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Marklund, Per-Olov
Publications (10 of 44) Show all publications
Lundgren, T., Marklund, P.-O. & Zhang, S. (2016). Industrial energy demand and energy efficiency - Evidence from Sweden. Resources and Energy Economics, 43, 130-152
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial energy demand and energy efficiency - Evidence from Sweden
2016 (English)In: Resources and Energy Economics, ISSN 0928-7655, E-ISSN 1873-0221, Vol. 43, p. 130-152Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper estimates firm level energy demand and energy efficiency for 14 sectors in Swedish manufacturing using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). We derive sector level energy demand frontiers that account for firm specific heterogeneity. Results show that there is potential to improve energy efficiency for fuel and electricity use in all sectors; energy intensity is not an appropriate proxy for energy efficiency; the EU ETS had a modest or no effect on Swedish firms' efficient use of energy during the first trading phase and the beginning of the second, indicating that the carbon permit price was too low to generate the necessary incentives for energy efficiency investments.

Keywords
Energy demand, Energy efficiency, Manufacturing industry, Stochastic frontier analysis, True random fects
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118415 (URN)10.1016/j.reseneeco.2016.01.003 (DOI)000370896400008 ()
Available from: 2016-04-08 Created: 2016-03-18 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lundberg, S., Marklund, P.-O. & Strömbäck, E. (2016). Is Environmental Policy by Public Procurement Effective?. Public Finance Review, 44(4), 478-499
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is Environmental Policy by Public Procurement Effective?
2016 (English)In: Public Finance Review, ISSN 1091-1421, E-ISSN 1552-7530, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 478-499Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Advocates of green public procurement (GPP) argue that the public sector can use its purchasing power to influence producers and consumers to reduce their negative impact on the environment. Our aim is to assess GPP as an environmental policy instrument and its ability to lead to the achievement of environmental objectives. Central to our analysis is the extent to which polluting firms choose to adapt to the public sector’s environmental requirements and to invest in greener technologies. Our theoretical finding is that the potential of GPP to function as an objective effective instrument of environmental policy is limited and can actually be counterproductive. From an environmental policy point of view, it is crucial that the GPP aims for an environmental standard beyond the technology of the polluting firms and is designed with reference to defined environmental objectives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2016
Keywords
auctions, compliance cost, environmental policy, endogenous entry, sustainability
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-104115 (URN)10.1177/1091142115588977 (DOI)000443334900003 ()
Projects
Green Public Procurement: An Efficient Environmental Policy Tool?
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2015-06-06 Created: 2015-06-06 Last updated: 2019-02-04Bibliographically approved
Lundgren, T., Marklund, P.-O., Samakovlis, E. & Zhou, W. (2015). Carbon prices and incentives for technological development. Journal of Environmental Management, 150, 393-403
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon prices and incentives for technological development
2015 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 150, p. 393-403Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is concern that the carbon prices generated through climate policies are too low to create the incentives necessary to stimulate technological development. This paper empirically analyzes how the Swedish carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and the European Union emission trading system (EU ETS) have affected productivity development in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1998-2008. A Luenberger total factor productivity (TFP) indicator is computed using data envelopment analysis. The results show that climate policy had a modest impact on technological development in the pulp and paper industry, and if significant it was negative. The price of fossil fuels, on the contrary, seems to have created important incentives for technological development. Hence, the results suggest that the carbon prices faced by the industry through EU ETS and the CO2 tax have been too low. Even though the data for this study is specific for Sweden, the models and results are applicable internationally. When designing policy to mitigate CO2 emissions, it is vital that the policy creates a carbon price that is high enough otherwise the pressure on technological development will not be sufficiently strong. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords
CO2 tax, EU ETS, Luenberger total factor productivity, indicator, GMM
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100944 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.12.015 (DOI)000349504300041 ()25560661 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-03-20 Created: 2015-03-16 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lundgren, T. & Marklund, P.-O. (2015). Climate policy, environmental performance, and profits. Journal of Productivity Analysis, 44(3), 225-235
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate policy, environmental performance, and profits
2015 (English)In: Journal of Productivity Analysis, ISSN 0895-562X, E-ISSN 1573-0441, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 225-235Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study we investigate how firm level environmental performance (EP) affects firm level economic performance measured as profit efficiency (PE) in a stochastic profit frontier setting. Analyzing firms in Swedish manufacturing 1990–2004, results show that EP induced by environmental policy is not a determinant of PE, while voluntary or market driven EP seem to have a significant and positive effect on firm PE in most sectors. The evidence generally supports the idea that good EP is also good for business, as long as EP is not brought on by policy measures, in this case a CO2 tax. Thus, the results provide no general support for the Porter hypothesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
Keywords
CO2 tax, Environmental performance index, Profit technical efficiency, Stochastic frontier analysis, The Porter hypothesis
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-88441 (URN)10.1007/s11123-014-0396-9 (DOI)000363247100002 ()
Note

Special Issue: SI

Available from: 2014-05-06 Created: 2014-05-06 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lundberg, S. & Marklund, P.-O. (2015). Offentlig upphandling som miljöpolitiskt styrmedel. , Juni(30)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Offentlig upphandling som miljöpolitiskt styrmedel
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 19
Series
SNS Analys, ISSN 2001-9742 ; 30
Keywords
Hållbarhet, miljöpolitik, grön upphandling
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103330 (URN)
Note

USBESDA

Available from: 2015-05-20 Created: 2015-05-20 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lundberg, S., Marklund, P.-O., Strömbäck, E. & Sundström, D. (2015). Using public procurement to implement environmental policy: an empirical analysis. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, 17(4), 487-520
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using public procurement to implement environmental policy: an empirical analysis
2015 (English)In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 487-520Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Politicians expect Green public procurement (GPP) to serve as an environmental policy instrument. However, in order for GPP to work as an effective policy instrument it is important to take into consideration potential suppliers’ decisions to participate in the procurement process, the total number of bidders, and the screening of bidders with respect to mandatory green criteria. The aim of this paper is to empirically study GPP in this respect. The analysis presented here is based on data from Swedish cleaning services procurements that are unique in that they contain very detailed information on various environmental standards set by the contracting authorities. We find at best only a weak effect on supplier behavior, and this suggests that the use of GPP in this situation does not live up to its political expectations. 

