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Salami, Alireza
Publications (10 of 32) Show all publications
Zuo, N., Salami, A., Yang, Y., Yang, Z., Sui, J. & Jian, T. (2019). Activation-based association profiles differentiate network roles across cognitive loads. Human Brain Mapping, 40(9), 2800-2812
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Activation-based association profiles differentiate network roles across cognitive loads
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2019 (English)In: Human Brain Mapping, ISSN 1065-9471, E-ISSN 1097-0193, Vol. 40, no 9, p. 2800-2812Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Working memory (WM) is a complex and pivotal cognitive system underlying the performance of many cognitive behaviors. Although individual differences in WM performance have previously been linked to the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response across several large-scale brain networks, the unique and shared contributions of each large-scale brain network to efficient WM processes across different cognitive loads remain elusive. Using a WM paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from the Human Connectome Project, we proposed a framework to assess the association and shared-association strength between imaging biomarkers and behavioral scales. Association strength is the capability of individual brain regions to modulate WM performance and shared-association strength measures how different regions share the capability of modulating performance. Under higher cognitive load (2-back), the frontoparietal executive control network (FPN), dorsal attention network (DAN), and salience network showed significant positive activation and positive associations, whereas the default mode network (DMN) showed the opposite pattern, namely, significant deactivation and negative associations. Comparing the different cognitive loads, the DMN and FPN showed predominant associations and globally shared-associations. When investigating the differences in association from lower to higher cognitive loads, the DAN demonstrated enhanced association strength and globally shared-associations, which were significantly greater than those of the other networks. This study characterized how brain regions individually and collaboratively support different cognitive loads.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
association, cognitive performance, functional activation, functional magnetic resonance imaging MRI), working memory
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159585 (URN)10.1002/hbm.24561 (DOI)000467570300018 ()30854745 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-06-18 Created: 2019-06-18 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Salami, A., Garrett, D. D., Wåhlin, A., Rieckmann, A., Papenberg, G., Karalija, N., . . . Nyberg, L. (2019). Dopamine D2/3 Binding Potential Modulates Neural Signatures of Working Memory in a Load-Dependent Fashion.. Journal of Neuroscience, 39(3), 537-547
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dopamine D2/3 Binding Potential Modulates Neural Signatures of Working Memory in a Load-Dependent Fashion.
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 537-547Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dopamine (DA) modulates corticostriatal connections. Studies in which imaging of the DA system is integrated with functional imaging during cognitive performance have yielded mixed findings. Some work has shown a link between striatal DA (measured by PET) and fMRI activations, whereas others have failed to observe such a relationship. One possible reason for these discrepant findings is differences in task demands, such that a more demanding task with greater prefrontal activations may yield a stronger association with DA. Moreover, a potential DA–BOLD association may be modulated by task performance. We studied 155 (104 normal-performing and 51 low-performing) healthy older adults (43% females) who underwent fMRI scanning while performing a working memory (WM) n-back task along with DA D2/3 PET assessment using [11C]raclopride. Using multivariate partial-least-squares analysis, we observed a significant pattern revealing positive associations of striatal as well as extrastriatal DA D2/3 receptors to BOLD response in the thalamo–striatal–cortical circuit, which supports WM functioning. Critically, the DA–BOLD association in normal-performing, but not low-performing, individuals was expressed in a load-dependent fashion, with stronger associations during 3-back than 1-/2-back conditions. Moreover, normal-performing adults expressing upregulated BOLD in response to increasing task demands showed a stronger DA–BOLD association during 3-back, whereas low-performing individuals expressed a stronger association during 2-back conditions. This pattern suggests a nonlinear DA–BOLD performance association, with the strongest link at the maximum capacity level. Together, our results suggest that DA may have a stronger impact on functional brain responses during more demanding cognitive tasks.

