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Malmberg, Gunnar
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Publications (10 of 42) Show all publications
Olofsson, J., Padyab, M. & Malmberg, G. (2018). Health disparities in Europe’s ageing population: the role of social network. Global Health Action, 11(1), Article ID 1445498.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health disparities in Europe’s ageing population: the role of social network
2018 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 1445498Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Previous research suggests that the social network may play very different roles in relation to health in countries with differing welfare regimes. 

Objective: The study aimed to assess the interplay between social network, socioeconomic position, and self-rated health (SRH) in European countries. 

Methods: The study used cross-sectional data on individuals aged 50+ from the fourth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and includes data from 16 countries. The outcome is poor SRH. All analyses are adjusted for age and stratified by gender. 

Results: Low satisfaction with the social network was associated with poor SRH among women in all country groups, but predicted poor SRH among males in West/Central and Eastern Europe only. The results from the multivariable analysis showed an increased likelihood of poor SRH among those with relatively lower education, as well as among those with low satisfaction with the social network (women from all country groups and men from Western/Central and Eastern Europe). However, the results from interaction analysis show that poor SRH for those with lower relative position in educational level was greater among those with higher satisfaction with the social network among male and female participants from Northern Europe. The health of individuals who are highly satisfied with their social network is more associated with socioeconomic status in Northern Europe. 

Conclusions: This study highlights the significance of social network and socioeconomic gradients in health among the elderly in Europe.

Keywords
self-rated health (SRH), ageing, Europe, social network, Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)
National Category
Human Geography Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145933 (URN)10.1080/16549716.2018.1445498 (DOI)000427797400001 ()29553305 (PubMedID)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2013- 2506
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Kulu, H., Lundholm, E. & Malmberg, G. (2018). Is spatial mobility on the rise or in decline?: An order-specific analysis of the migration of young adults in Sweden. Population Studies, 72(3), 323-337
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is spatial mobility on the rise or in decline?: An order-specific analysis of the migration of young adults in Sweden
2018 (English)In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 323-337Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to investigate spatial mobility over time. Research on 'new mobilities' suggests increasing movement of individuals, technology, and information. By contrast, studies of internal migration report declining spatial mobility in recent decades. Using longitudinal register data from Sweden, we calculate annual order-specific migration rates to investigate the spatial mobility of young adults over the last three decades. We standardize mobility rates for educational enrolment, educational level, family status, and place of residence to determine how much changes in individuals' life domains explain changes in mobility. Young adults' migration rates increased significantly in the 1990s; although all order-specific migration rates increased, first migration rates increased the most. Changes in population composition, particularly increased enrolment in higher education, accounted for much of the elevated spatial mobility in the 1990s. The analysis supports neither ever increasing mobility nor a long-term rise in rootedness among young adults in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
migration, mobility, life course, young adults, standardization, order-specific analysis, Sweden
National Category
Social and Economic Geography Human Geography
Research subject
Population studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148405 (URN)10.1080/00324728.2018.1451554 (DOI)000456729900003 ()29663847 (PubMedID)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2018-06-05 Created: 2018-06-05 Last updated: 2019-02-20Bibliographically approved
Olofsson, J., Sandow, E., Findlay, A. & Malmberg, G. (2017). The importance of geographical scale in explaining the return migration of young adults to the parental home and to the parental neighbourhood.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of geographical scale in explaining the return migration of young adults to the parental home and to the parental neighbourhood
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper makes two original contributions to research on the return migration of young adults to the parental home. First it argues that the numerical significance and complexity of return moves by young people to their parental home (boomeranging) is greater than has previously been recognised. Secondly we show that the determinants and associates of return migration vary significantly when analysed at two different geographical scales – the parental home and the parental neighbourhood area. We compare boomerang mobility behaviour in Sweden to work undertaken previously in the United Kingdom. By using longitudinal data (1986 to 2009) on four cohorts of young adults we find that boomeranging to parents’ home is an increasing mobility behaviour in Sweden associated with economic vulnerability, such as leaving higher education or entering unemployment, and partnership dissolution. While returning to parents’ home can offer financial support in times of life course reversal, we found gender differences indicating a larger independence among young women than men. Returning to the parental neighbourhood is found to be a much wider phenomenon than return to co-residence with parents, involving migration decisions of more economically independent young adults. 

