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Westerlund, Olle
Publications (10 of 52) Show all publications
Eliasson, K. & Westerlund, O. (2018). Regional agglomeration of skills and earnings: from convergence to divergence?. Östersund
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regional agglomeration of skills and earnings: from convergence to divergence?
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we analyse the geographical distribution of skills and the human capital content of migration flows between Swedish local labour markets. The study is based on detailed longitudinal population register data. During the last three decades, we find a distinct pattern of skill divergence across regions. The uneven distribution of human capital is reinforced by the mobility of the highly educated population. The pattern of skill divergence coincides with declining or even reversed income convergence across Swedish regions. The skilled regions become both more skilled and richer, while the less skilled regions lag behind. This development has potentially important implications for both regional and national economic policy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: , 2018. p. 49
Series
Tillväxtanalys PM ; 2018:09
Keywords
Agglomeration, Skills, Migration, Regional Divergence
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147920 (URN)
Note

Westerlund acknowledge financial support from Tillväxtanalys (The Swedish Agence for Growth Policy Analysis)

Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Östbye, S., Moilanen, M., Tervo, H. & Westerlund, O. (2018). The creative class: do jobs follow people or do people follow jobs?. Regional studies, 52(6), 745-755
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The creative class: do jobs follow people or do people follow jobs?
2018 (English)In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 745-755Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Regional adjustment models are applied to explore causal interaction between two types of people distinguished by educational attainment, and two types of jobs, creative class jobs and other jobs. Data used are for labour market regions in Finland, Norway and Sweden from the 2000s. Creative class jobs follow people with high educational attainment (oneway causation), but creative class jobs also follow main jobs and vice versa (circular causation). The results suggest that stimulating creative class job growth could be accomplished through attracting people with higher education, but also through attracting main sector business with the added benefit that the initial stimulus would be reinforced through circular and cumulative causation between job creation in the two sectors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
creative class, regional adjustment, sectoral dynamics, Northern Europe
National Category
Economics Work Sciences
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-128119 (URN)10.1080/00343404.2016.1254765 (DOI)000430097800002 ()2-s2.0-85010004832 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2006-21576-36119-66Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2006–1010
Available from: 2016-11-23 Created: 2016-11-23 Last updated: 2018-09-12Bibliographically approved
Tano, S., Nakosteen, R. A., Westerlund, O. & Zimmer, M. (2018). Youth-age characteristics as precursors of power couple formation and location choice. Labour Economics, 52, 98-111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Youth-age characteristics as precursors of power couple formation and location choice
2018 (English)In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 52, p. 98-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper extends the literature on highly educated “power” couples. Its objectives are twofold. First, it examines the extent to which precursors of power couple formation are evident in young people during their years of compulsory schooling. Second, we examine location choices at adult ages by accounting for youth-age characteristics in addition to adult-age power status. Using Swedish register data, we produce evidence that power couples evolve from matching of spouses who were high academic achievers during the schooling years. Regarding location choice, our results indicate that power couples are characterized by a disproportionate tendency to migrate from their regions of origin to large labour markets. The evidence also points to latent self selection in both spouse matching and location choice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Power couples, Migration, Location choice, Spouse selection
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147591 (URN)10.1016/j.labeco.2018.04.005 (DOI)000436913700009 ()2-s2.0-85046038142 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Ageing and Living Conditions
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2006-21576-36119-66
Available from: 2018-05-09 Created: 2018-05-09 Last updated: 2018-09-21Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, P., Sandow, E. & Westerlund, O. (2016). Commuting and timing of retirement. The annals of regional science, 56(1), 125-152
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Commuting and timing of retirement
2016 (English)In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 125-152Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Interregional commuting is an important feature of labour supply and regional labour market adjustment. In this study, we examine the effect of long-distance commuting (LDC) on timing of retirement. Previous research indicates negative health effects and substantial disutility of commuting. Potentially, this may affect the labour supply of older workers via early retirement. Longitudinal population register data from Sweden on employed older workers are used for semi-parametric estimation of survival in the labour force. The results for men indicate shorter survival in the labour force/ earlier retirement for LDCs, primarily among men with high education. For women, there is no evidence of LDC being associated with early retirement. For women with high education, there are indications of longer survival in the labour force among the commuters. The seemingly contradictory results for the highly educated may be due to gender differences in commuting distances and socio-economic attributes of commuters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2016
Keywords
Commuting, Retirement, Geographical Mobility, Older Workers
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics; Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111303 (URN)10.1007/s00168-015-0723-8 (DOI)000373579900006 ()
Projects
ALC
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2006-21576-36119-66Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2006-1010
Available from: 2015-11-12 Created: 2015-11-12 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Stenberg, A. & Westerlund, O. (2016). Flexibility at a cost: Should governments stimulate tertiary education for adults?. The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, 7, 69-86
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexibility at a cost: Should governments stimulate tertiary education for adults?
