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Lena, K., Häggström Lundevaller, E. & Schumann, B. (2019). Season of birth, stillbirths, and neonatal mortality in Sweden: the Sami and non-Sami population, 1800–1899. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 78(1), Article ID 1629784.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Season of birth, stillbirths, and neonatal mortality in Sweden: the Sami and non-Sami population, 1800–1899
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 78, no 1, article id 1629784Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Seasonal patterns of neonatal mortality and stillbirths have been found around the world. However, little is known about the association between season of birth and infant mortality of pre-industrial societies in a subarctic environment. In this study, we compared how season of birth affected the neonatal and stillbirth risk among the Sami and non-Sami in Swedish Sápmi during the nineteenth century. Using digitised parish records from the Demographic Data Base at Umeå University, we applied logistic regression models for estimating the association of season of birth with stillbirths and neonatal mortality, respectively. Higher neonatal mortality was found among the winter- and autumn-born Sami, compared to summer-born infants. Stillbirth risk was higher during autumn compared to summer among the Sami, whereas we found no seasonal differences in mortality among the non-Sami population. We relate the higher neonatal mortality risk among winter-born Sami to differences in seasonality of living conditions associated with reindeer herding.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
neonatal mortality; season of birth; indigenous population, Sweden
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-160496 (URN)10.1080/22423982.2019.1629784 (DOI)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P0033:1
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Lena, K., Häggström Lundevaller, E. & Schumann, B. (2019). The association between cold extremes and neonatal mortality in Swedish Sápmi from 1800–1895. Global Health Action, 12(1), Article ID 1623609.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The association between cold extremes and neonatal mortality in Swedish Sápmi from 1800–1895
2019 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1623609Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Studies in which the association between temperature and neonatal mortality (deaths during the first 28 days of life) is tracked over extended periods that cover demographic, economic and epidemiological transitions are quite limited. From previous research about the demographic transition in Swedish Sápmi, we know that infant and child mortality was generally higher among the indigenous (Sami) population compared to non-indigenous populations.

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the association between extreme temperatures and neonatal mortality among the Sami and non-Sami population in Swedish Sápmi (Lapland) during the nineteenth century.

Methods: Data from the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University, were used to identify neonatal deaths. We used monthly mean temperature in Tornedalen and identified cold and warm month (5th and 95th) percentiles. Monthly death counts from extreme temperatures were modelled using negative binomial regression. We computed relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for time trends and seasonality.

Results: Overall, the neonatal mortality rate was higher among Sami compared to non-Sami infants (62/1,000 vs 35/1,000 live births), although the differences between the two populations decreased after 1860. For the Sami population prior 1860, the results revealed a higher neonatal incidence rate during cold winter months (< -15.4 °C, RR=1.60, CI 1.14–2.23) compared to infants born during months of medium temperature). No association was found between extreme cold months and neonatal mortality for non-Sami populations. Warm months (+15.1 °C) had no impact on Sami or non-Sami populations.

Conclusions: This study revealed the role of environmental factors (temperature extremes) on infant health during the demographic transition where cold extremes mainly affected the Sami population. Ethnicity and living conditions contributed to differential weather vulnerability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
neonatal mortality, temperature, seasonality, preindustrial societies, indigenous populations, Sweden
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Epidemiology; Historical Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159307 (URN)10.1080/16549716.2019.1623609 (DOI)000472604700001 ()
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P17-0033:1
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
Sandström, G. & Lena, K. (2019). The educational gradient of living alone: A comparison among the working-age population in Europe. Demographic Research, 40, 1645-1670, Article ID 55.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The educational gradient of living alone: A comparison among the working-age population in Europe
2019 (English)In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 1645-1670, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In recent decades, the proportion of individuals in Western countries living in a one-person household has increased. Previous research has mainly focused on the increase among the elderly and younger segments of the population, and there is a lack of research regarding the characteristics of individuals living alone among the working-age population.

Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the educational gradient of living alone in the working-age population (aged 30–64 years) in a comparative perspective and to assess if the differences in the educational gradient are related to the level of gender equality in different European societies.

Methods: Using data on 12 European countries from the Generations and Gender Surveys, the estimated probabilities of living alone for men and women with different levels of education were calculated using logistic regression models while controlling for parental status and differences in the age distribution across different populations.