Keywords
PET, aging, dopamine, fMRI, working memory
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155492 (URN)10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1493-18.2018 (DOI)000455849400013 ()30478031 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationTorsten Söderbergs stiftelseRagnar Söderbergs stiftelseThe Swedish Brain FoundationVästerbotten County Council
Available from: 2019-01-18 Created: 2019-01-18 Last updated: 2019-02-08Bibliographically approved
Stomby, A., Salami, A., Dahlqvist, P., Evang, J. A., Ryberg, M., Bollerslev, J., . . . Ragnarsson, O. (2019). Elevated resting-state connectivity in the medial temporal lobe and the prefrontal cortex among patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission. European Journal of Endocrinology, 180(5), 329-338
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elevated resting-state connectivity in the medial temporal lobe and the prefrontal cortex among patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 180, no 5, p. 329-338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Cushing's syndrome is associated with long-term cognitive deficits and affective symptoms such as depression and anxiety. The alterations in brain function under lying these deficits after Cushing's syndrome are unclear and therefore we aimed to explore alterations in resting-state functional connectivity in patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission. Design: Cross-sectional case-control study. Methods: Nineteen women with Cushing's syndrome in remission for a median time of 7 years (IQR: 6-10) and a mean age of 45 years were included at three university clinics. These patients and 38 age-matched female controls underwent brain imaging at a single center. The main outcome measure was functional connectivity at rest, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex networks, exhibited elevated functional connectivity among patients compared to controls. The degree of elevated functional connectivity in the MTL was negatively associated with time in remission. Conclusions: Resting-state functional connectivity within glucocorticoid receptor-rich regions, particularly the MTL and medial prefrontal cortex, was increased in patients. These differences in connectivity may provide a neural basis for the cognitive deficits and affective symptoms commonly experienced by patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bioscientifica, 2019
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159205 (URN)10.1530/EJE-19-0028 (DOI)000466509100003 ()30939453 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Papenberg, G., Karalija, N., Salami, A., Andersson, M., Axelsson, J., Riklund, K., . . . Bäckman, L. (2019). The Influence of Hippocampal Dopamine D2 Receptors on Episodic Memory Is Modulated by BDNF and KIBRA Polymorphisms. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 31(9), 1422-1429
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Influence of Hippocampal Dopamine D2 Receptors on Episodic Memory Is Modulated by BDNF and KIBRA Polymorphisms
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2019 (English)In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 1422-1429Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Episodic memory is a polygenic trait influenced by different molecular mechanisms. We used PET and a candidate gene approach to investigate how individual differences at the molecular level translate into between-person differences in episodic memory performance of elderly persons. Specifically, we examined the interactive effects between hippocampal dopamine D2 receptor (D2DR) availability and candidate genes relevant for hippocampus-related memory functioning. We show that the positive effects of high D2DR availability in the hippocampus on episodic memory are confined to carriers of advantageous genotypes of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, rs6265) and the kidney and brain expressed protein (KIBRA, rs17070145) polymorphisms. By contrast, these polymorphisms did not modulate the positive relationship between caudate D2DR availability and episodic memory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MIT Press, 2019
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162391 (URN)10.1162/jocn_a_01429 (DOI)000477974100012 ()31112471 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85070257740 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Salami, A., Avelar-Pereira, B., Garzon, B., Sitnikov, R. & Kalpouzos, G. (2018). Functional coherence of striatal resting-state networks is modulated by striatal iron content. NeuroImage, 183, 495-503
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional coherence of striatal resting-state networks is modulated by striatal iron content
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2018 (English)In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 183, p. 495-503Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Resting-state spontaneous fluctuations have revealed individual differences in the functional architecture of brain networks. Previous research indicates that the striatal network shows alterations in neurological conditions but also in normal aging. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences in striatal resting-state networks (RSNs) have been less explored. One candidate that may account for individual differences in striatal spontaneous activity is the level of local iron accumulation. Excessive iron in the striatum has been linked to a loss of structural integrity and reduced brain activity during task performance in aging. Using independent component analysis in a sample of 42 younger and older adults, we examined whether higher striatal iron content, quantified using relaxometry, underlies individual differences in spontaneous fluctuations of RSNs in general, and of the striatum in particular. Higher striatal iron content was linked to lower spontaneous coherence within both caudate and putamen RSNs regardless of age. No such links were observed for other RSNs. Moreover, the number of connections between the putamen and other RSNs was negatively associated with iron content, suggesting that iron modulated the degree of cross-talk between the striatum and cerebral cortex. Importantly, these associations were primarily driven by the older group. Finally, a positive association was found between coherence in the putamen and motor performance, suggesting that this spontaneous activity is behaviorally meaningful. A follow-up mediation analysis also indicated that functional connectivity may mediate the link between striatal iron and motor performance. Our preliminary findings suggest that striatal iron potentially accounts for individual differences in spontaneous striatal fluctuations, and might be used as a locus of intervention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2018
