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Santosa, Ailiana
Publications (10 of 12) Show all publications
Lestari, S. K., Ng, N., Kowal, P. & Santosa, A. (2019). Diversity in the Factors Associated with ADL-Related Disability among Older People in Six Middle-Income Countries: A Cross-Country Comparison. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(8), Article ID 1341.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diversity in the Factors Associated with ADL-Related Disability among Older People in Six Middle-Income Countries: A Cross-Country Comparison
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 8, article id 1341Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid population ageing, yet knowledge about disability among older populations in these countries is scarce. This study aims to identify the prevalence and factors associated with disability among people aged 50 years and over in six LMICs. Cross-sectional data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health Wave 1 (2007-2010) in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa was used. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were undertaken to examine the association between sociodemographic factors, health behaviours, chronic conditions, and activities of daily living (ADL) disability. The prevalence of disability among older adults ranged from 16.2% in China to 55.7% in India. Older age, multimorbidity, and depression were the most common factors related to disability in all six countries. Gender was significant in China (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.29), Ghana (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.01-1.48) and India (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.37-1.99). Having no access to social capital was significantly associated with ADL disability in China (OR = 2.57, 95% CI: 1.54-4.31) and South Africa (OR = 4.11, 95% CI: 1.79-9.43). Prevalence data is valuable in these six ageing countries, with important evidence on mitigating factors for each. Identifying determinants associated with ADL disability among older people in LMICs can inform how to best implement health prevention programmes considering different country-specific factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
older adults, physical function, disability, ADL, WHO SAGE, LMICs
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159624 (URN)10.3390/ijerph16081341 (DOI)000467747100034 ()31013975 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Santosa, A. (2017). A better world towards convergence of longevity?. The Lancet, 389(10076), 1278-1279
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A better world towards convergence of longevity?
2017 (English)In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 389, no 10076, p. 1278-1279Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131839 (URN)10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30314-8 (DOI)000397908700006 ()
Note

This is a commentary paper for the published paper with title "Future life expectancy in 35 industrialised countries: projections with a Bayesian model ensemble" in the LANCET 

Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Ng, N., Santosa, A. & Kowal, P. (2017). Sitting time and obesity among older adults in low- and middle-income countries. Paper presented at 10th European Public Health Conference Sustaining resilient and healthy communities Stockholm, Sweden 1–4 November 2017. European Journal of Public Health, 27(Suppl_3), 415-416
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sitting time and obesity among older adults in low- and middle-income countries
2017 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl_3, p. 415-416Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Global industrialisation and economic development lead to changes in physical activity patterns with more sedentary behaviours and increasing sitting time, which are related to obesity. This study aims to identify the association between sedentary behaviour and obesity among older people aged 50+ in six low- and middle-income countries.

Methods: This study utilises data from the WHO's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa. Physical activity level was measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire Version 2 and daily sitting time was recorded in hour. Overweight and obesity was measured through height and weight, with BMI > =25. We conducted logistic regression to analyse the association between physical activity level and total daily sitting time and obesity, controlling for age, sex, highest education level, and living area.

Results: Overweight and obesity prevalence ranged from 14% in India to 76% in the Russian Federation, and was significantly higher among women. The prevalence of low-to-moderate physical activity ranged from 36% in Ghana to 76% in South Africa. About 25% of the Russian population sat 2 hours or less daily, in contrast to 83% of the Mexican population who did so. Sitting more than 2 hours a day increased the odds of overweight and obesity (odds ratio 1.18; 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.29). The associated odds were 1.21 (95%CI 1.08-1.35) and 1.41 (95%CI 1.27-1.56) for those with moderate and low physical activity, compared to those who were more active.

Conclusions: Independent of physical activity level during work, leisure and transport, longer daily sitting time is significantly associated with obesity among older adults. Public health intervention to promote physical activity among older people is crucial in preventing premature chronic disease deaths and promoting active and healthy ageing.