Results: In the more gender equal countries, we found a negative educational gradient of living alone, especially for men, with decreasing gender differences in the probability of living alone as education increases. In the less gender equal countries, women tend to live alone to a higher extent than men regardless of their educational level. In the least gender equal countries, we found a positive educational gradient of living alone most markedly among women. Here we found the lowest probability of living alone among those who had received only a primary education and the highest levels among men and women with university degrees. Thus, we found a shift in the educational gradient of living alone from a negative gradient in the most gender equal countries in Northern Europe to a positive gradient in the least gender equal countries in the South and in Eastern Europe.

Contribution: This study highlights differences in living alone for men and women in the working-age population in Europe across different levels of education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, 2019
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161402 (URN)10.4054/DemRes.2019.40.55 (DOI)000474616700001 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07115
Available from: 2019-07-04 Created: 2019-07-04 Last updated: 2019-08-05Bibliographically approved
Schumann, B., Häggström Lundevaller, E. & Lena, K. (2019). Weather extremes and perinatal mortality - Seasonal and ethnic differences in northern Sweden, 1800-1895. PLoS ONE, 14(10), Article ID e0223538.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Weather extremes and perinatal mortality - Seasonal and ethnic differences in northern Sweden, 1800-1895
2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 10, article id e0223538Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown the impact of heat and cold on total and age-specific mortality, but knowledge gaps remain regarding weather vulnerability of very young infants. This study assessed the association of temperature extremes with perinatal mortality (stillbirths and deaths in the first week of life), among two ethnic groups in pre-industrial northern Sweden.

METHODS: We used population data of indigenous Sami and non-Sami in selected parishes of northern Sweden, 1800-1895, and monthly temperature data. Multiple logistic regression models were conducted to estimate the association of cold (<10th percentile of temperature) and warmth (>90th percentile) in the month of birth with perinatal mortality, adjusted for cold and warmth in the month prior birth and period, stratified by season and ethnicity.

RESULTS: Perinatal mortality was slightly higher in Sami than in non-Sami (46 vs. 42 / 1000 live and stillbirths), but showed large variations across the region and over time. Both groups saw the highest perinatal mortality in autumn. For Sami, winter was a high-risk time as well, while for non-Sami, seasonality was less distinct. We found an association between exposure to cold and perinatal mortality among winter-born Sami [Odds ratio (OR) 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-2.92, compared to moderate temperature], while there was little effect of cold or warmth during other seasons. Non-Sami, meanwhile, were affected in summer by warmth (OR 0.20, CI 0.05-0.81), and in autumn by cold (OR 0.39, CI 0.19-0.82).

CONCLUSIONS: In this pre-industrial, subarctic setting, the indigenous Sami's perinatal mortality was influenced by extreme cold in winter, while non-Sami seemed to benefit from high temperature in summer and low temperature in autumn. Climate vulnerability of these two ethnic groups sharing the same environment was shaped by their specific lifestyles and living conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PLOS, 2019
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165076 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0223538 (DOI)31639133 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85073743418 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-08 Created: 2019-11-08 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
Lena, K. (2018). Indigenous infant mortality by age and season of birth, 1800–1899: did season of birth affect children’s chances for survival?. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(1), Article ID 18.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indigenous infant mortality by age and season of birth, 1800–1899: did season of birth affect children’s chances for survival?
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses on the influence of season of birth on infant mortality among the Sami and non-Sami populations in northern Sweden during the nineteenth century. The source material is a set of data files from the Demographic Data Base at Umeå University, making it possible to combine age at death (in days), month of death, and month of birth over the course of the entire century. Cox regression models reveal that for the first week of life, season of birth had no influence on the risk of mortality. For the Sami, the results showed that being born during winter was related to a higher risk of neonatal mortality, and being born during summer was related to a higher risk of mortality after six months of age. Furthermore, for the Sami, the neonatal mortality showed a U-shaped pattern with a minimum in June–August, whereas the corresponding pattern among the non-Sami was flatter. The findings shed light on vulnerability in two populations sharing the same environment, but diverging in terms of social, economic, and cultural factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI AG, 2018
Keywords
indigenous, infant mortality, season of birth, Sami, Sweden
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Population studies; Historical Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143312 (URN)10.3390/ijerph15010018 (DOI)000424121200018 ()
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Lena, K., Schumann, B. & Lundevaller, E. (2018). Season of birth, stillbirths and neonatal mortality: the Sami and non-Sami population 1800-1899. In: : . Paper presented at European Social Science History Conference, 4-7 April 2018,Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Season of birth, stillbirths and neonatal mortality: the Sami and non-Sami population 1800-1899
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Population studies; Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146631 (URN)
Conference
European Social Science History Conference, 4-7 April 2018,Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.
Projects
CLIMAT
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P17-0033:1
Available from: 2018-04-13 Created: 2018-04-13 Last updated: 2018-08-22
Karlsson, L. (2017). Indigenous Infant Mortality by Age and Season of Birth, 1800-1899: Does Season of Birth Affect Children’s Survival Chances?. In: : . Paper presented at Population of Association of America (PAA) 2017 Annual Meeting, 27–29 April 2017, Chicago, Ill..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indigenous Infant Mortality by Age and Season of Birth, 1800-1899: Does Season of Birth Affect Children’s Survival Chances?
2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper draws attention to the influence of season of birth on infant mortality among the Sami and non-Sami population during the nineteenth century. The source material is a set of data files from the Demographic Data Base (DDB) at Umeå University, making it possible to combining age at death (in days), month of death and month of birth during the entire period. For the Sami, the results showed that being born during winter was related to a higher risk of neonatal mortality and being born during summer was related to a higher risk of mortality after 6 months of age. Further, for the Sami, the neonatal mortality showed a U-shaped pattern with a minimum in June-August, whereas the corresponding pattern among the non-Sami was more flat. The findings throw light on vulnerability in two populations sharing the same environment, but diverging by social, economic and cultural factors.