Keywords
Aging, Iron, Functional connectivity, Resting-state fMRI, Striatum
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153542 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.08.036 (DOI)000447750200043 ()30125714 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2014-940Swedish Research Council, 2016-01936Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationGun och Bertil Stohnes StiftelseStiftelsen Gamla Tjänarinnor
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Salami, A., Rieckmann, A., Karalija, N., Avelar-Pereira, B., Andersson, M., Wåhlin, A., . . . Nyberg, L. (2018). Neurocognitive Profiles of Older Adults with Working-Memory Dysfunction. Cerebral Cortex, 28(7), 2525-2539
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neurocognitive Profiles of Older Adults with Working-Memory Dysfunction
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2018 (English)In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 2525-2539Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Individuals differ in how they perceive, remember, and think. There is evidence for the existence of distinct subgroups that differ in cognitive performance within the older population. However, it is less clear how individual differences in cognition in old age are linked to differences in brain-based measures. We used latent-profile analysis on n-back working-memory (WM) performance to identify subgroups in a large sample of older adults (n = 181; age = 64-68 years). Our analysis identified one larger normal subgroup with higher performance (n = 113; 63%), and a second smaller subgroup (n = 55; 31%) with lower performance. The low-performing subgroup showed weaker load-dependent BOLD modulation and lower connectivity within the fronto-parietal network (FPN) as well as between FPN and striatum during n-back, along with lower FPN connectivity at rest. This group also exhibited lower FPN structural integrity, lower frontal dopamine D2 binding potential, inferior performance on offline WM tests, and a trend-level genetic predisposition for lower dopamine-system efficiency. By contrast, this group exhibited relatively intact episodic memory and associated brain measures (i.e., hippocampal volume, structural, and functional connectivity within the default-mode network). Collectively, these data provide converging evidence for the existence of a group of older adults with impaired WM functioning characterized by reduced cortico-striatal coupling and aberrant cortico-cortical integrity within FPN.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2018
Keywords
dopamine, fronto-parietal network, functional connectivity, individual differences, working memory
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150747 (URN)10.1093/cercor/bhy062 (DOI)000437165800025 ()29901790 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-16 Created: 2018-08-16 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Kaboodvand, N., Bäckman, L., Nyberg, L. & Salami, A. (2018). The retrosplenial cortex: a memory gateway between the cortical default mode network and the medial temporal lobe. Human Brain Mapping, 39(5), 2020-2034
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The retrosplenial cortex: a memory gateway between the cortical default mode network and the medial temporal lobe
2018 (English)In: Human Brain Mapping, ISSN 1065-9471, E-ISSN 1097-0193, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 2020-2034Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The default mode network (DMN) involves interacting cortical areas, including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), and subcortical areas, including the medial temporal lobe (MTL). The degree of functional connectivity (FC) within the DMN, particularly between MTL and medial-parietal subsystems, relates to episodic memory (EM) processes. However, past resting-state studies investigating the link between posterior DMN-MTL FC and EM performance yielded inconsistent results, possibly reflecting heterogeneity in the degree of connectivity between MTL and specific cortical DMN regions. Animal work suggests that RSC has structural connections to both cortical DMN regions and MTL, and may thus serve as an intermediate layer that facilitates information transfer between cortical and subcortical DMNs. We studied 180 healthy old adults (aged 64-68 years), who underwent comprehensive assessment of EM, along with resting-state fMRI. We found greater FC between MTL and RSC than between MTL and the other cortical DMN regions (e.g., PCC), with the only significant association with EM observed for MTL-RSC FC. Mediational analysis showed that MTL-cortical DMN connectivity increased with RSC as a mediator. Further analysis using a graph-theoretical approach on DMN nodes revealed the highest betweenness centrality for RSC, confirming that a high proportion of short paths among DMN regions pass through RSC. Importantly, the degree of RSC mediation was associated with EM performance, suggesting that individuals with greater mediation have an EM advantage. These findings suggest that RSC forms a critical gateway between MTL and cortical DMN to support EM in older adults.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
aging, betweenness centrality, DMN, episodic memory, medial temporal lobe, multilevel meditation, retrosplenial cortex
National Category
Neurology Neurosciences Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147289 (URN)10.1002/hbm.23983 (DOI)000429710500011 ()29363256 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-25 Created: 2018-05-25 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Ziaei, M., Salami, A. & Persson, J. (2017). Age-related alterations in functional connectivity patterns during working memory encoding of emotional items. Neuropsychologia, 94, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Age-related alterations in functional connectivity patterns during working memory encoding of emotional items