Key messages:

  • The levels of sedentary behaviours among older people in low-and middle-income country are worrying, and are significantly associated with the level of obesity.
  • Reducing sitting time and promoting physical activity among older people are essential strategies to prevent obesity and its impacts on chronic disease and ensuring an active and healthy ageing.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143074 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/ckx186.042 (DOI)000414389804189 ()
Conference
10th European Public Health Conference Sustaining resilient and healthy communities Stockholm, Sweden 1–4 November 2017
Available from: 2017-12-15 Created: 2017-12-15 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Santosa, A. & Byass, P. (2016). Diverse empirical evidence on epidemiological transition in low- and middle-income countries: population-based findings from INDEPTH Network data. PLoS ONE, 11(5), Article ID e0155753.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diverse empirical evidence on epidemiological transition in low- and middle-income countries: population-based findings from INDEPTH Network data
2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 5, article id e0155753Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Low-and middle-income countries are often described as being at intermediate stages of epidemiological transition, but there is little population-based data with reliable cause of death assignment to examine the situation in more detail. Non-communicable diseases are widely seen as a coming threat to population health, alongside receding burdens of infection. The INDEPTH Network has collected empirical population data in a number of health and demographic surveillance sites in low-and middle-income countries which permit more detailed examination of mortality trends over time.

Objective To examine cause-specific mortality trends across all ages at INDEPTH Network sites in Africa and Asia during the period 1992-2012. Emphasis is given to the 15-64 year age group, which is the main focus of concern around the impact of the HIV pandemic and emerging non-communicable disease threats.

Methods INDEPTH Network public domain data from 12 sites that each reported at least five years of cause-specific mortality data were used. Causes of death were attributed using standardised WHO verbal autopsy methods, and mortality rates were standardised for comparison using the INDEPTH standard population. Annual changes in mortality rates were calculated for each site.

Results A total of 96,255 deaths were observed during 9,487,418 person years at the 12 sites. Verbal autopsies were completed for 86,039 deaths (89.4%). There were substantial variations in mortality rates between sites and over time. HIV-related mortality played a major part at sites in eastern and southern Africa. Deaths in the age group 15-64 years accounted for 43% of overall mortality. Trends in mortality were generally downwards, in some cases quite rapidly so. The Bangladeshi sites reflected populations at later stages of transition than in Africa, and were largely free of the effects of HIV/AIDS.

Conclusions To some extent the patterns of epidemiological transition observed followed theoretical expectations, despite the impact of the HIV pandemic having a major effect in some locations. Trends towards lower overall mortality, driven by decreasing infections, were the general pattern. Low-and middle-income country populations appear to be in an era of rapid transition.

Keywords
mortality transition, premature mortality, non-communicable disease, low- and middle incom countries, INDEPTH Network
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103276 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0155753 (DOI)000376282300065 ()
Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2015-05-19 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Santosa, A., Schröders, J., Vaezghasemi, M. & Ng, N. (2016). Inequality in disability-free life expectancies among older men and women in six countries with developing economies. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 70(9), 855-861
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inequality in disability-free life expectancies among older men and women in six countries with developing economies
2016 (English)In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 70, no 9, p. 855-861Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the increase in life expectancy (LE) globally is coupled with a postponement of morbidity and disability. Evidence on trends and determinants of disability-free life expectancies (DFLEs) are available in high-income countries but less in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study examines the levels of and inequalities in LE, disability and DFLE between men and women across different age groups aged 50 years and over in six countries with developing economies.

METHODS: This study utilised the cross-sectional data (n=32 724) from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa in 2007-2010. Disability was measured with the activity of daily living (ADL) instrument. The DFLE was estimated using the Sullivan method based on the standard period life table and ADL-disability proportions.

RESULTS: The disability prevalence ranged from 13% in China to 54% in India. The prevalence of disability was highest and occurred at younger age in both sexes in India. Women were more disadvantaged with higher prevalence of disability across all age groups, and the situation was worst among older women in Mexico and the Russian Federation. Though women had higher LE, their proportion of remaining LE free from disability was lower than men.

CONCLUSIONS: There are inequalities in the levels of disability and DFLE among men and women in different age groups among people aged over 50 years in these six countries. Countermeasures to decrease intercountry and gender gaps in DFLE, including improvements in health promotion and healthcare distribution, with a gender equity focus, are needed.