2016 (English)In: The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, ISSN 2212-828X, Vol. 7, p. 69-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract: Most OECD countries experience high unemployment rates and declining growth in higher educational attainment. An often suggested government policy is therefore to allocate resources towards formal schooling for adults. However, returns on such investments are uncertain and the foregone earnings are potentially large. We use Swedish population register data from 1982 to 2011 to estimate average long run earnings returns on higher education for 29- to 55-year-olds who enrolled 1992-1993. We find substantial positive estimates, but these only fully emerge after approximately ten years. Nevertheless, calculations indicate that the benefits for society exceed the costs also under fairly pessimistic assumptions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Adult Education, Human Capital, Earnings, Life-long Learning
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117106 (URN)10.1016/j.jeoa.2016.01.001 (DOI)000377117700009 ()
Projects
Ageing and Living Conditions
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2006-21576-36119-66
Available from: 2016-02-22 Created: 2016-02-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Sundström, A., Westerlund, O. & Kotyrlo, E. (2016). Marital status and risk of dementia: a nationwide population-based prospective study from Sweden. BMJ Open, 6(1), Article ID e008565.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marital status and risk of dementia: a nationwide population-based prospective study from Sweden
2016 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, no 1, article id e008565Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To examine the association between marital status and dementia in a cohort of young-old (50-64) and middle-old (65-74) adults, and also whether this may differ by gender. Design: Prospective population-based study with follow-up time of up to 10 years. Setting: Swedish national register-based study. Participants: 2 288 489 individuals, aged 5074 years, without prior dementia diagnosis at baseline. Dementia was identified using the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. Outcome measures: The influence of marital status on dementia was analysed using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted stepwise for multiple covariates (model 1: adjusted for age and gender; and model 2: additionally adjusted for having adult children, education, income and prior cardiovascular disease). Results: During follow-up, 31 572 individuals in the study were identified as demented. Cox regression showed each non-married subcategory to be associated with a significantly higher risk of dementia than the married group, with the highest risk observed among people in the young-old age group, especially among those who were divorced or single (HRs 1.79 vs 1.71, fully adjusted model). Analyses stratified by gender showed gender differences in the young-old group, with indications of divorced men having a higher relative risk compared with divorced women (HRs 2.1 vs 1.7, only-age adjusted model). However, in the fully adjusted model, these differences were attenuated and there was no longer any significant difference between male and female participants. Conclusions: Our results suggest that those living alone as non-marrieds may be at risk for early-onset and late-onset dementia. Although more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanism by which marital status is associated with dementia, this suggests that social relationships should be taken seriously as a risk factor for dementia and that social-based interventions may provide an opportunity to reduce the overall dementia risk.

National Category
Psychology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117847 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008565 (DOI)000369993900026 ()26729377 (PubMedID)
Projects
Ageing and Living Conditions ALC
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2006-21576-36119-66Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P11-0876:1
Available from: 2016-03-16 Created: 2016-03-04 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Berck, P., Tano, S. & Westerlund, O. (2016). Regional sorting of human capital: the choice of location among young adults in Sweden. Regional studies, 50(5), 757-770
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regional sorting of human capital: the choice of location among young adults in Sweden
2016 (English)In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 757-770Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Migration rates are highest among young adults, especially students, and their location choices affect the regional distribution of human capital, growth and local public sector budgets. Using Swedish register data on young adults, the choice of whether to enroll in education and the choice of location are estimated jointly. The results indicate a systematic selection into investment in further education based on school grades and associated preferences for locations with higher per capita tax bases. For students, the estimates indicate lower preferences for locations with higher shares of older people.  The importance of family networks for the choice of location is confirmed.    

