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Fors, Filip
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Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Hjerm, M., Eger, M. A., Bohman, A. & Fors Connolly, F. (2019). A New Approach to the Study of Tolerance: Conceptualizing and Measuring Acceptance, Respect, and Appreciation of Difference. Social Indicators Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Approach to the Study of Tolerance: Conceptualizing and Measuring Acceptance, Respect, and Appreciation of Difference
2019 (English)In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Previous empirical research on tolerance suffers from a number of shortcomings, the most serious being the conceptual and operational conflation of (in)tolerance and prejudice. We design research to remedy this. First, we contribute to the literature by advancing research that distinguishes analytically between the two phenomena. We conceptualize tolerance as a value orientation towards difference. This definition—which is abstract and does not capture attitudes towards specific out-groups, ideas, or behaviors—allows for the analysis of tolerance within and between societies. Second, we improve the measurement of tolerance by developing survey items that are consistent with this conceptualization. We administer two surveys, one national (Sweden) and one cross-national (Australia, Denmark, Great Britain, Sweden, and the United States). Results from structural equation models show that tolerance is best understood as a three-dimensional concept, which includes acceptance of, respect for, and appreciation of difference. Analyses show that measures of tolerance have metric invariance across countries, and additional tests demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. We also assess tolerance’s relationship to prejudice and find that only an appreciation of difference has the potential to reduce prejudice. We conclude that it is not only possible to measure tolerance in a way that is distinct from prejudice but also necessary if we are to understand the causes and consequences of tolerance.

Keywords
tolerance, prejudice, SEM, survey
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162606 (URN)10.1007/s11205-019-02176-y (DOI)
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177
Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2019-10-09
Fors Connolly, F., Goossen, M. & Hjerm, M. (2019). Does Gender Equality Cause Gender Differences in Values?: Reassessing the Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox. Sex Roles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does Gender Equality Cause Gender Differences in Values?: Reassessing the Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox
2019 (English)In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

The Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox (GEPP) is the finding that gender differences in personality are at their largest in the most gender equal countries. Previous known studies have not examined this relationship over time. Examining this linkage is crucial to our understanding of gender differences and personality development. In the present study, we contrast evolutionary perspectives predicting a gender divergence in personality due to progression in gender equality against biosocial perspectives predicting convergence. Using data from all eight rounds of the European Social Survey (n = 235,339) across 32 European countries, we report three findings. First, in accordance with the evolutionary perspective, country-level gender equality is positively associated with gender differences in basic human values. Second, in accordance with the biosocial perspective, we find evidence supporting gender convergence in basic human values. Third, contradicting both evolutionary and biosocial assumptions, we find no evidence that gender equality causes gender differences in values. We argue that there is a need to explore alternative explanations to the observed cross-sectional association between gender equality and personality differences, as well as gender convergence in personality over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Gender Studies
Research subject
Sociology; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163865 (URN)
Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2019-10-10
Bongard, R., Fors Connolly, F. & Johansson Sevä, I. (2019). Hur mår företagaren?: En rapport om välbefinnande och livstillfredsställelse. Stockholm: Företagarna
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hur mår företagaren?: En rapport om välbefinnande och livstillfredsställelse
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Företagarna, 2019. p. 29
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159276 (URN)
Available from: 2019-05-23 Created: 2019-05-23 Last updated: 2019-05-24Bibliographically approved
Berlin, M. & Fors Connolly, F. (2019). The Association Between Life Satisfaction and Affective Well-Being. Journal of Economic Psychology, 73, 34-51
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Association Between Life Satisfaction and Affective Well-Being
2019 (English)In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 73, p. 34-51Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We estimate the correlation between life satisfaction and affect—two conceptually distinct dimensions of subjective well-being. We propose a simple model that distinguishes between a stable and a transitory component of affect, and which also accounts for measurement error in self-reports of both variables, including current-mood bias effects on life satisfaction judgments. The model is estimated using momentarily measured well-being data, from an experience sampling survey that we conducted on a population sample of Swedes aged 18–50 (n=252). Our main estimates of the correlation between life satisfaction and long-run affective well-being range between 0.78 and 0.91, indicating a stronger convergence between these variables than many previous studies that do not account for measurement issues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Subjective well-being, Life satisfaction, Affective well-being, Measurement error, Reliability
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158830 (URN)10.1016/j.joep.2019.04.010 (DOI)000479024400003 ()
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Fors Connolly, F. & Johansson Sevä, I. (2018). Social status and life satisfaction in context: a comparison between Sweden and the USA. International Journal of Wellbeing, 8(2), 110-134
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social status and life satisfaction in context: a comparison between Sweden and the USA
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Wellbeing, ISSN 1179-8602, E-ISSN 1179-8602, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 110-134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has shown that social status is an important predictor of life satisfaction (LS). However, researchers have largely focused on the United States, which raises questions about the extent to which the cultural context moderates the relationship between social status and LS. In this paper, we argue that the dominant cultural orientations in society most likely influence the strength of the relationship between social status and LS. Cultural orientations emphasizing competition, achievement and assertiveness should increase the positive influence of social status on LS, while cultural emphases on cooperation, equality and humility instead weakens the effect of status. We therefore analyze the social status-LS relationship in two distinctly different cultural contexts, i.e., Sweden and the United States. Based on theories about national differences in cultural value orientations, we argue that social status should be of more importance in the US compared to in Sweden, since the dominant values and ideals emphasize hierarchy, mastery and masculinity, while the Swedish culture represents an opposite pole by emphasizing egalitarianism, harmony, and femininity. We formulate a number of hypotheses and use survey data to examine the extent to which both social status attainment and social status seeking are related to LS in both countries. The results show that socioeconomic status (income) and sociometric status (perceived respect and admiration in everyday life) have a stronger influence on LS in the US compared to in Sweden. Further, the findings show that social status seeking (low honesty-humility) has a positive relationship to LS in the US, but is negatively related in Sweden. The results also show that gender differences in the relationship between social status and LS are more pronounced in the US compared to in Sweden. We conclude that both the attainment and pursuit of social status are more important for LS in the American cultural context compared to in the Swedish, especially among men. These findings are in line with our expectations, based on the opposing cultural orientations in Sweden and the US. The study contributes to the literature on the relationship between social status and LS, but also to the more general literature on the moderating influence of culture on the predictors of LS.