Keywords
Health expectancy, population ageing, disability, health inequality, low-and middle-income countries
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118872 (URN)10.1136/jech-2015-206640 (DOI)000383291100003 ()26994068 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, Dnr: 2013-2056
Available from: 2016-04-05 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Santosa, A., Rocklöv, J., Högberg, U. & Byass, P. (2015). Achieving a 25% reduction in premature non-communicable disease mortality: the Swedish population as a cohort study. BMC Medicine, 13(65)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achieving a 25% reduction in premature non-communicable disease mortality: the Swedish population as a cohort study
2015 (English)In: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 13, no 65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The 2012 World Health Assembly set a target for Member States to reduce premature non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality by 25% over the period 2010 to 2025. This reflected concerns about increasing NCD mortality burdens among productive adults globally.

OBJECTIVES: We firstly considered whether the WHO target of a 25% reduction in the unconditional probability of dying between ages of 30 and 70 from NCDs (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory diseases) had already taken place in Sweden during an equivalent 15-year period. Secondly, we assessed which population sub-groups had been more or less successful in contributing to overall changes in premature NCD mortality in Sweden.

METHODS: A retrospective dynamic cohort database was constructed from Swedish population registers in the Linnaeus database, covering the entire population in the age range 30-69 years for the period 1991 to 2006, which was used directly to measure reductions in premature NCD mortality. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to assess the contributions of individual background factors to decreases in premature NCD mortality.

RESULTS: A total of 292,320 deaths occurred in the 30-69 year age group during the period 1991 to 2006, against 70,768,848 person-years registered. The crude all-cause mortality rate declined from 5.03 to 3.72 per 1,000 person-years, a 26% reduction. Within this, the unconditional probability of dying between the ages of 30 and 70 from NCD causes as defined by WHO fell by 30.0%. Age was consistently the strongest determinant of NCD mortality. Background determinants of NCD mortality changed significantly over the four time periods 1991-1994, 1995-1998, 1999-2002 and 2003-2006.

CONCLUSIONS: Sweden, now at a late stage of epidemiological transition, has already exceeded the 25% premature NCD mortality reduction target during an earlier 15-year period. This should be encouraging news for countries currently implementing premature NCD mortality reduction programmes. Our findings suggest, however, that it may be difficult for Sweden and other late-transition countries to reach the current 25x25 target, particularly where substantial premature mortality reductions have already been achieved.

Keywords
non-communicable disease, mortality, Sweden, World Health Organization, 25x25 target
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103028 (URN)10.1186/s12916-015-0313-8 (DOI)000352599700001 ()25889300 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-05-15 Created: 2015-05-15 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Santosa, A. (2015). Where are the world’s disease patterns heading?: The challenges of epidemiological transition. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Where are the world’s disease patterns heading?: The challenges of epidemiological transition
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological transition theory, first postulated by Omran in 1971, provides a useful framework for understanding cause-specific mortality changes and may contribute usefully to predictions about cause-specific mortality. However, understandings of mortality transitions and associated epidemiological changes remain poorly defined for public health practitioners due to lack of evidence from low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, understanding of the concept and development of epidemiological transition theory as well as population burden of premature mortality attributable to risk factors is needed.

OBJECTIVES: This thesis aims to understand how epidemiological transition theory has been applied in different contexts, using available evidence on mortality transitions from high, middle- and low- income countries, as well as the contribution of risk factors to mortality transitions, particularly for premature mortality.

METHODS: A Medline literature search from 1971 to 2013 was conducted to synthesise published evidence on mortality transition (paper I). A descriptive analysis of trends in cause of death using INDEPTH data was conducted, focusing on specific causes of death in 12 INDEPTH sites in Africa and Asia, using the INDEPTH 2013 standard population structure for appropriate comparisons across sites (paper II). A retrospective dynamic cohort database was constructed from Swedish population registers for the age range 30-69 years during 1991-2006, to measure reductions in premature non-communicable disease mortality using a life table method (paper III). Prospective cohort data from Västerbotten Intervention Programme from 1990 to 2006 were used to measure the magnitude of premature non-communicable disease mortality reductions associated with risk factor changes for each period of time (paper IV).

