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Johansson, Eva E
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Publications (10 of 81) Show all publications
Ahlgren, C., Fjellman-Wiklund, A., Hamberg, K., Johansson, E. E. & Stålnacke, B.-M. (2016). The meanings given to gender in studies on multimodal rehabilitation for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a literature review. Disability and Rehabilitation, 38(23), 2255-2270
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The meanings given to gender in studies on multimodal rehabilitation for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a literature review
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2016 (English)In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 38, no 23, p. 2255-2270Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess and describe the meanings given to "gender" in scientific publications that evaluate multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary or multimodal rehabilitation for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

Method: A systematic literature search for papers evaluating multimodal rehabilitation was conducted. The PubMed and EBSCO databases were searched from 1995 to 2015. Two or three researchers independently read each paper, performed a quality assessment and coded meanings of gender using qualitative content analysis.

Results: Twenty-seven papers were included in the review. Gender was used very differently in the MMR studies investigated but primarily it referred to factual differences between men and women. Only one paper provided a definition of the concept of gender and how it had been used in that study. In the content analysis, the meaning of gender formed three categories: "Gender as a factual difference", "The man is the ideal" and "Gender as a result of social role expectations".

Conclusions: The meaning of the concept of gender in multimodal rehabilitation is undefined and needs to be developed further. The way the concept is used should be defined in the design and evaluation of multimodal rehabilitation in future studies.

Implications for rehabilitation

Healthcare professionals should reflect on gender relations in encounters with patients, selection of patients into rehabilitation programs and design of programs. In rehabilitation for chronic pain the patients' social circumstances and cultural context should be given the same consideration as biological sex and pain symptoms.

Keywords
Gender, musculoskeletal, pain, review
National Category
Gender Studies General Practice
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114094 (URN)10.3109/09638288.2015.1127435 (DOI)000381937400001 ()26730507 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-01-13 Created: 2016-01-13 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Ibrahimi, P., Jashari, F., Ahlqvist, J., Arnerlöv, C., Garoff, M., Johansson, E., . . . Henein, M. Y. (2014). Carotid ultrasound accurately detects arterial calcification quantified by cone beam computed tomography. Paper presented at Congress of the European-Society-of-Cardiology (ESC), AUG 30-SEP 03, 2014, Barcelona, SPAIN. European Heart Journal, 35(Supplement 1, Meeting abstract P3519), 636-636
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carotid ultrasound accurately detects arterial calcification quantified by cone beam computed tomography
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2014 (English)In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 35, no Supplement 1, Meeting abstract P3519, p. 636-636Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2014
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-97257 (URN)000343001303463 ()
Conference
Congress of the European-Society-of-Cardiology (ESC), AUG 30-SEP 03, 2014, Barcelona, SPAIN
Available from: 2014-12-15 Created: 2014-12-12 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Johansson, E., Aléx, L. & Christianson, M. (2014). Gendered discourses of youth sexualities - an exploration of PubMed articles on prevention of sexually transmissible infections. Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, 5(3), 81-89
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gendered discourses of youth sexualities - an exploration of PubMed articles on prevention of sexually transmissible infections
2014 (English)In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 81-89Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To explore how gender is addressed in medical articles on the prevention of sexually transmissible infections (STI) among adolescents.

METHODS: Sixtyone articles were retrieved from a PubMed search and scrutinized by qualitative content analysis.

RESULTS: Most articles were affiliated with North American research institutions, but there were also reports from Europe, Africa, South America, and Asia. Gender turned up in the following four recurrent discourses: Gendered Receptiveness for Information, Stereotyped Heterosexual Expectations, Power Imbalance in Sexual Relations, and Gendered Prevention Approaches. Young women were described as knowledgeable, communicative, and responsible, but at risk because of feminine ideals and a lack of negotiating power. Men were described as less informed, more reluctant to discuss, and more risk taking due to masculine ideals and power dominance. Prevention approaches concerned how to postpone sex and/or tailor gender-sensitive programs for specific groups of young women and men.

CONCLUSION: Researchers' own gender expectations might have a substantial impact on how sex and sexual health is considered in prevention research. To avoid reconstruction of current inequalities and stereotypes regarding sexual practices of young women and men, the impact of gender, the power structures in intimate relations, and the cultural context should be considered. Medical research on STI prevention could benefit from including a wider array of gender perspectives.

