 1 524 projects (4 505 measures) in 260 municipalities.

LONA is the largest national investment to achieve greater participation and increased local engagement with nature conservation and recreation, and fulfils the intention of international agreements such as the Convention of Biological Diversity and ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability 2010. LONA’s main objective, to involve a greater range of local actors in conservation efforts, is fulfilled since more than half of the municipalities have done so in their LONA projects. The overall aim with this study is to evaluate more specifically in what ways and how LONA has contributed to local responsibility for nature conservation and recreation measures. The study takes departure in previous commissioned studies by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (reports 5923, 6392, 5605, 6397 and 5811, see references). The results below build on a survey sent out in autumn 2016 to all 290 municipalities (191 responded) and 21 county administrations (20 responded), plus in-depth interviews with key informants from three county administrations, six municipalities and two nongovernmental organisations engaged in LONA. Some interviews were also made in mountain municipalities.

The specific measures carried in the LONA projects connect to most of the Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives, dominated by ‘A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life’ and ‘A Good Built Environment’. Most measures are relatively minor, with a typical median budget of about 56.000 SEK including the 50% own contribution. About one third of the projects involve non-governmental organisations, which has been made possible since voluntary work is accounted for in the budget as own contribution. The size of the LONA projects as well as the share of voluntary organizations involved has been rather stable over the years.

The majority of LONA projects concern various types of inventories, information dissemination and knowledge production, while about one third are about ecological restoration, conservation and management. During the 2010-2016 period, which this study focuses on – and despite the growing policy attention to social, cultural and recreational values – the share of measures geared towards nature conservation values has increased. Measures to protect cultural values and set aside nature areas are only a small share. More than half of the LONA projects are located in the urban fringe, which is in line with the government’s ambitions, but even smaller municipalities in rural areas have acquired substantial LONA funding. The majority of LONA projects are led by a municipality, while the remainder are led in cooperation between a municipality and a local organisation and fewer by such an organisation alone. There is very little variation in the nature of LONA projects depending on leadership. Even if all counties have municipalities with LONA projects, three of them are the most active: Skåne in the south, Västra Götaland in the south-west, and Stockholm County.

The funding LONA provides is very much appreciated among the municipalities. Eight out of ten municipalities say that the LONA aims are fully in line with the local needs for nature conservation, and seven out of ten claim that this is the case for recreation needs. Many of the large municipalities think that while LONA is a welcome contribution, it is still not a requirement for the municipality’s work for nature conservation and recreation. However, in many small-size municipalities the LONA funding is essential. The allocation of funding from LONA is also larger per inhabitant in small-size municipalities compared to large-size, which reflects such needs.

In the majority of municipalities, LONA funding makes up an important share of the local budget for nature protection, while it is somewhat lower for recreational purposes. Interestingly, LONA has particularly supported measures for nature protection and recreation in those municipalities with an assigned municipal ecologist, suggesting that when they exist, they have a facilitating role. The LONA funding allows for the same project to benefit from other funding as well, such as EU Life and the Rural Development Programme, as long as specific measures are funded separately. This possibility creates an added value of the LONA programme. The simplicity of the application procedure in LONA compared to EU funding is stressed as an advantage by the majority of municipalities.

The results show that LONA has led to increased and widened participation by local actors in nature protection and recreation. At the same time, the nature of such participation differs depending on the municipality size. Small-size municipalities with less resources tend to more often include external actors in the LONA projects, while large-size municipalities can mobilise the necessary resources themselves. Some of the latter municipalities therefore choose not to involve external actors. Our results further suggest that the involvement of non-governmental organisations seems to depend rather on different modes of working than on the requirements of the LONA regulation. Still, the regulation has restricted the involvement of private companies due to remaining question marks over how profit-making companies may lead and implement LONA projects.

Municipally employed ecologists, particularly in large-size municipalities, provide the most leadership in the LONA work, followed by other municipal officers and environment- and recreation-oriented non-governmental organisations. Nongovernmental organisations tend to initiate and engage in the work to a greater extent in small-size municipalities. There are already established networks within the field of nature conservancy, while, according to the respondents, new networks for the initiation and implementation of LONA projects are created in the field of recreation. The importance of coordination between municipalities through the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions is emphasised by several municipalities in this respect. A general trend is that such coordination and exchange of experiences has increased over time. The municipalities’ contacts with various local networks have also amplified.