FINDINGS: There were changes in emphasis in research on epidemiological transition over the four decades from 1971 to 2013, from cause of death to wide-ranging aspects of the determinants of mortality with increasing research interests in low-and middle-income countries, with some unconsidered aspects of social determinants contributing to deviations from classic theoretical pathways. Mortality rates declined in most sites, with the annual reductions in premature adult mortality varied across INDEPTH sites, Sweden, which now is at late stage of epidemiological transition stage, achieved a 25% reduction in premature mortality during 1991-2006. Overall downward trends in risk factors have helped to reduce premature mortality in the population of Västerbotten County, but some benefits were offset by other increasing risks. The largest mortality changes accrued from reductions in smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia.

CONCLUSIONS: This thesis established patterns of current epidemiological transition in high, middle-and low-income countries (Asia and Africa), where the theory fits the transition patterns in some countries, but with some needs for further adjustments in other settings, as well as deviations from the classical ET theory in the last four decades. It highlights the need to identify the burden of mortality and morbidity, particularly for reducing mortality occurring before the age of 70 years and its attribution to risk factors, which are a major public health challenge. This informs shifting of public health priorities and resources towards prevention and control of chronic non-communicable disease risk factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2015. p. 66
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1728
Keywords
epidemiological transition, premature mortality, non-communicable disease, risk factors, Sweden, low-and middle-income countries, INDEPTH Network, Västerbotten Intervention Programme
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103281 (URN)978-91-7601-289-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-12, Room 135, Family Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-05-22 Created: 2015-05-19 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Santosa, A., Rocklöv, J., Högberg, U. & Byass, P. (2014). Socio-demographic predictors of mortality inequality among Swedish men and women: a longitudinal study. In: 7th European Public Health Conference Mind the gap: Reducing inequalities in health and health care Glasgow, 19–22 November 2014: . Paper presented at 7th European Public Health Conference, Glasgow, November 19-22, 2014 (pp. 188-189). Oxford University Press, 24
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Socio-demographic predictors of mortality inequality among Swedish men and women: a longitudinal study
2014 (English)In: 7th European Public Health Conference Mind the gap: Reducing inequalities in health and health care Glasgow, 19–22 November 2014, Oxford University Press, 2014, Vol. 24, p. 188-189Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Despite increasing life expectancy in many countries, health and mortality inequality exist. This study aimed to assess overall and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality trends among Swedish men and women during 1992-2006, and their association with individual level socio-demographic determinants of mortality inequality.

Methods: Data were extracted from the Linnaeus Database which consists of register and survey data. A multilevel Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the number and mortality rate, as well as individual level determinants (fixed effects) of overall and CVD deaths for men and women at county level (n = 24) in each 5-year period during 1992-2006. We also assessed the random effect at county level.

Results: A total of 9,098,090 individuals accumulating 115,361,104 person years was included in this study. A significant reduction in overall and CVD mortality rates occurred among Swedish men and women during the study period 1992-2006, with persisting excess male: female mortality. Older age and pensioner, unmarried or widowed individuals, low and middle education levels and employed individuals with low income (the lowest income tertile) were consistently associated with higher mortality rates of overall and CVD mortality in men and women. Individuals with tertiary education level and being immigrant was protective factors for overall mortality, but less so for CVD mortality. The multilevel analysis revealed that about 85% and 80% of the variation of overall and CVD mortality at county level, respectively, could be explained by the individual socio-demographic variables.

Conclusions: Inequality in overall and CVD mortality still exists among Swedish men and women, and to some extend are influenced by county level determinants. Contextual epidemiology must therefore play a decisive role in understanding social disparities in overall and CVD mortality in Sweden.

Key messages:

  • Overall, individual factors played a more important part in understanding the differences of overall and CVD mortality than contextual factors within the same area in men and women in Swedish context.