Keywords
sexually transmisible infection, prevention, sex, gender, qualitative analysis, youth
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-94747 (URN)10.1016/j.srhc.2014.07.002 (DOI)000342889200001 ()25200967 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-10-16 Created: 2014-10-16 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
van Tongeren-Alers, M., Verdonk, P., Bor, H., Johansson, E. E., Hamberg, K. & Lagro-Janssen, A. (2014). How gender or culture affects first year Dutch and Swedish students' preferences for specialties and work-life issues. International Journal of Medical Education, 4, 214-220
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How gender or culture affects first year Dutch and Swedish students' preferences for specialties and work-life issues
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2014 (English)In: International Journal of Medical Education, ISSN 2042-6372, E-ISSN 2042-6372, Vol. 4, p. 214-220Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: We determine how gender or culture influence new medical students' specialty preferences and work-life issues and explore the relation between work-life issues and each specialty preference.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed first year Dutch and Swedish medical students (N=1173, cohorts from 2006-2009) on their preferences for specialties, full-time or part-time work, and agreement to eleven work-life issues. We tested differences by gender or culture using chi square and logistic regression.

Results: Over 93% of all students responded (N=1095). Almost no male first year student preferred gynecology as a specialty. Dutch male students were more often interested in surgery, Dutch female students in paediatrics. In the Netherlands, male students in particular preferred full-time work. In Sweden gender did not influence working hour preferences. Women in both countries expected equality in career-opportunities and care-tasks more than men, and agreed more often that their career would influence their family life. Women with a preference for surgery most often emphasized equality in career opportunities and care tasks. In most preferred specialties female gender related to a lower degree to full-time work. A gender gap in preferred working hours was larger for Dutch students preferring surgery or paediatrics than for Swedish students. For most of the specialty preferences studied, Swedish students anticipated childcare by day cares and Dutch students' informal day care.

Conclusions: Early in training, medical students have gendered specialty preferences and work-life preferences which relate to each other. Gender differences are signifi-cantly more pronounced in the Netherlands than in Sweden.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Family Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-93420 (URN)10.5116/ijme.5259.7845 (DOI)
Projects
Gender challenges in medical education
Available from: 2014-09-21 Created: 2014-09-21 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Björk, A.-B., Sjöström, M., Johansson, E. E., Samuelsson, E. & Umefjord, G. (2014). Women's Experiences of Internet-Based or Postal Treatment for Stress Urinary Incontinence. Qualitative Health Research, 24(4), 484-493
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women's Experiences of Internet-Based or Postal Treatment for Stress Urinary Incontinence
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2014 (English)In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 484-493Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stress urinary incontinence is common and sometimes embarrassing. New, simple, and easily accessible treatments are needed. We telephone interviewed 21 women who participated in a randomized controlled study comparing two treatment programs based on instructions for pelvic floor muscle training. One program was Internet-based and included email support by a urotherapist; the other was sent by post. There was no face-to-face contact in either program. Our main aim was to explore the women's experiences of the Internet-based treatment. Grounded theory analysis revealed three categories: hidden but present, at a distance but close, and by myself but not alone. These were incorporated in a core category: acknowledged but not exposed. The leakage was often a well-hidden secret, but the study treatments lowered the barrier for seeking care. In the Internet group, a supportive patient-provider relationship developed despite the lack of face-to-face contact. Internet-based treatment programs can increase access to care and empower women.

Keywords
grounded theory, health seeking, Internet, interviews, relationships, self-care, women's health
National Category
General Practice
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-90457 (URN)10.1177/1049732314524486 (DOI)000333655200004 ()
Available from: 2014-07-07 Created: 2014-06-23 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Diderichsen, S., Johansson, E. E., Verdonk, P., Lagro-Janssen, T. & Hamberg, K. (2013). Few gender differences in specialty preferences and motivational factors: a cross-sectional Swedish study on last-year medical students. BMC Medical Education, 13, Article ID 39.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Few gender differences in specialty preferences and motivational factors: a cross-sectional Swedish study on last-year medical students
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2013 (English)In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 13, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Today, women constitute about half of medical students in several Western societies, yet women physicians are still underrepresented in surgical specialties and clustered in other branches of medicine. Gender segregation in specialty preference has been found already in medical school. It is important to study the career preferences of our future physicians, as they will influence the maintenance of an adequate supply of physicians in all specialties and the future provision of health care. American and British studies dominate the area of gender and medical careers whereas Swedish studies on medical students' reasons for specialty preference are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare Swedish male and female medical students' specialty preferences and the motives behind them. Methods: Between 2006 and 2009, all last-year medical students at Umea University, Sweden (N = 421), were invited to answer a questionnaire about their future career and family plans. They were asked about their specialty preference and how they rated the impact that the motivational factors had for their choice. The response rate was 89% (N = 372); 58% were women (N = 215) and 42% were men (N = 157). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the independent impact of each motivational factor for specialty preference. Results: On the whole, male and female last-year students opted for similar specialties. Men and women had an almost identical ranking order of the motivational factors. When analyzed separately, male and female students showed both similarities and differences in the motivational factors that were associated with their specialty preference. A majority of the women and a good third of the men intended to work part-time. The motivational factor combining work with family correlated with number of working hours for women, but not for men. Conclusions: The gender similarities in the medical students' specialty preferences are striking and contrast with research from other Western countries where male and female students show more differences in career aspirations. These similarities should be seized by the health care system in order to counteract the horizontal gender segregation in the physician workforce of today.

