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Publications (10 of 26) Show all publications
Sundqvist, M. K., Moen, J., Björk, R. G., Vowles, T., Kytöviita, M.-M., Parsons, M. A. & Olofsson, J. (2019). Experimental evidence of the long-term effects of reindeer on Arctic vegetation greenness and species richness at a larger landscape scale. Journal of Ecology, 107(6), 2724-2736
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evidence of the long-term effects of reindeer on Arctic vegetation greenness and species richness at a larger landscape scale
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 107, no 6, p. 2724-2736Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Large herbivores influence plant community structure and ecosystem processes in many ecosystems. In large parts of the Arctic, reindeer (or caribou) are the only large herbivores present. Recent studies show that reindeer have the potential to mitigate recent warming‐induced shrub encroachment in the Arctic and the associated greening of high‐latitude ecosystems. This will potentially have large scale consequences for ecosystem productivity and carbon cycling.

To date, information on variation in the interactions between reindeer and plants across Arctic landscapes has been scarce. We utilized a network of experimental sites across a latitudinal gradient in the Scandinavian mountains where reindeer have been excluded from 59 study plots for at least 15 years. We used this study system to test the effect of long‐term exclusion of reindeer on the abundance of major plant functional groups, the greenness indexes Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), soil mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P), and species richness, and to determine whether the effect of reindeer exclusion is dependent on reindeer density, productivity, soil fertility or climate.

We found that NDVI and LAI, lichen and deciduous shrub abundances were largely reduced while soil mineral N was enhanced by reindeer. The direction and amplitude of other plant functional group responses to reindeer exclusion differed between forest and tundra as well as shrub‐ and herbaceous‐dominated vegetation. Higher reindeer densities were related to decreased plant species richness in low‐productive sites and to increased species richness in productive sites.

The relative reduction in LAI and associated absolute reductions of deciduous shrubs in response to reindeer were positively related to reindeer density, while the relative reduction in NDVI was not. Further, relative reductions in LAI and NDVI in response to reindeer were unrelated to climate and soil fertility.

Synthesis. Our results provide long‐term experimental evidence highlighting the role of reindeer density in regulating plant species richness, global climate change induced greenness patterns and shrub encroachment at regional scales in the Arctic. These findings emphasize the need to consider reindeer in models predicting vegetation patterns and changes in high‐latitude ecosystems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
Keywords
climate change, forest, grazing, large mammalian herbivores, plant community composition, plant-herbivore interactions, soil nutrients, tundra
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164969 (URN)10.1111/1365-2745.13201 (DOI)000491025800018 ()
Available from: 2019-11-12 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2019-11-12Bibliographically approved
Cameron, E. K., Sundqvist, M. K., Keith, S. A., CaraDonna, P. J., Mousing, E. A., Nilsson, K. A., . . . Classen, A. T. (2019). Uneven global distribution of food web studies under climate change. Ecosphere, 10(3), Article ID e02645.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uneven global distribution of food web studies under climate change
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2019 (English)In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e02645Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Trophic interactions within food webs affect species distributions, coexistence, and provision of ecosystem services but can be strongly impacted by climatic changes. Understanding these impacts is therefore essential for managing ecosystems and sustaining human well-being. Here, we conducted a global synthesis of terrestrial, marine, and freshwater studies to identify key gaps in our knowledge of climate change impacts on food webs and determine whether the areas currently studied are those most likely to be impacted by climate change. We found research suffers from a strong geographic bias, with only 3.5% of studies occurring in the tropics. Importantly, the distribution of sites sampled under projected climate changes was biased-areas with decreases or large increases in precipitation and areas with low magnitudes of temperature change were under-represented. Our results suggest that understanding of climate change impacts on food webs could be broadened by considering more than two trophic levels, responses in addition to species abundance and biomass, impacts of a wider suite of climatic variables, and tropical ecosystems. Most importantly, to enable better forecasts of biodiversity responses to dimate change, we identify critically under-represented geographic regions and climatic conditions which should be prioritized in future research.