Keywords
public procurement, auctions, environmental policy, Green Public Procurement, sustainability, purchasing
National Category
Economics and Business Economics
Research subject
biology, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-98079 (URN)10.1007/s10018-015-0102-9 (DOI)000211999000002 ()2-s2.0-84942817185 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Green Public Procurement
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2015-01-15 Created: 2015-01-15 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Brännlund, R., Lundgren, T. & Marklund, P.-O. (2014). Carbon intensity in production and the effects of climate policy – evidence from Swedish industry. Energy Policy, 67, 844-857
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon intensity in production and the effects of climate policy – evidence from Swedish industry
2014 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 67, p. 844-857Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyze carbon intensity performance at firm level and the effectiveness of the Swedish CO2 tax. Carbon intensity performance is derived from a production technology and measured as changes in the CO2 emission-output production ratio. As one of the first countries to introduce a CO2 tax in 1991, Sweden serves as an appropriate "test bench" for analyzing the effectiveness of climate policy in general. Firm level data from Swedish manufacturing spanning over the period 1990-2004 is used for the analysis. Results show that EP has improved in all the sectors and there is an evidence of decoupling of output production growth and CO2 emissions. Firms' carbon intensity performance responds both to changes in the CO2 tax and fossil fuel price, but is more sensitive to the tax.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
CO2 emissions, CO2 tax, Carbon performance
National Category
Economics Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-88438 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2013.12.012 (DOI)000332815300082 ()
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental ResearchSwedish Energy AgencyFormas
Available from: 2014-05-06 Created: 2014-05-06 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lundgren, T., Marklund, P.-O. & zhang, s. (2014). Energy Efficiency in Swedish Industry: a Stochastic Frontier Approach.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Efficiency in Swedish Industry: a Stochastic Frontier Approach
2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper estimates firm level energy efficiency and its determinants in 14 sectors of Swedish manufacturing by using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). We derive energy demand frontiers both from cost minimizing and profit maximizing perspectives. To account for firms’ heterogeneity, Greene’s true random effects model is adopted. Results show that, from both firm behavior perspectives, there is room to improve energy efficiency in all sectors of Swedish manufacturing. The EU ETS seem to have had a moderate or no effect on Swedish firms’ efficient use of energy. Moreover, we found that energy intensity or energy productivity (energy use over production value) is not an appropriate proxy for energy efficiency.

Series
CERE working paper
Keywords
energy demand, energy efficiency, manufacturing, stochastic frontier analysis, true random effects
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-101965 (URN)
Available from: 2015-04-17 Created: 2015-04-17 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Färe, R., Grosskopf, S., Lundgren, T., Marklund, P.-O. & Wechao, Z. (2014). Pollution-generating technologies and environmental efficiency. Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, 12(3), 233-251
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pollution-generating technologies and environmental efficiency
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, ISSN 1476-5284, E-ISSN 1476-5292, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 233-251Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we study environmental efficiency (EE) within a pollution-generating technology. Good output and bad output (pollution) are explicitly modeled by imposing technology properties of disposability and null-jointness. With data on firms from Swedish manufacturing, we investigate the potential to reduce emissions, and we take a closer look at the pulp and paper sector. Dividing the firms into ‘brown’ and ‘green’ firms, we find that there is significant potential, in both categories, to improve EE, and hence lower emissions, of three air pollutants (CO2, SO2, NOx). Generally, the methods and results encourage similar and comparative studies on the manufacturing sector in other countries. If there is a comparable potential elsewhere, such as in major polluting countries like China, there is potential to promote a sustainable society by conducting effective energy and climate policies. We also suggest that treating biofuels as completely carbon neutral, as is common practice when constructing emission data in Sweden (Statistics Sweden), may lead to incorrect EE scores and consequently misleading policy implications.

National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-101959 (URN)10.1080/14765284.2014.931429 (DOI)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2015-04-17 Created: 2015-04-17 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lundgren, T. & Marklund, P.-O. (2013). Assessing the welfare effects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy. Climate Change Economics, 4(1), 1350003
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the welfare effects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy
2013 (English)In: Climate Change Economics, ISSN 2010-0078, E-ISSN 2010-0086, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1350003-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using a growth model that accounts for environmental and climate externalities, we take a closer look at the welfare effects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy, and especially the role of carbon neutrality. As an illustration, a hypothetical intensive forest cultivation project is simulated. Costs and benefits of the project show that only determining the postive effects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy, such as substitution away from fossil fuels and carbon sequestration is not sufficient. But more importantly, to achieve a balanced measure of the effects on the climate, we must also incorporate all carbon emissions that are associated with bioenergy. Not doing so will over-estimate the positive climate effects of increasing the use of bioenergy.Read 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
World Scientific Publishing, 2013
Keywords
Bioenergy, carbon neutrality, dynamic envelope theorem
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-88437 (URN)10.1142/S2010007813500036 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-05-06 Created: 2014-05-06 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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