The perceived need for protecting more areas in urban environments continues to be high, and LONA is seen as an important tool for long-term investment in the protection of nature and recreation values. LONA is regarded as especially important for recreation since there are alternative forms of support in nature conservation at the national level. The small-size municipalities are particularly dependent on LONA in their attempts to safeguard nature protection and recreation values. Many new areas have become accessible for local citizens thanks to LONA, some of which have become popular sites for nature studies, recreation and leisure. Media attention has helped increase their popularity, and assisted in giving high priority to these issues on the municipal political agenda.

LONA has led to learning among local actors, particularly with regard to nature conservation issues. Information gathered through LONA has spurred the development of plans for nature conservation and recreation in many municipalities, which on its part supports long-term thinking. Further, LONA has contributed to the initiation of Nature Schools and pedagogic tools for learning about nature in many pre-schools, which helps children in their understanding of and respect for nature. The effects of LONA in a long-term perspective is still, however, somewhat complex. For example, it appears that the local interest in establishing new protected areas has not generally increased, and only one-third of the municipalities claim that accessibility in existing protected areas has increased as a result of LONA. Likewise, in particularly small-size municipalities with limited resources, there is a risk that continued long-term management of nature protection and recreation does not materialize. One should keep in mind that most LONA projects are rather modest in size and that support from the LONA programme cannot solve all issues of municipal priority-setting.

At the same time, the results both from the survey and interviews suggest that LONA has generally had a positive effect on the interest for nature protection and recreation among local politicians and, even more so, among local citizens. This has in turn led to increased local resources for nature protection, albeit somewhat less so for recreation values. The growing attention given to these values has also led to better integration of nature protection and recreation in the municipalities’ spatial planning. In addition, the use of nature areas in the urban vicinity has increased due to more local investments in projects connected to learning. Finally, LONA has stimulated projects and measures targeting ‘new Swedes’ – and even if still only a minority of municipalities have used LONA for this purpose, there is great likelihood that more municipalities will do so in the near future.