Keywords
aquatic, climate change, data gaps, extreme events, food webs, freshwater, global, marine, ecipitation, species interactions, terrestrial, warming
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158383 (URN)10.1002/ecs2.2645 (DOI)000463977000031 ()
Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
Bokhorst, S., Veen, G. F., Sundqvist, M. K., De Long, J. R., Kardol, P. & Wardlea, D. A. (2018). Contrasting responses of springtails and mites to elevation and vegetation type in the sub-Arctic. Pedobiologia, 67, 57-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contrasting responses of springtails and mites to elevation and vegetation type in the sub-Arctic
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2018 (English)In: Pedobiologia, ISSN 0031-4056, E-ISSN 1873-1511, Vol. 67, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate change is affecting the species composition and functioning of Arctic and sub-Arctic plant and soil communities. Here we studied patterns in soil microarthropod (springtails and mites) communities across a gradient of increasing elevation that spanned 450 m, across which mean temperature declined by approximately 2.5 degrees C, in sub-Arctic Sweden. Across this gradient we characterized microarthropod communities in each of two types of vegetation, i.e., heath and meadow, to determine whether their responses to declining temperature differed with vegetation type. Mite abundance declined with increasing elevation, while springtail abundance showed the opposite response. Springtail communities were dominated by larger species at higher elevation. Mite abundance was unaffected by vegetation type, while springtail abundance was 53% higher in the heath than meadow vegetation across the gradient. Springtails but not mites responded differently to elevation in heath and meadow vegetation; hemi-edaphic species dominated in the heath at higher elevation while epiedaphic species dominated in the meadow. Our results suggest that sub-Arctic mite and springtail communities will likely respond in contrasting ways to changes in vegetation and soil properties resulting from climate warming.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Acari, Climate change, Collembola, Elevational gradient, Heath, Meadow, Microarthropod
National Category
Soil Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148758 (URN)10.1016/j.pedobi.2018.02.004 (DOI)000432584800007 ()
Available from: 2018-06-19 Created: 2018-06-19 Last updated: 2018-08-21Bibliographically approved
Metcalfe, D. B., Hermans, T. D. G., Ahlstrand, J., Becker, M., Berggren, M., Bjork, R. G., . . . Abdi, A. M. (2018). Patchy field sampling biases understanding of climate change impacts across the Arctic. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 2(9), 1443-1448
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patchy field sampling biases understanding of climate change impacts across the Arctic
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2018 (English)In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 1443-1448Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Effective societal responses to rapid climate change in the Arctic rely on an accurate representation of region-specific ecosystem properties and processes. However, this is limited by the scarcity and patchy distribution of field measurements. Here, we use a comprehensive, geo-referenced database of primary field measurements in 1,840 published studies across the Arctic to identify statistically significant spatial biases in field sampling and study citation across this globally important region. We find that 31% of all study citations are derived from sites located within 50 km of just two research sites: Toolik Lake in the USA and Abisko in Sweden. Furthermore, relatively colder, more rapidly warming and sparsely vegetated sites are under-sampled and under-recognized in terms of citations, particularly among microbiology-related studies. The poorly sampled and cited areas, mainly in the Canadian high-Arctic archipelago and the Arctic coastline of Russia, constitute a large fraction of the Arctic ice-free land area. Our results suggest that the current pattern of sampling and citation may bias the scientific consensuses that underpin attempts to accurately predict and effectively mitigate climate change in the region. Further work is required to increase both the quality and quantity of sampling, and incorporate existing literature from poorly cited areas to generate a more representative picture of Arctic climate change and its environmental impacts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152218 (URN)10.1038/s41559-018-0612-5 (DOI)000442468000022 ()30013133 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-10-16Bibliographically approved
Blume-Werry, G., Lindén, E., Andresen, L., Classen, A. T., Sanders, N. J., von Oppen, J. & Sundqvist, M. K. (2018). Proportion of fine roots, but not plant biomass allocation below ground, increases with elevation in arctic tundra. Journal of Vegetation Science, 29(2), 226-235
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proportion of fine roots, but not plant biomass allocation below ground, increases with elevation in arctic tundra
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 226-235Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Questions: Roots represent a considerable proportion of biomass, primary production and litter input in arctic tundra, and plant allocation of biomass to above- or below-ground tissue in response to climate change is a key factor in the future C balance of these ecosystems. According to optimality theory plants allocate C to the above- or below-ground structure that captures the most limiting resource. We used an elevational gradient to test this theory and as a space-for-time substitution to inform on tundra carbon allocation patterns under a shifting climate, by exploring if increasing elevation was positively related to the root:shoot ratio, as well as a larger plant allocation to adsorptive over storage roots.

