umu.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 32) Show all publications
Grönlund, A. & Öun, I. (2018). Beyond the Mummy Track?: Part-time Rights, Gender, and Career-Family Dilemmas. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, 8(3), 177-198
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond the Mummy Track?: Part-time Rights, Gender, and Career-Family Dilemmas
2018 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 177-198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Statutory rights to part-time work are increasingly discussed and institutionalized, but have been little empirically investigated. On the basis of a survey of Swedish parents (n = 1900), the article explores the usage and usefulness of the right to work hour reductions in relation to career-family dilemmas. The results show that the gender composition of the workplace affects both mothers’ and fathers’ likelihood of reducing work hours. Mothers who reduce work hours experience lower work-family conflict but stronger fears of negative career repercussions. For fathers, the implications of work hour reductions vary with the gender composition of the workplace. Meanwhile, the division of housework is related both to the likelihood of reducing work hours and to its implications. The analysis suggests that even when a statutory right to part-time is provided, workplace norms and men’s participation in housework are crucial for changing gender patterns.

Keywords
part-time work, family policy, gender segregation, housework, work-family conflict, career
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150516 (URN)10.18291/njwls.v8i3.109546 (DOI)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2013-0342
Available from: 2018-08-09 Created: 2018-08-09 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, A. & Magnusson, C. (2018). Do atypical individuals make atypical choices?: Examining how gender patterns in personality relate to occupational choice and wages among five professions in Sweden. Gender Issues, 5, 153-178
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do atypical individuals make atypical choices?: Examining how gender patterns in personality relate to occupational choice and wages among five professions in Sweden
2018 (English)In: Gender Issues, ISSN 1098-092X, E-ISSN 1936-4717, Vol. 5, p. 153-178Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The article provides a close-up picture of gender and personality in relation to the gender composition of occupation and the gender wage gap. Using a survey of newly graduated highly educated men and women in five occupations in Sweden (engineers, lawyers, police officers, social workers and psychologists, n ≈ 2400), we examine (a) if personality traits—measured as Big Five traits, risk-taking and self-esteem—differ between men and women (b) if differences in personality traits are systematically related to the gender composition of the occupation, (c) if individuals who have chosen an occupation dominated by the other gender are gender-atypical in their personalities and, (d) how personality traits are related to wages and the gender wage gap. The results show significant gender differences in agreeableness, emotional stability and perceived risk-taking. The male-dominated occupations score higher on risk-taking than those dominated by females, but the pattern for agreeableness is less clear and the scores on emotional stability are no higher in these occupations. Further we find that individuals who have chosen a gender-atypical occupation tend to display gender atypical personality traits. In line with previous research, we find that risk-taking and self-esteem are positively related to wages but these associations do not account for gender differences in wages. The valuation of personality traits does not vary systematically with the gender composition of the occupations but being agreeable has a more negative wage effect for women than for men.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
gender, personality, self-esteem, occupation, wages
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138475 (URN)10.1007/s12147-017-9194-9 (DOI)000430672300006 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2011-0816
Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2018-09-11Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, A. & Öun, I. (2018). In search of family-friendly careers?: Professional strategies, work conditions and gender differences in work-family conflict. Community, Work and Family, 21(1), 87-105
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In search of family-friendly careers?: Professional strategies, work conditions and gender differences in work-family conflict
2018 (English)In: Community, Work and Family, ISSN 1366-8803, E-ISSN 1469-3615, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 87-105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to investigate whether women in a dual-earner context acquire family-friendly jobs as a strategy to keep work–family conflict down. The analysis is based on a survey of newly graduated highly educated men and women in five occupations in Sweden (n ≈ 2400). The sample was stratified by occupation and gender to minimize the influence of factors other than gender. The results show that women are more family-oriented, but also more career-oriented than men in their professional strategies. In their jobs, women have less control over work and schedules than men but a similar level of work demands. However, women face lower requirements for employer flexibility (e.g. frequent over time) and this is related to their professional strategies. Finally, women report a higher level of work–family conflict than men in the same occupation, but this gender difference becomes non-significant when accounting for women's lower level of control. In sum, women in this sample clearly aim for both family and career and do not acquire family-friendly jobs, but aim to avoid 'family-unfriendly' requirements for constant availability. To some extent, this enables them to limit their work–family conflict but due to their lower control over work, women still experience more conflict than men in the same occupation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Work–family conflict, gender, demands, control, flexibility
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138477 (URN)10.1080/13668803.2017.1375460 (DOI)000429371700006 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2011-0816Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2013-0342
Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, A. & Öun, I. (2018). The gender-job satisfaction paradox and the dual-earner society: are women (still) making work-family trade-offs?. Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, 59(4), 535-545
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The gender-job satisfaction paradox and the dual-earner society: are women (still) making work-family trade-offs?
2018 (English)In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 535-545Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Despite their disadvantaged labour market position, women consistently report higher levels of job satisfaction than men. Researchers have attributed women's higher job satisfaction to their lower expectations, arguing that gender differences will fade away as women's labour market prospects improve. Others, however, argue that women are more contented than men because their jobs satisfy a need for family adaptions.