Series
CPC working papers, ISSN 2042-4116 ; 85
Keywords
Boomerang mobility, life course, young adults, longitudinal, returning home
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139904 (URN)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2017-09-26 Created: 2017-09-26 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Olofsson, J. & Malmberg, G. (2016). Äldre europeérs sociala nätverk (1ed.). In: Filip fors och Jenny Olofsson (Ed.), Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse (pp. 63-78). Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Äldre europeérs sociala nätverk
2016 (Swedish)In: Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse / [ed] Filip fors och Jenny Olofsson, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2016, 1, p. 63-78Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

En fråga som hamnat i debattens fokus berör äldres sociala nätverk och hur familjebaserat stöd och omsorg fungerar i olika länder. Måste familj och informella nätverk ta större ansvar när de äldre blir fler och försörjningsbördan i Europa blir allt tyngre? Eller är dagens sociala nätverk för glesa och för geografiskt spridda för att fungera som stöd till de äldre? Har kanske nätverk av vänner och släktingar tappat en del av sin roll när offentliga institutioner tagit över ansvar för de äldres försörjning och omsorg? Fungerar de sociala nätverken möjligen bättre för de äldre i samhällen där familjen ännu har huvudansvaret?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2016 Edition: 1
Keywords
Åldrande befolkning, sociala nätverk, SHARE
National Category
Sociology Human Geography
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118588 (URN)881251 (Local ID)978-91-7601-429-5 (ISBN)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-04-06 Created: 2016-03-23 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Svensson, I., Lundholm, E., De Luna, X. & Malmbeg, G. (2015). Family Life Course and the Timing of Women's Retirement: a Sequence Analysis Approach. Population, Space and Place, 21(8), 856-871
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Family Life Course and the Timing of Women's Retirement: a Sequence Analysis Approach
2015 (English)In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 856-871Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Based on longitudinal data from national Swedish registers, family life courses dynamics for all women born 1935 in Sweden are explored for the period 1990-2006. Focusing primarily on the existence and geographical proximity to parents, children and grandchildren, assuming that the family life courses affect the life situation as well as strategic decisions, this longitudinal study uses a holistic approach, analysing how different types of family life courses are associated with socio-economic conditions as well as with the timing of retirement. The primary task was not to identify the causal determinants of work life exit, but rather to unfold how retirement transition is entwined into the different types of family life courses, whereby retirement and family ageing are different sides of a multifaceted transition period. By using sequence analysis, the family life courses were structured into sequences and durations of states and different family life course categories were identified.

The sequence analyses reveal a complex relation between retirement decisions and having family members around. Early retirement was associated with a category with few relatives but also with a category with two younger generations present, while we found no strong association with early retirement for categories in which the old generation was around for a longer period. Late retirement was associated with belonging to categories characterized by late family formation and having children at home. These differences in retirement behaviour were also significant when controlling for education level, marital status and type of region in a Cox regression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2015
Keywords
family life course; family networks; intergeneration; retirement; sequence analysis
National Category
Human Geography Probability Theory and Statistics
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography; Statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-105426 (URN)10.1002/psp.1950 (DOI)000364638500013 ()881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Projects
Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research / Ageing and Living Conditions Programme
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 349-2008-6592Swedish Research Council, 839-2008-7491Swedish Research Council, 2008-28784-63564-191
Available from: 2015-06-29 Created: 2015-06-23 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Norberg, M., Malmberg, G., Ng, N. & Broström, G. (2015). Use of moist smokeless tobacco (snus) and the risk of development of alcohol dependence: a cohort study in a middle-aged population in Sweden.. Drug And Alcohol Dependence, 149, 151-157
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of moist smokeless tobacco (snus) and the risk of development of alcohol dependence: a cohort study in a middle-aged population in Sweden.
2015 (English)In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 149, p. 151-157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Convincing evidence shows that smoking is associated with alcohol dependence (AD) and a positive correlation between snus and alcohol consumption was previously shown in cross-sectional studies. We performed a longitudinal evaluation of the risk of snus users to develop AD.

METHODS: A cohort study in Västerbotten County, Sweden, linked individual data on socioeconomic situation and health survey data from 21,037 men and women (46.5% men). AD was defined by the CAGE questionnaire and evaluated at baseline 1991-1997 and again after 10 years. The risk of developing AD was assessed using logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching.