Location: Arctic tundra heath dominated by Empetrum hermaphroditum close to Abisko, Sweden.

Methods: We measured root:shoot and fine:coarse root ratios of the plant communities along an elevational gradient by sampling above- and below-ground biomass, further separating root biomass into fine (<1 mm) and coarse roots.

Results: Plant biomass was higher at the lower elevations, but the root:shoot ratio did not vary with elevation. Resource allocation to fine relative to coarse roots increased with elevation, resulting in a fine:coarse root ratio that more than doubled with increasing elevation.

Conclusions: Contrary to previous works, the root:shoot ratio along this elevational gradient remained stable. However, communities along our study system were dominated by the same species at each elevation, which suggests that when changes in the root:shoot ratio occur with elevation these changes may be driven by differences in allocation patterns among species and thus turnover in plant community structure. Our results further reveal that the allocation of biomass to fine relative to coarse roots can differ between locations along an elevational gradient, even when overall above- vs below-ground biomass allocation does not. Given the functionally different roles of fine vs coarse roots this could have large implications for below-ground C cycling. Our results highlight the importance of direct effects vs indirect effects (such as changes in plant community composition and nutrient availability) of climate change for future C allocation above and below ground.

Keywords
above- and below-ground linkages, arctic tundra, Betula nana, biomass allocation, elevational gradient, Empetrum hermaphroditum, fine roots, heath vegetation
National Category
Ecology Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147836 (URN)10.1111/jvs.12605 (DOI)000431503000010 ()
Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-18 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Barrio, I. C., Lindén, E., te Beest, M., Olofsson, J., Rocha, A., Soininen, E. M., . . . Kozlov, M. V. (2018). Publisher Correction to: Background invertebrate herbivory on dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa-nana complex) increases with temperature and precipitation across the tundra biome (vol 40, pg 2265, 2017). Polar Biology, 41(8), 1653-1654
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Publisher Correction to: Background invertebrate herbivory on dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa-nana complex) increases with temperature and precipitation across the tundra biome (vol 40, pg 2265, 2017)
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2018 (English)In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1653-1654Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The above mentioned article was originally scheduled for publication in the special issue on Ecology of Tundra Arthropods with guest editors Toke T. Hoye . Lauren E. Culler. Erroneously, the article was published in Polar Biology, Volume 40, Issue 11, November, 2017. The publisher sincerely apologizes to the guest editors and the authors for the inconvenience caused.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154630 (URN)10.1007/s00300-018-2305-6 (DOI)000441514400012 ()
Note

Correction to: Barrio, Isabel C., Lindén, Elin, Te Beest, Mariska, Olofsson, Johan et al. Background invertebrate herbivory on dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa-nana complex) increases with temperature and precipitation across the tundra biome. Polar Biology, 40;11. DOI: 10.1007/s00300-017-2139-7

Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2019-01-15Bibliographically approved
diva2:1248226
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soils beneath different arctic shrubs have contrasting responses to a natural gradient in temperature
2018 (English)In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 9, no 6, article id e02290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Shrubs commonly form islands of fertility and are expanding their distribution and dominance in the arctic due to climate change, yet how soil properties may be influenced when different species of shrubs expand under warmer climates remains less explored. Important plant traits, such as their associated root community, are linked to functionally different and dominant shrub species in the arctic and these traits likely shape biogeochemical cycling in areas of shrub expansion. Using an elevational gradient as a proxy for warming, we explored how biochemical processes beneath two important arctic shrubs varied under warmer (low elevation) and cooler (high elevation) climates. Interestingly, the influence of elevation on biogeochemistry varied between the two shrubs. At the low elevation, Betula nana L., an ectomycorrhizal shrub, had high carbon (C) degrading enzyme activities, and relatively low potential net nitrogen (N) mineralization rates. Conversely, Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum Hagerup, an cricoid mycorrhizal dwarf-shrub, had higher enzyme activities and net N immobilization rates at the higher elevation. Further, E. nigrum ssp. hermpahroditum appeared to have a more closed C and nutrient cycle than B. nana-enzymes degrading C, N, and phosphorus were tightly correlated with each other and with total C and ammonium concentrations in the humus beneath E. nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum, but not beneath B. nana. Our results suggest differences in the warming responses of C and N cycling beneath shrub species across an arctic tundra landscape.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2018
Keywords
biochemical processes, ectomycorrhizae, ericoid mycorrhizae, global warming, shrub species
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151799 (URN)10.1002/ecs2.2290 (DOI)000439997600013 ()
Available from: 2018-09-14 Created: 2018-09-14 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
Barrio, I. C., Lindén, E., Te Beest, M., Olofsson, J., Rocha, A., Soininen, E. M., . . . Kozlov, M. V. (2017). Background invertebrate herbivory on dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa-nana complex) increases with temperature and precipitation across the tundra biome. Polar Biology, 40(11), 2265-2278
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Background invertebrate herbivory on dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa-nana complex) increases with temperature and precipitation across the tundra biome
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2017 (English)In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 40, no 11, p. 2265-2278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chronic, low intensity herbivory by invertebrates, termed background herbivory, has been understudied in tundra, yet its impacts are likely to increase in a warmer Arctic. The magnitude of these changes is however hard to predict as we know little about the drivers of current levels of invertebrate herbivory in tundra. We assessed the intensity of invertebrate herbivory on a common tundra plant, the dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa-nana complex), and investigated its relationship to latitude and climate across the tundra biome. Leaf damage by defoliating, mining and gall-forming invertebrates was measured in samples collected from 192 sites at 56 locations. Our results indicate that invertebrate herbivory is nearly ubiquitous across the tundra biome but occurs at low intensity. On average, invertebrates damaged 11.2% of the leaves and removed 1.4% of total leaf area. The damage was mainly caused by external leaf feeders, and most damaged leaves were only slightly affected (12% leaf area lost). Foliar damage was consistently positively correlated with mid-summer (July) temperature and, to a lesser extent, precipitation in the year of data collection, irrespective of latitude. Our models predict that, on average, foliar losses to invertebrates on dwarf birch are likely to increase by 6-7% over the current levels with a 1 degrees C increase in summer temperatures. Our results show that invertebrate herbivory on dwarf birch is small in magnitude but given its prevalence and dependence on climatic variables, background invertebrate herbivory should be included in predictions of climate change impacts on tundra ecosystems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Background insect herbivory, Climate change, Externally feeding defoliators, Latitudinal Herbivory pothesis, Leaf damage, Leaf miners, Gall makers, Macroecological pattern
National Category
Ecology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142462 (URN)10.1007/s00300-017-2139-7 (DOI)000415258700011 ()
Note

Correction: Isabel C. Barrio, Elin Lindén, Mariska Te Beest, Johan Olofsson, Adrian RochaEeva M. Soininen, Juha M. Alatalo, Tommi Andersson, Ashley Asmus, Julia Boike, Kari Anne Bråthen, John P. Bryant, Agata Buchwal, C. Guillermo Bueno, Katherine S. Christie, Yulia V. Denisova, Dagmar Egelkraut, Dorothee Ehrich, LeeAnn Fishback, Bruce C. Forbes, Maite Gartzia, Paul Grogan, Martin Hallinger, Monique M. P. D. Heijmans, David S. Hik, Annika Hofgaard, Milena Holmgren, Toke T. Høye, Diane C. Huebner, Ingibjörg Svala Jónsdóttir, Elina Kaarlejärvi, Timo Kumpula, Cynthia Y. M. J. G. Lange, Jelena Lange, Esther Lévesque, Juul Limpens, Marc Macias-Fauria, Isla Myers-Smith, Erik J. van Nieukerken, Signe Normand, Eric S. Post, Niels Martin Schmidt, Judith Sitters, Anna Skoracka, Alexander Sokolov, Natalya Sokolova, James D. M. Speed, Lorna E. Street, Maja K. Sundqvist, Otso Suominen, Nikita Tananaev, Jean-Pierre Tremblay, Christine Urbanowicz, Sergey A. Uvarov, David Watts, Martin Wilmking, Philip A. Wookey, Heike H. Zimmermann, Vitali Zverev, Mikhail V. Kozlov. Publisher Correction to: Background invertebrate herbivory on dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa-nana complex) increases with temperature and precipitation across the tundra biome. Polar Biol (2018) 41(8): 1653–1654. DOI: 10.1007/s00300-018-2305-6 