Keywords
subjective well-being, SWB, social status, cultural orientations, socioeconomic status, sociometric status, status seeking, Sweden, USA
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology; Social Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153932 (URN)10.5502/ijw.v8i2.710 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-1117
Available from: 2018-12-09 Created: 2018-12-09 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Fors, F. & Brülde, B. (2017). Har vi det bättre på jobbet eller på fritiden?. In: Ulrika Andersson, Jonas Ohlsson, Henrik Oscarsson och Maria Oskarson (Ed.), Larmar och gör sig till: SOM-undersökningen 2016 (pp. 211-222). Göteborg: SOM-institutet, Göteborgs universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Har vi det bättre på jobbet eller på fritiden?
2017 (Swedish)In: Larmar och gör sig till: SOM-undersökningen 2016 / [ed] Ulrika Andersson, Jonas Ohlsson, Henrik Oscarsson och Maria Oskarson, Göteborg: SOM-institutet, Göteborgs universitet , 2017, p. 211-222Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

I det här kapitlet undersöker vi hur det är ställt med välbefinnandet och meningsfullheten på arbetet och på fritiden, i dagens Sverige. Våra data pekar på att den del av svenska folket som förvärvsarbetar mår bättre på fritiden än på arbetet, medan upplevelsen av meningsfullhet snarare är starkare på jobbet än på fritiden. Någon fullständig förklaring till människors välbefinnande och meningsfullhet – på jobbet och på fritiden – kan vi inte ge, men våra begränsade analyser visar bland annat att företagare har högre välbefinnande och meningsfullhet på jobbet, medan höga inkomster framför allt är förknippade med högre välbefinnande och meningsfullhet på fritiden. Vi kan också se att individer som motionerar mycket på sin fritid upplever både högre välbefinnande och meningsfullhet på fritiden, men inte på arbetet. Avslutningsvis finner vi att fritiden tycks vara viktigare än jobbet för de som förvärvsarbetar: graden av välbefinnande och meningsfullhet på fritiden spelar en betydligt större roll för hur nöjda svenskarna är med sina liv som helhet, jämfört med hur mycket välbefinnande och meningsfullhet de upplever på arbetet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: SOM-institutet, Göteborgs universitet, 2017
Series
SOM-rapport ; 70
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153957 (URN)9789189673397 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
Stattin, M. & Fors, F. (2016). Arbete, pensionering och hälsa bland äldre i Europa. In: Filip Fors och Jenny Olofsson (Ed.), Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse (pp. 119-134). Umeå: Sociologiska Institutionen, Umeå Universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arbete, pensionering och hälsa bland äldre i Europa
2016 (Swedish)In: Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse / [ed] Filip Fors och Jenny Olofsson, Umeå: Sociologiska Institutionen, Umeå Universitet , 2016, p. 119-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Sociologiska Institutionen, Umeå Universitet, 2016
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159273 (URN)9789176014295 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-05-23 Created: 2019-05-23 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Fors, F. & Kulin, J. (2016). Bringing Affect Back In: Measuring and Comparing Subjective Well-being across Countries. Social Indicators Research, 127(1), 323-339
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bringing Affect Back In: Measuring and Comparing Subjective Well-being across Countries