RESULTS: 2370 men and 430 women used snus and were without AD at baseline. Over the 10-year period, 499 men and 257 women developed AD, among whom 191 and 26, respectively, were baseline snus users. The crude relative risks of AD for male and female snus users compared to non-users were 1.8 with 95% CI (1.5, 2.2) and 2.9 (2.0, 4.3), respectively. Adjusted logistic regression showed a positive dose-response relationship between snus use and risk of AD. Analyses involving propensity score matching revealed 33 and 17 new cases of AD in men and women, respectively, after 10 years given 1000 men and 1000 women without AD had been baseline snus users rather than non-users. Results for current, previous and never smokers were similar.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of snus is prospectively associated with an increased risk of AD with a dose-response relationship that is independent of smoking status.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-101164 (URN)10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.042 (DOI)000351799200021 ()25707707 (PubMedID)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2015-03-23 Created: 2015-03-23 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Mulder, C. & Malmberg, G. (2014). Local Ties and Family Migration. Environment and planning A, 46(9), 2195-2211
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local Ties and Family Migration
2014 (English)In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 46, no 9, p. 2195-2211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The migration of couples and families has thus far been approached mainly from human-capital and gender perspectives. In this article, we investigate how the male and female partner’s local ties influence the likelihood of family migration. Our hypotheses are that local ties to work and family strongly decrease the likelihood of migrating; that, given the dominating gender structures, ties to the man’s work are more influential than ties to the woman’s work; and that ties to the woman’s family are more influential than ties to the man’s family. We use data from the ASTRID micro database for Sweden, based on administrative information about the entire Swedish population. Logistic regression analysis was applied to moves that exceeded a distance of 50 kilometers for two-gender couples who did not separate in the period December 2004-December 2005. With regard to the likelihood of migrating, we find marked negative associations in the following: working close to home, the presence of parents and siblings nearby, and whether someone lives near the place of birth. The man’s ties to work seem to be more important to the likelihood of migrating than the woman’s, but we find hardly any gender differences in the impact of ties to family.

Keywords
family migration, local ties, distance to family, distance to work
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-93670 (URN)10.1068/a130160p (DOI)000345693400012 ()2-s2.0-84907290705 (Scopus ID)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2014-09-29 Created: 2014-09-29 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Keskitalo, E. C., Malmberg, G., Westin, K., Wiberg, U., Müller, D. K. & Pettersson, Ö. (2013). Contrasting arctic and mainstream Swedish descriptions of Northern Sweden: the view from established domestic research. Arctic, 66(3), 351-365
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contrasting arctic and mainstream Swedish descriptions of Northern Sweden: the view from established domestic research
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2013 (English)In: Arctic, ISSN 0004-0843, E-ISSN 1923-1245, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 351-365Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2011, Sweden released its first-ever Arctic strategy, in preparation for taking over the chairmanship of the Arctic Council, an eight-state cooperation organization. The recent political development that will include Sweden more extensively in Arctic regional cooperation makes it relevant to review and comment on the image of the areas involved from a Swedish viewpoint and to improve the often very brief descriptions of northernmost Sweden in Arctic literature. In this paper, we contrast descriptions of the Arctic in the Arctic Human Development Report (AHDR) with descriptions of northern Sweden in established domestic demographic and regional development research. The study shows that many of the assumptions in the first AHDR to the effect that the eight "Arctic" regions are rather directly comparable in fact reveal substantial differences between areas, with northern Sweden standing in sharp contrast to many of the descriptions. Instead of having a population that is very small, young, and rapidly growing because of a high birth rate, northern Sweden is characterized by relatively dense habitation with a stable and aging population of long-term residents. Moreover, it has a very small and relatively integrated indigenous population with largely the same health situation as in Sweden overall. While depopulation and urbanization are evident in its less populated areas, migration from the region is partly directed at the larger regional centres in the area, following a pattern seen in the Western world at large.

Abstract [fr]