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keywords
location choice, human capital, agglomeration, local public sector
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics; Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-89030 (URN)10.1080/00343404.2014.931935 (DOI)000372971700001 ()2-s2.0-84905321423 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Ageing and Living Conditions,Relocation of Governmental Agencies, Labour Mobility and Rural Development
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2006-21576-36119-66Swedish Research Council Formas, 251-2007-2079
Available from: 2014-05-21 Created: 2014-05-20 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Stenberg, A. & Westerlund, O. (2015). Flexibility at a Cost: Should Governments Stimulate Tertiary Education for Adults?. Bonn: IZA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexibility at a Cost: Should Governments Stimulate Tertiary Education for Adults?
2015 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Most OECD countries experience high unemployment rates and declining growth in higher educational attainment. An often suggested government policy is therefore to allocate resources towards formal schooling for adults. However, returns on such investments are uncertain and the foregone earnings are potentially large. We use Swedish population register data from 1982 to 2011 to estimate average long run earnings returns on higher education for 29- to 55-year-olds who enrolled 1992-1993. We find substantial positive estimates, but these only fully emerge after approximately ten years. Nevertheless, calculations indicate that the benefits for society exceed the costs also under fairly pessimistic assumptions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bonn: IZA, 2015. p. 46
Series
IZA Discussion Papers ; 9047
Keywords
Adult Education, Human Capital, Earnings
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103321 (URN)
Projects
ALC
Funder
Riksbankens JubileumsfondSwedish Research Council, 2006-21576- 36119-66
Available from: 2015-05-20 Created: 2015-05-20 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Stenberg, A. & Westerlund, O. (2015). Kunskapslyft för arbetslösa genom generell utbildning istället för yrkesinriktade program?. Ekonomisk Debatt, 43(1), 24-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kunskapslyft för arbetslösa genom generell utbildning istället för yrkesinriktade program?
2015 (Swedish)In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 24-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Det finns en internationellt utbredd uppfattning bland såväl forskare som politiker att arbetsmarknadspolitisk utbildning bör vara yrkesinriktad. Ett undantag från denna ståndpunkt utgjordes av reformen Kunskapslyftet 1997–2002, som tillät arbetslösa att välja generella studier vid Komvux. Hypotetiskt kan generella kunskaper göra individer mer flexibla inför förändringar på arbetsmarknaden och därför på lång sikt vara en mer effektiv utbildningsåtgärd. I denna studie jämförs arbetsinkomster 1990–2010 för arbetslösa individer som 1997 deltog i program med yrkesinriktad respektive generell utbildning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Nationalekonomiska föreningen, 2015
Keywords
Vuxenutbildning, Arbetsmarknadsutbildning, Arbetslösa, Inkomster
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-97507 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2014-12-18 Created: 2014-12-18 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Stenberg, A. & Westerlund, O. (2015). The long-term earnings consequences of general vs. specific training of the unemployed. IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, 4, 1-26, Article ID 22.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The long-term earnings consequences of general vs. specific training of the unemployed
2015 (English)In: IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, E-ISSN 2193-9012, Vol. 4, p. 1-26, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Training programs for the unemployed typically involve training specific skills in demand amongst employers. In 1997, Swedish unemployed could also choose general schooling at the upper secondary level. This offers a unique opportunity to assess the theoretically ambiguous long-term relative earnings of general vs. specific training for unemployed. Analyzing detailed administrative data 1990–2010, we find 1) that specific training is associated with higher earnings in the short run, 2) that earnings converge 5–7 years post program and 3) that individuals act on their comparative advantages. When we extrapolate our estimates to life-time earnings, there is overall a relative advantage of specific training. However, for females with limited prior education, we find a relative life-time earnings advantage of general training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
Keywords
Active labor market programs, Adult education, Vocational training, Earnings
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111657 (URN)10.1186/s40174-015-0047-9 (DOI)000215332100021 ()
Projects
Ageing and Living Conditions
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2006-21576-36119-66Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU)
Available from: 2015-11-19 Created: 2015-11-19 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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