2017 (English)In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 94, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous findings indicate age-related differences in frontal-amygdala connectivity during emotional processing. However, direct evidence for age differences in brain functional activation and connectivity during emotional processing and concomitant behavioral implications is lacking. In the present study, we examined the impact of aging on the neural signature of selective attention to emotional information during working memory (WM) encoding. Participants completed an emotional WM task in which they were asked to attend to emotional targets and ignore irrelevant distractors. Despite an overall reduction in accuracy for older relative to younger adults, no behavioral age effect was observed as a function of emotional valence. The functional connectivity patterns of left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex showed that younger adults recruited one network for encoding of both positive and negative emotional targets and this network contributed to higher memory accuracy in this cohort. Older adults, on the other hand, engaged two distinct networks for encoding of positive and negative targets. The functional connectivity analysis using left amygdala further demonstrated that older adults recruited one single network during encoding of positive as well as negative targets whereas younger adults recruited this network only for encoding of negative items. The engagement of amygdala functional network also contributed to higher memory performance and faster response times in older adults. Our findings provide novel insights into the differential roles of functional brain networks connected to the medial PFC and amygdala during encoding of emotionally-valenced items with advancing age.

Keywords
Aging, Emotion, Working memory, Functional connectivity, PLS, Amygdala, fMRI
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131871 (URN)10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.11.012 (DOI)000392679300001 ()27865969 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-02-27 Created: 2017-02-27 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Kalpouzos, G., Garzon, B., Sitnikov, R., Heiland, C., Salami, A., Persson, J. & Backman, L. (2017). Higher Striatal Iron Concentration is Linked to Frontostriatal Underactivation and Poorer Memory in Normal Aging. Cerebral Cortex, 27(6), 3427-3436
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Higher Striatal Iron Concentration is Linked to Frontostriatal Underactivation and Poorer Memory in Normal Aging
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2017 (English)In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 3427-3436Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the brain, intracellular iron is essential for cellular metabolism. However, an overload of free iron is toxic, inducing oxidative stress and cell death. Although an increase of striatal iron has been related to atrophy and impaired cognitive performance, the link between elevated iron and altered brain activity in aging remains unexplored. In a sample of 37 younger and older adults, we examined whether higher striatal iron concentration could underlie age-related differences in frontostriatal activity induced by mental imagery of motor and non-motor scenes, and poorer recall of the scenes. Higher striatal iron concentration was linked to underrecruitment of frontostriatal regions regardless of age and striatal volume, the iron-activity association in right putamen being primarily driven by the older adults. In older age, higher striatal iron was related to poorer memory. Altered astrocytic functions could account for the link between brain iron and brain activity, as astrocytes are involved in iron buffering, neurovascular coupling, and synaptic activity. Our preliminary findings, which need to be replicated in a larger sample, suggest a potential frontostriatal target for intervention to counteract negative effects of iron accumulation on brain function and cognition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2017
Keywords
aging, brain iron, functional MRI, imagery, memory
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-137050 (URN)10.1093/cercor/bhx045 (DOI)000402824700025 ()
Available from: 2017-06-28 Created: 2017-06-28 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Gorbach, T., Pudas, S., Lundquist, A., Orädd, G., Josefsson, M., Salami, A., . . . Nyberg, L. (2017). Longitudinal association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline. Neurobiology of Aging, 51, 167-176
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline
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2017 (English)In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 51, p. 167-176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions. In addition, changes in word fluency, fluid IQ (Block Design), and processing speed were estimated and related to structural brain changes. Significant negative change over time was observed for all cognitive and brain measures. A robust brain-cognition change-change association was observed for episodic-memory decline and atrophy in the hippocampus. This association was significant for older (65-80 years) but not middle-aged (55-60 years) participants and not sensitive to the assumption of ignorable attrition. Thus, these longitudinal findings highlight medial-temporal lobe system integrity as particularly crucial for maintaining episodic-memory functioning in older age. 

Keywords
Aging, cognitive decline, episodic memory, hippocampus, longitudinal changes, non-ignorable attrition
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-128725 (URN)10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2016.12.002 (DOI)000397168600018 ()28089351 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationRagnar Söderbergs stiftelse
Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved
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