Objective: In this article, we put the hypotheses of transitions and trade-offs to a strong test, by comparing men and women with comparable human capital investments living in a country where women's employment is strongly supported by policies, practices and social norms.

Methods: The relationship between gender and job satisfaction is analysed with stepwise OLS regressions. The analysis is based on a survey to newly graduated highly educated men and women in five occupations in Sweden (n≈2 450).

Results: First, we show that, after controlling for a range of job characteristics, women report a higher level of job satisfaction than men. Second, although the paradox appears to be surprisingly persistent, it cannot be attributed to work-family trade-offs.

Conclusions: Future research should consider job satisfaction more broadly in the light of gender role socialization and persistent gender inequalities.

Keywords
job satisfaction, gender, preferences, work-family, Sweden
National Category
Social Work Gender Studies
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138476 (URN)10.3233/WOR-182708 (DOI)000431142300006 ()29733051 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2011-0816
Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Boye, K. & Grönlund, A. (2018). Workplace skill investments – an early career glass ceiling?: Job complexity and wages among young professionals in Sweden. Work, Employment and Society, 32(2), 368-386
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Workplace skill investments – an early career glass ceiling?: Job complexity and wages among young professionals in Sweden
2018 (English)In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 368-386Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite higher educational investments, women fall behind men on most indicators of labour market success. This study investigates whether workplace skill investments set men and women off on different tracks in which the human capital acquired through higher education is either devalued or further developed. A sample of Swedish men and women who recently graduated from five educational programs, leading to occupations with different gender composition, is analysed. Results show that, a few years after graduation, men are more likely than women to acquire complex jobs and that this difference contributes to early career gender gaps in wage and employee bargaining power. The findings do not support the notion that child-related work interruptions provide a main mechanism for sorting women into less complex jobs. 

Keywords
employee bargaining power, gender wage gap, initial on-the-job training, job complexity, work interruptions, workplace skill investment
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141356 (URN)10.1177/0950017017744514 (DOI)000429981000008 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2011-0816
Available from: 2017-10-30 Created: 2017-10-30 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, A., Halldén, K. & Magnusson, C. (2017). A Scandinavian success story?: women's labour market outcomes in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Acta Sociologica, 60(2), 97-119
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Scandinavian success story?: women's labour market outcomes in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden
2017 (English)In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 97-119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In current research, the extensive family policies of the Scandinavian countries have been problematized and described as hampering women?s careers. However, mechanisms have been little investigated and the Scandinavian countries are often regarded as a single policy model. Based on an account of institutional variety we study gender gaps in hourly wages and access to authority positions in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden and explore the importance of segregation, skills and work interruptions. The analysis uses pooled cross-sectional data from the European Social Survey (ESS) for 2004 and 2010. The results show that gender gaps vary both in size and regarding the mechanisms producing them. In particular, we find that gender segregation has a radically different impact in the four countries. The analysis suggests that the mechanisms linking family policies to labour market outcomes are more complex than envisaged in the current debate and point to the importance of comparing seemingly similar countries.