National Category
Educational Sciences General Practice
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-68259 (URN)10.1186/1472-6920-13-39 (DOI)000316220000001 ()23497262 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-04-18 Created: 2013-04-15 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J., Verdonk, P., Johansson, E. E., Lagro-Janssen, T. & Hamberg, K. (2012). Comparing gender awareness in Dutch and Swedish first-year medical students: results from a questionaire. BMC Medical Education, 12, 3
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing gender awareness in Dutch and Swedish first-year medical students: results from a questionaire
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2012 (English)In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 12, p. 3-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: To ascertain good and appropriate healthcare for both women and men implementation of gender perspectives in medical education is needed. For a successful implementation, knowledge about students' attitudes and beliefs about men, women, and gender is crucial. The aim of this study was to compare attitudes to gender and gender stereotyping among Dutch and Swedish male and female medical students.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we measured the attitudes and assumptions about gender among 1096 first year medical students (616 Dutch and 480 Swedish) with the validated Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale (N-GAMS). The response rate was 94% in the Netherlands and 93% in Sweden. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the scores between Dutch and Swedish male and female students. Linear regressions were used to analyze the importance of the background variables.

Results: There were significant differences in attitudes to gender between Dutch and Swedish students. The Swedish students expressed less stereotypical thinking about patients and doctors and the Dutch were more sensitive to gender differences. The students' sex mattered for gender stereotyping, with male students in both countries agreeing more with stereotypical statements. Students' age, father's birth country and mother's education level had some impact on the outcome.

Conclusions: There are differences between cultures as well as between men and women in gender awareness that need to be considered when implementing gender in medical education. This study suggests that to arouse the students' interest in gender issues and make them aware of the significance of gender in medical work, the examples used in discussions need to be relevant and challenging in the context of the specific country. Due to different levels of knowledge and different attitudes within the student population it is important to create a climate for dialogue where students feel permitted to disclose their ideas and attitudes in order to become aware of what these are as well as their possible consequences on interaction and decision-making in medical work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: BioMed Central, 2012
Keywords
Medical curricula, medical students, gender implementation, gender, attitudes, stereotypical thinking
National Category
Educational Sciences Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-52857 (URN)10.1186/1472-6920-12-3 (DOI)000300156300001 ()
Available from: 2012-03-07 Created: 2012-03-05 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
van Tongeren-Alers, M., van Esch, M., Verdonk, P., Johansson, E., Hamberg, K. & Lagro-Janssen, T. (2011). Are New Medical Students' Specialty Preferences Gendered?: Related Motivational Factors at a Dutch Medical School. Teaching and learning in medicine, 23(3), 263-268
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are New Medical Students' Specialty Preferences Gendered?: Related Motivational Factors at a Dutch Medical School
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2011 (English)In: Teaching and learning in medicine, ISSN 1040-1334, E-ISSN 1532-8015, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 263-268Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Female students currently outnumber male students in most medical schools. Some medical specialties are highly gender segregated. Therefore, it is interesting to know whether medical students have early specialization preferences based on their gender. Consequently, we like to know importance stipulated to motivational factors. Aim: Our study investigates new medical students' early specialization preferences and motivational factors. Methods: New students at a Dutch medical school (n = 657) filled in a questionnaire about specialty preferences (response rate = 94%; 69.5% female, 30.5% male). The students chose out of internal medicine, psychiatry, neurology, pediatrics, surgery, gynecology and family medicine, " other"or "I don't know." Finally, they valued ten motivational factors. Results: Forty percent of the medical students reported no specialty preference yet. Taken together, female medical students preferred pediatrics and wished to combine work and care, whereas male students opted for surgery and valued career opportunities. Conclusions: Gender-driven professional preferences in new medical students should be noticed in order to use competencies. Changes in specialty preferences and motivational factors in pre- and post graduates should further assess the role of medical education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxfordshire: Routledge, 2011
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-53822 (URN)10.1080/10401334.2011.586928 (DOI)000299781900009 ()
Available from: 2012-04-24 Created: 2012-04-04 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Risberg, G., Johansson, E. E. & Hamberg, K. (2011). "Important...but of low status": male education leaders´ views on gender in medicine. Medical Education, 45(6), 613-624
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Important...but of low status": male education leaders´ views on gender in medicine
2011 (English)In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 613-624Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives The implementation of and communication about matters associated with gender in medical education have been predominantly perceived as women's issues. This study aimed to explore attitudes towards and experiences of gender-related issues among key male members of faculties of medicine.

Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 male education leaders from the six medical schools in Sweden. The interviews were analysed qualitatively using a modified grounded theory approach.

Results The core category -'important... but of low status'- reflects ambivalent attitudes towards gender-related issues in medicine among male education leaders. All informants were able to articulate why gender matters. As doctors, they saw gender as a determinant of health and, as bystanders, they had witnessed inequalities and the wasting of women's competence. However, they had doubts about gender-related issues and found them to be overemphasised. Gender education was seen as a threat to medical school curricula as a consequence of the time and space it requires. Gender-related issues were considered to be unscientifically presented, to mostly concern women's issues and to tend to involve 'male bashing' (i.e. gender issues were often labelled as ideological and political). Interviewees asked for facts and knowledge, but questioned specific lessons and gender theory. Experiences of structural constraints, such as prejudice, hierarchies and homosociality, were presented, making gender education difficult and downgrading it.

Conclusions The results indicate that male faculty leaders embrace the importance of gender-related issues, but do not necessarily recognise or defend their impact on an area of significant knowledge and competence in medicine. To change this and to engage more men in gender education, faculty measures are needed to counteract prejudice and to upgrade the time allocation, merits and status of gender implementation work. Based on our findings, we present and discuss possible ways to interest more men and to improve gender education in medicine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing, 2011
Keywords
human, male, female, semi-structured interview, Sweden, physicians, women, prejudice, sexism, middle age, audiorecording, grounded theory
National Category
General Practice Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-41384 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03920.x (DOI)000290531800010 ()
Available from: 2011-03-23 Created: 2011-03-23 Last updated: 2019-03-05Bibliographically approved
Lindström, U. H., Hamberg, K. & Johansson, E. E. (2011). Medical students' experiences of shame in professional enculturation. Medical Education, 45(10), 1016-1024
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Medical students' experiences of shame in professional enculturation
2011 (English)In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 1016-1024Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Despite the intentions of caregivers not to harm, medical encounters may involve intimidation and induce emotions of shame. Reflection is a critical part of professional learning and training. However, the role of shame in medical education has scarcely been studied. The aim of this study was to explore medical students’ reflections on shame-related experiences in clinical situations and to examine how they tackled these experiences.

Methods: A 24-credit course in Professional Development is held at the Medical School of Umeå University, Sweden. A 1-day seminar on the theme of shame, which involves individual reflections and group discussions, is held in term 9. Medical students were invited to individually consider and write down their memories of situations in which they had experienced shame in clinical encounters. Of a total of 133 students, 75 were willing to share their written reflections anonymously. Their essays were transcribed to computer text and analysed by means of qualitative content analysis.

Results: Three themes emerged. These included: Difficulties in disclosing shame; Shame-inducing circumstances, and Avoiding or addressing shame. Initially, students experienced problems in recalling shameful incidents, but successively described various situations which related to being taken by surprise, being exposed, and being associated with staff imprudence. Students disclosed shame avoidance behaviours, but also gave examples of how addressing shame provided them with new insights and restored their dignity.

Conclusions: Students’ reflections on shameful experiences elucidated the importance of attitudes, manners, standards and hierarchies in clinical situations. These are important issues to highlight in the professional enculturation of medical students; our emphasising of them may encourage medical teachers elsewhere to organise similar activities. Opportunities for mentoring medical students in tackling shame and adverse feelings, and in resolving conflict, are needed in medical curricula.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2011
National Category
Educational Sciences Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-47898 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04022.x (DOI)000294865300008 ()
Available from: 2011-10-04 Created: 2011-10-03 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
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