Keywords
Infant mortality, season, Indigenous
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Population studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-134361 (URN)
Conference
Population of Association of America (PAA) 2017 Annual Meeting, 27–29 April 2017, Chicago, Ill.
Available from: 2017-05-03 Created: 2017-05-03 Last updated: 2018-09-21Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, L. (2017). Self-placement in the social structure of Sweden: the relationship between class identification and subjective social placement. Critical Sociology, 43(7-8), 1045-1061
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-placement in the social structure of Sweden: the relationship between class identification and subjective social placement
2017 (English)In: Critical Sociology, ISSN 0896-9205, E-ISSN 1569-1632, Vol. 43, no 7-8, p. 1045-1061Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the two assessments of subjective placement in the social structure – class identification and subjective social placement – in a top-to-bottom social hierarchy. In this article, the focus is on the association between working-class identity and subjective social placement. The source material is derived from the International Social Survey Programme from 2009 and 2012. The analysis reveals that women who identified with the working class to a higher extent located themselves towards the lower strata compared to their male counterparts, a result indicating that the female class structure may be more polarized than that of males. The results imply a need for more research concerning how women and men relate their objective class position to social status, as well as the relationship to different outcomes, such as subjective well-being and social justice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
age, class identity, gender, subjective social placement
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-116982 (URN)10.1177/0896920516630797 (DOI)000414041500005 ()
Available from: 2016-02-16 Created: 2016-02-16 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, L. (2016). Advanced ages at death in Sápmi during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: with special attention to longevity among the Sami population. Historical Methods, 49(1), 34-49
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advanced ages at death in Sápmi during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: with special attention to longevity among the Sami population
2016 (English)In: Historical Methods, ISSN 0161-5440, E-ISSN 1940-1906, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 34-49Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article examines advanced ages at death in a historical population in northern Sweden between 1780 and 1900. The source material used is a set of data files from the Demographic Data Base (DDB) at Umeå University supplemented with the search tool Indiko. The belief that the Sami died at very high ages was tested, and life tables and values of remaining life expectancies at older ages were calculated. The information of the age at death was analysed using a model containing four levels of certainty. The analysis reveals that the Sami did not live to extreme ages. The analysis also reveals large differences between the parishes concerning extreme longevity and correctness of age at death.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keywords
age exaggeration, life expectancy, longevity, Sami
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) History
Research subject
History; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-113902 (URN)10.1080/01615440.2015.1033581 (DOI)000367019000003 ()
Available from: 2016-01-05 Created: 2016-01-05 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lena, K. (2016). Att tillhöra en social klass: när medborgarna själva får välja. In: Filip Fors, Jenny Olofsson (Ed.), Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse (pp. 103-118). Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att tillhöra en social klass: när medborgarna själva får välja
2016 (Swedish)In: Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse / [ed] Filip Fors, Jenny Olofsson, Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2016, p. 103-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, 2016
Keywords
klassidentitet, klasstillhörighet, samhällssyn
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117433 (URN)978-91-7601-429-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-02-29 Created: 2016-02-29 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Projects
What´s the weather got to do with it? - Infant mortality in Northern Sweden during the demographic transition [P17-0033:1_RJ]; Umeå University; Publications
Lena, K., Häggström Lundevaller, E. & Schumann, B. (2019). The association between cold extremes and neonatal mortality in Swedish Sápmi from 1800–1895. Global Health Action, 12(1), Article ID 1623609.
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7406-7836

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