Available from: 2017-12-04 Created: 2017-12-04 Last updated: 2018-09-04Bibliographically approved
Veen, G. F., De Long, J. R., Kardol, P., Sundqvist, M. K., Snoek, L. B. & Wardle, D. A. (2017). Coordinated responses of soil communities to elevation in three subarctic vegetation types. Oikos, 126(11), 1586-1599
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coordinated responses of soil communities to elevation in three subarctic vegetation types
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2017 (English)In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 126, no 11, p. 1586-1599Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Global warming has begun to have a major impact on the species composition and functioning of plant and soil communities. However, long-term community and ecosystem responses to increased temperature are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a well-established elevational gradient in northern Sweden to elucidate how plant, microbial and nematode communities shift with elevation and associated changes in temperature in three highly contrasting vegetation types (i.e. heath, meadow and Salix vegetation). We found that responses of both the abundance and composition of microbial and nematode communities to elevation differed greatly among the vegetation types. Within vegetation types, changes with elevation of plant, microbial and nematode communities were mostly linked at fine levels of taxonomic resolution, but this pattern disappeared when coarser functional group levels were considered. Further, nematode communities shifted towards more conservative nutrient cycling strategies with increasing elevation in heath and meadow vegetation. Conversely, in Salix vegetation microbial communities with conservative strategies were most pronounced at the mid-elevation. These results provide limited support for increasing conservative nutrient cycling strategies at higher elevation (i.e. with a harsher climate). Our findings indicate that climate-induced changes in plant community composition may greatly modify or counteract the impact of climate change on soil communities. Therefore, to better understand and predict ecosystem responses to climate change, it will be crucial to consider vegetation type and its specific interactions with soil communities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2017
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142258 (URN)10.1111/oik.04158 (DOI)000414120900007 ()
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Mayor, J. R., Sanders, N. J., Classen, A. T., Bardgett, R. D., Clement, J.-C., Fajardo, A., . . . Wardle, D. A. (2017). Elevation alters ecosystem properties across temperate treelines globally [Letter to the editor]. Nature, 542(7639), 91-95
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elevation alters ecosystem properties across temperate treelines globally
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2017 (English)In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 542, no 7639, p. 91-95Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Temperature is a primary driver of the distribution of biodiversity as well as of ecosystem boundaries(1,2). Declining temperature with increasing elevation in montane systems has long been recognized as a major factor shaping plant community biodiversity, metabolic processes, and ecosystem dynamics(3,4). Elevational gradients, as thermoclines, also enable prediction of long-term ecological responses to climate warming(5-7). One of the most striking manifestations of increasing elevation is the abrupt transitions from forest to treeless alpine tundra(8). However, whether there are globally consistent above-and belowground responses to these transitions remains an open question(4). To disentangle the direct and indirect effects of temperature on ecosystem properties, here we evaluate replicate treeline ecotones in seven temperate regions of the world. We find that declining temperatures with increasing elevation did not affect tree leaf nutrient concentrations, but did reduce ground-layer community-weighted plant nitrogen, leading to the strong stoichiometric convergence of ground-layer plant community nitrogen to phosphorus ratios across all regions. Further, elevation-driven changes in plant nutrients were associated with changes in soil organic matter content and quality (carbon to nitrogen ratios) and microbial properties. Combined, our identification of direct and indirect temperature controls over plant communities and soil properties in seven contrasting regions suggests that future warming may disrupt the functional properties of montane ecosystems, particularly where plant community reorganization outpaces treeline advance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-132806 (URN)10.1038/nature21027 (DOI)000396119300037 ()28117440 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-05-05 Created: 2017-05-05 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5947-839x

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