2016 (English)In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 127, no 1, p. 323-339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years, researchers and policymakers have paid increasing attention to cross-country comparisons of subjective well-being. Whereas classical theories of quality of life emphasize the central role of affective well-being (i.e., whether a person feels good or bad), previous comparative studies have focused almost exclusively on life satisfaction (i.e., cognitive evaluations of life). This study brings affect into the comparative study of subjective well-being, constructing a new measurement instrument that captures both the affective and cognitive dimensions of subjective well-being. Using European Social Survey data and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we estimate latent country means for the two dimensions and compare country rankings across the two measures. The results reveal important differences in country rankings depending on whether one focuses on affective well-being or life satisfaction. We identify crucial differences among top-ranking countries and, perhaps even more importantly, considerable differences in rankings among more moderately ranking countries. In a second step, we compare and evaluate the single-item measures commonly used in previous research with the results based on our new measures. We conclude by discussing our results in relation to previous studies, and in terms of their possible implications for future research and for policymakers bent on improving national levels of subjective well-being. 

Keywords
Subjective well-being, Affective well-being, Life satisfaction, Quality of life, Comparative, CFA
National Category
Social Psychology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-101074 (URN)10.1007/s11205-015-0947-0 (DOI)000373620800014 ()
Available from: 2015-03-19 Created: 2015-03-19 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Gärling, T., Gamble, A., Fors, F. & Hjerm, M. (2016). Emotional Well-Being Related to Time Pressure, Impediment to Goal Progress, and Stress-Related Symptoms. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(5), 1789-1799
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotional Well-Being Related to Time Pressure, Impediment to Goal Progress, and Stress-Related Symptoms
2016 (English)In: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 1789-1799Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose that emotional well-being in everyday life is partially related to the balance of positive and negative affect associated with everyday routine activities. Factors that interfere with positive affect associated with such activities would therefore have negative impacts on emotional well-being. Supporting that time pressure is one such factor, we find in Study 1 for a representative sample of Swedish employees (n = 1507) answering a survey questionnaire that emotional well-being has a negative relationship to time pressure. In Study 2 we test the hypothesis that the negative effect of time pressure on emotional well-being is jointly mediated by impediment to goal progress and time stress. In another survey questionnaire a sample of Swedish employees (n = 240) answered retrospective questions about emotional well-being at work and off work, experienced impediment to goal progress, experienced time pressure, and stress-related symptoms. Statistical mediation analyses supported the proposed hypothesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keywords
Emotional well-being, Time pressure, Time stress, Goal progress
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Sociology
Research subject
Psychology; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106990 (URN)10.1007/s10902-015-9670-4 (DOI)000386374400002 ()
Available from: 2015-08-13 Created: 2015-08-13 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Fors, F. (2016). Lyckligare och lyckligare dag för dag?. In: Filip Fors och Jenny Olofsson (Ed.), Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse (pp. 51-62). Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå Universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lyckligare och lyckligare dag för dag?
2016 (Swedish)In: Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse / [ed] Filip Fors och Jenny Olofsson, Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå Universitet , 2016, p. 51-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå Universitet, 2016
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159271 (URN)9789176014295 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-05-23 Created: 2019-05-23 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
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