  • Health policy actions aiming to reduce health inequality should be addressed not only focusing on individual characteristics but also on geographical factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2014
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124731 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cku163.087 (DOI)
Conference
7th European Public Health Conference, Glasgow, November 19-22, 2014
Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Santosa, A., Wall, S., Fottrell, E., Högberg, U. & Byass, P. (2014). The development and experience of epidemiological transition theory over four decades: a systematic review. Global Health Action, 7, Article ID 23574.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The development and experience of epidemiological transition theory over four decades: a systematic review
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2014 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 7, article id 23574Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological transition (ET) theory, first postulated in 1971, has developed alongside changes in population structures over time. However, understandings of mortality transitions and associated epidemiological changes remain poorly defined for public health practitioners. Here, we review the concept and development of ET theory, contextualising this in empirical evidence, which variously supports and contradicts the original theoretical propositions.

DESIGN: A Medline literature search covering publications over four decades, from 1971 to 2013, was conducted. Studies were included if they assessed human populations, were original articles, focused on mortality and health or demographic or ET and were in English. The reference lists of the selected articles were checked for additional sources.

RESULTS: We found that there were changes in emphasis in the research field over the four decades. There was an increasing tendency to study wide-ranging aspects of the determinants of mortality, including risk factors, lifestyle changes, socio-economics, and macro factors such as climate change. Research on ET has focused increasingly on low- and middle-income countries rather than industrialised countries, despite its origins in industrialised countries. Countries have experienced different levels of progress in ET in terms of time, pace, and underlying mechanisms. Elements of ET are described for many countries, but observed transitions have not always followed pathways described in the original theory.

CONCLUSIONS: The classic ET theory largely neglected the critical role of social determinants, being largely a theoretical generalisation of mortality experience in some countries. This review shows increasing interest in ET all over the world but only partial concordance between established theory and empirical evidence. Empirical evidence suggests that some unconsidered aspects of social determinants contributed to deviations from classic theoretical pathways. A better-constructed, revised ET theory, with a stronger basis in evidence, is needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CoAction Publishing, 2014
Keywords
epidemiological transition, demographic transition, mortality, social determinants
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-90531 (URN)10.3402/gha.v7.23574 (DOI)000336456100003 ()24848657 (PubMedID)
Note

Special Issue: Epidemiological Transitions – Beyond Omran’s Theory

Available from: 2014-06-24 Created: 2014-06-24 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Ng, N., Hakimi, M., Santosa, A., Byass, P., Wilopo, S. A. & Wall, S. (2012). Is Self-Rated Health an Independent Index for Mortality among Older People in Indonesia?. PLoS ONE, 7(4), e35308
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is Self-Rated Health an Independent Index for Mortality among Older People in Indonesia?
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2012 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 4, p. e35308-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Empirical studies on the association between self-rated health (SRH) and subsequent mortality are generally lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The evidence on whether socio-economic status and education modify this association is inconsistent. This study aims to fill these gaps using longitudinal data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in Indonesia.

METHODS: In 2010, we assessed the mortality status of 11,753 men and women aged 50+ who lived in Purworejo HDSS and participated in the INDEPTH WHO SAGE baseline in 2007. Information on self-rated health, socio-demographic indicators, disability and chronic disease were collected through face-to-face interview at baseline. We used Cox-proportional hazards regression for mortality and included all variables measured at baseline, including interaction terms between SRH and both education and socio-economic status (SES).

RESULTS: During an average of 36 months follow-up, 11% of men and 9.5% of women died, resulting in death rates of 3.1 and 2.6 per 1,000 person-months, respectively. The age-adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) for mortality was 17% higher in men than women (HR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.04-1.31). After adjustment for covariates, the hazard ratios for mortality in men and women reporting bad health were 3.0 (95% CI = 2.0-4.4) and 4.9 (95% CI = 3.2-7.4), respectively. Education and SES did not modify this association for either sex.

CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the predictive power of bad self-rated health for subsequent mortality in rural Indonesian men and women 50 years old and over. In these analyses, education and household socio-economic status do not modify the relationship between SRH and mortality. This means that older people who rate their own health poorly should be an important target group for health service interventions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
San Francisco: Public Library of Science, 2012
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-55115 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0035308 (DOI)000305345000056 ()22523584 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-05-08 Created: 2012-05-08 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
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