Keywords
Authority, gender inequality, Scandinavia, segregation, skill, wages, work interruptions
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131996 (URN)10.1177/0001699316660595 (DOI)000400089400001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2010-2083Swedish Research Council, 2013-1690Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2008-0575Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2011-0816
Available from: 2017-03-01 Created: 2017-03-01 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, A. (2017). On different tracks? Gender, professional strategies and early career wage gaps. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, 7(2), 9-25
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On different tracks? Gender, professional strategies and early career wage gaps
2017 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 9-25Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A longstanding notion in labor market theory is that women accommodate family responsibilities in their occupational and job choices. Utilizing a survey of newly graduated highly educated men and women in five occupations in Sweden (n≈2400), the article explores whether men and women differ in their professional strategies and if such differences produce early career wage gaps. Findings based on OLS regressions show that women express dual commitment to work and family; compared with men, they value ‘family-friendly’ work-conditions higher but do not value wages and career lower. Parenthood is not related to lower levels of career focus, but neutralizes occupational differences in family focus for women. Despite the select sample, women have lower wages than men, but the wage gap is not explained by different prioritization of family/career. The findings suggest that assumptions about gendered skill investments must be empirically scrutinized and theories further developed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Roskilde: Roskilde Universitetsforlag, 2017
Keywords
Career focus, family focus, gender, gender wage gap, human capital, labor market inequality, preference, occupational choice, professional strategy, work-family
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138474 (URN)10.18291/njwls.v7i2.81592 (DOI)000412455500003 ()
Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, A. (2017). Ulik likestilling i arbeidslivet [Review]. Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning, 58(3), 349-352
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ulik likestilling i arbeidslivet
2017 (Norwegian)In: Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning, ISSN 0040-716X, E-ISSN 1504-291X, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 349-352Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UNIVERSITETSFORLAGET A S, 2017
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151081 (URN)10.18261/ISSN.1504-291X-2017-03-06 (DOI)000440795300007 ()
Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, A. & Magnusson, C. (2016). Family-friendly policies and women's wages - is there a trade-off?: Skill investments, occupational segregation and the gender pay gap in Germany, Sweden and the UK. European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, 18(1), 91-113
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Family-friendly policies and women's wages - is there a trade-off?: Skill investments, occupational segregation and the gender pay gap in Germany, Sweden and the UK
2016 (English)In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 91-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent research has suggested that there is a trade-off between the family-friendliness' of jobs, occupations and welfare states on the one hand and women's relative wages on the other. In particular, the extensive family policies found in Scandinavia are thought to harm highly educated women by affecting occupational segregation and workplace skill development. In this article, we use pooled wage data from the European Social Survey of 2004 and 2010 to examine the mechanisms behind the gender wage gap in Germany, Sweden and the UK and compare the situation of high- and low-skilled employees. Our findings show that the gender wage gap among high-skilled employees in Sweden is larger than in the UK, but not larger than in Germany. Also, segregation and work-related training are no more important in Sweden than in the other countries. Another important finding is that the mechanisms behind the gender wage gap differ between high- and low-skilled employees in ways not predicted by the trade-off argument. In particular, the large unexplained wage gap among high-skilled employees provides new theoretical challenges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keywords
Gender pay gap, education, family policy, segregation, on-the-job training
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119089 (URN)10.1080/14616696.2015.1124904 (DOI)000372029500006 ()
Available from: 2016-04-19 Created: 2016-04-11 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, A. (Ed.). (2014). Glimtar av jämställdhet. Umeå: Boréa Bokförlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Glimtar av jämställdhet
2014 (Swedish)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Boréa Bokförlag, 2014
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139089 (URN)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2017-09-07 Created: 2017-09-07 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7680-334x

Search in DiVA

Show all publications