The policy statements in LONA highly emphasize learning, knowledge development and knowledge exchange. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the county administrations have contributed to those goals by various information gathering and communication efforts, including mentoring and networking. Our evaluation of how those methods have worked in practice shows that the respondents greatly appreciate the support given, and that the municipalities have been able to access a wealth of information about previous LONA projects, best cases, relevant expertise and arenas for knowledge exchange. The different methods for mentoring are complementary, with different target groups. On the whole, both the county administration officers responsible for LONA and the municipal LONA officers are satisfied with the ways in which the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has implemented these different methods. They also believe that the methods have been supportive in creating increased participation, local understanding and knowledge for what LONA can and should achieve, and hence that LONA should be considered a success.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket, 2017. p. 85
Series
Naturvårdsverket Rapport, ISSN 0282-7298 ; 6748
Keywords
naturskydd, naturvård, friluftsliv, kommuner, statligt stöd, deltagande, engagemang
National Category
Social Sciences Political Science
Research subject
biology, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-132702 (URN)978-91-620-6748-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-03-20 Created: 2017-03-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Baker, S. & Eckerberg, K. (2016). Ecological restoration success: a policy analysis understanding. Restoration Ecology, 24(3), 284-290
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecological restoration success: a policy analysis understanding
2016 (English)In: Restoration Ecology, ISSN 1061-2971, E-ISSN 1526-100X, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article discusses how ecological restoration success can be understood and evaluated using a policy analysis lens. First, this article details a conceptual tool that helps to develop a more encompassing set of criteria to assess restoration activities that provide socioeconomic benefits. Second, by broadening the understanding of restoration success and how it can be evaluated, it allows a more critical view of evaluation itself and its uses as a policy tool. A table is presented that can help practitioners reveal preferences and clarify the aims and objectives of particular initiatives. The table also sensitizes practitioners to the complexity of the links between restoration rationales and evaluation criteria, which in turn may open up much needed discussion and dialogue between restoration participants about the underlying values an actor may wish to promote. It heightens awareness of the fact that evaluation methods need to recognize that restoration is driven by multiple rationales often in the same project, both process driven and output oriented, which in turn can change over time. Adding process and output criteria together may also raise issues of priority. Evaluation criteria thus need to be assigned in ways that reflect these multiplicities, while at the same time recognizing that some restoration values might be conflictual and that there may be winners and losers. Furthermore, judgement about "failure" of a project can change as new goals emerge in delivery and implementation. Ecological restoration evaluation should therefore be ongoing, contextual, and not a one-off event.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2016
Keywords
ecological restoration success, ecological restoration values, evaluation criteria, restoration process, socioeconomic benefits
National Category
Ecology Environmental Sciences Political Science
Research subject
Political Science; statskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117541 (URN)10.1111/rec.12339 (DOI)000383716800001 ()
Projects
RESTORE www.restore-project.org
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2009-450
Available from: 2016-03-01 Created: 2016-03-01 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Borgström, S., Zachrisson, A. & Eckerberg, K. (2016). Funding ecological restoration policy in practice: patterns of short-termism and regional biases. Land use policy, 52, 439-453
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Funding ecological restoration policy in practice: patterns of short-termism and regional biases
2016 (English)In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 52, p. 439-453Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With continuous degradation of ecosystems combined with the recognition of human dependence on functioning ecosystems, global interest in ecological restoration (ER) has intensified. From being merely a nature conservation measure, it is today advanced as a way to improve ecosystem functions, mitigate biodiversity loss and climate change, as well as renew human–nature relationships. However, ER is a contested and diversified term used in research, policy and practice. Substantive public funding is allocated towards this end worldwide, but little is known about its concrete purpose and coverage, as well as what decides its allocation. With inspiration from environmental funding literature we analyze the case of Sweden to provide the first national overview of public ER funding. The understudied political context of ER is thus addressed but also regional variation in funding allocation. A database of all national government funding programs between 1995 and 2011 that included projects and sub-programs aiming at practical ER measures was created. Results show that ER activities counted for 11% (130 million USD) of the total government nature conservation funding. Water environments were highly prioritized, which can be explained by economic and recreational motives behind ER. The ER funding was unevenly distributed geographically, not related to either environmental need or population size, but rather to regional administrative capacity. It was also found to be small scale and short term, and hence part of a general trend of "project proliferation" of public administration which runs contrary to ecosystem based management. As ER is not yet a long-term investment in Sweden, commonly seen as an environmental lead state, we expect even less and more short-term ER funding in other countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Ecological restoration, Governance, Public administration, Project proliferation, Nature conservation, Policy analysis
National Category
Environmental Sciences Political Science
Research subject
statskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-115183 (URN)10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.01.004 (DOI)000372387900040 ()
Projects
Restore
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2009–450
Available from: 2016-01-31 Created: 2016-01-31 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Persson, Å., Eckerberg, K. & Nilsson, M. (2016). Institutionalization or wither away?: Twenty-five years of environmental policy integration under shifting governance models in Sweden. Environment and Planning. C, Government and Policy, 34(3), 478-495
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Institutionalization or wither away?: Twenty-five years of environmental policy integration under shifting governance models in Sweden
2016 (English)In: Environment and Planning. C, Government and Policy, ISSN 0263-774X, E-ISSN 1472-3425, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 478-495Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Snapshot views of environmental policy integration (EPI) practices fail to consider the stability of EPI over time – both as aspiration and performance. This paper reviews the evolution of EPI over more than two decades at the national level in the agriculture and energy sectors in Sweden – an EPI pioneer. We study how the extent of EPI stability can be explained partly by shifting political priorities by governments and partly by underlying governance models (actors and organizational landscape and policy instruments used). Comparing the two sectors, the institutionalization of EPI appears to be stronger in the energy sector. In the agricultural sector, the current reform of the Common Agricultural Policy seems to imply decreasing prominence of EPI – due to shrinking budgets for environmental targets along with greater policy goals complexity. Overall, observed shifts in governance have been mildly conducive to EPI by providing an infrastructure, but further enhancements require clear political priority awarded to the environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2016
Keywords
Environmental policy, governance, integration, agriculture, energy
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
statskunskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111747 (URN)10.1177/0263774X15614726 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-11-21 Created: 2015-11-21 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
Eckerberg, K., Larsson, M. & Miljand, M. (2016). Knowledge, policy, and expertise: the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution 1970-2011, by Susan Owens, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015 [Review]. Environmental Politics, 25(4), 761-763
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge, policy, and expertise: the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution 1970-2011, by Susan Owens, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015
2016 (English)In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 761-763Article, book review (Refereed) Published
National Category
Political Science Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119334 (URN)10.1080/09644016.2016.1165948 (DOI)000383520000014 ()
Available from: 2016-04-21 Created: 2016-04-16 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6546-5210

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