En 2011, au moment où elle se préparait à assumer la présidence du Conseil de l’Arctique, un organisme de collaboration entre huit pays, la Suède a mis en oeuvre sa toute première politique relative à l’Arctique. L’événement politique récent qui a fait en sorte que la Suède devra jouer un rôle plus grand dans la collaboration régionale de l’Arctique incite à analyser l’image des régions qui entrent en jeu du point de vue de la Suède, à porter des commentaires sur cette image ainsi qu’à améliorer les descriptions souvent très brèves de la partie la plus au nord de la Suède que l’on retrouve dans la documentation au sujet de l’Arctique. Dans cet article, nous contrastons les descriptions de l’Arctique figurant dans l’Arctic Human Development Report (AHDR) avec les descriptions du nord de la Suède émanant de travaux de recherche établis sur le développement régional et la démographie intérieure. Cette étude permet de constater que de nombreuses hypothèses du premier rapport AHDR selon lesquelles les huit régions « arctiques » sont plutôt directement comparables révèlent en fait des différences considérables entre les régions, le nord de la Suède représentant un contraste marqué par rapport à grand nombre des autres descriptions. Au lieu d’être doté d’une population très petite, jeune et en croissance rapide attribuable à un taux de natalité élevé, le nord de la Suède est caractérisé par une habitation relativement dense et une population stable et vieillissante composée de résidents de longue date. Par ailleurs, le nord de la Suède comprend une population indigène très petite et relativement intégrée affichant à peu près la même situation de santé que l’ensemble de la Suède. Bien que le dépeuplement et l’urbanisation s’avèrent évidents dans les zones moins peuplées, la migration en partance de cette région est partiellement orientée vers les plus grands centres régionaux de la région, conformément à la tendance générale enregistrée dans le monde occidental.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Arctic Institute of North America, 2013
Keywords
Arctic, Sweden, Arctic Human Development Report, demography, economic development, Arctique, Suède, Arctic Human Development Report, démographie, développement économique
National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-82515 (URN)000325309500010 ()881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2013-11-04 Created: 2013-11-04 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Edvinsson, S., Häggström Lundevaller, E. & Malmberg, G. (2013). Do unequal societies cause death among the elderly?: a study of the health effects of inequality in Swedish municipalities, 2006. Global Health Action, 6(1), Article ID 19116.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do unequal societies cause death among the elderly?: a study of the health effects of inequality in Swedish municipalities, 2006
2013 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 19116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: A lively public and academic debate has highlighted the potential health risk of living in regions and nations characterized by inequality. However, previous research provides an ambiguous picture, with positive association mainly having been found on higher geographical levels. One explanation for this could be that the effect of living in more heterogeneous social settings differs between levels of aggregation. 

Methods: We examine the association between income inequality (using the Gini coefficient) and all-cause mortality in Swedish municipalities in the age group 65-74. A multi-level analysis is applied and we control for e.g. individual income and average income level in the unicipality. The analyses are based on individual register data on all residents born between 1932 and 1941, and outcomes are measured for the year 2006.

Results: Lower individual income as well as lower average income level in the municipality of residence increased mortality significantly. We found an association between income inequality and mortality with excessive deaths in unequal municipalities even after controlling for mean income level and personal income. The results from the analysis of individual data differed substantially from analyses using aggregate data.

Conclusions: Income inequality has a significant association with mortality in the age groups 65 to 75 at municipality level. The association is small compared to many other variables, but it is not negligible. Even in a comparatively equal society like Sweden, we need to consider possible effects of income inequality on mortality at the local level. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keywords
income inequality, mortality, Gini index, Sweden, municipality level, old age
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-62186 (URN)10.3402/gha.v6i0.19116 (DOI)000313737000001 ()23336618 (PubMedID)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2012-12-10 Created: 2012-12-10 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Padyab, M., Malmberg, G., Norberg, M. & Blomstedt, Y. (2013). Life course socioeconomic position and mortality: A population register-based study from Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 41(8), 785-791
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life course socioeconomic position and mortality: A population register-based study from Sweden
2013 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 785-791Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: Adverse social circumstances during one’s life course have been related to an increased risk of mortality. This article extends the literature by focusing on adversity at each phase of, and cumulatively at midlife in the Swedish population.

Methods: Data on socioeconomic indicators from 1970, 1980 and 1990 were linked to death registrations from 2000 to 2009. Relative indices of inequalities were computed for socioeconomic indicators, in order to measure the cumulative impact of inequality on mortality.

Results: A significant cumulative effect of being in the worst-off socioeconomic groups was found. For men, almost all indicators had a significant independent impact on risk of death. Among women, significant independent impacts were found for education in 1990 and for socioeconomic index in the two census years of 1970 and 1980.

Conclusions: Being disadvantaged during longer period in midlife has a significant negative impact on health. Policies targeted to reduce health inequality should focus on every stage of the midlife course.

Keywords
life course, social inequality, health, Sweden
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-71129 (URN)10.1177/1403494813493366 (DOI)000330514500003 ()881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
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