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Alalehto, Tage
Publications (10 of 49) Show all publications
Alalehto, T. (2019). När kom kapialismen till Tornedalen?. ARKIV. Tidskrift för samhällsanalys (10), 87-111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>När kom kapialismen till Tornedalen?
2019 (Swedish)In: ARKIV. Tidskrift för samhällsanalys, ISSN 2000-6225, E-ISSN 2000-6217, no 10, p. 87-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Tage Alalehto undersöker i denna artikel när kapitalismen kom till Tornedalen. Han utgår från lokalhistoriska källor om specifika byar i Tornedalen samt offentlig historisk statistik över hur avsättning, omsättning och vinst har utvecklats inom sektorerna jordbruk, skogsbruk och offentliga tjänster. Den bild som framträder är att en omfattande självhushållningsekonomi var dominerande långt in på 1900-talet. Ett mått av kapitalistisk produktion förekom inom skogsbruket mellan 1950- och 1980-talet, men som en följd av 1950-talets strukturomvandling, rationaliseringarna inom skogsbruket samt en frånvarande industristruktur i övrigt ersattes arbetsmarknaden till viss del av kommunala och statliga tjänster. I det stora hela blev dock Tornedalen en avfolkningsbygd. Arbetskraften sökte sig till andra regioner, så att Tornedalen kom att fungera som en geografisk arbetskraftsreserv.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2019
Keywords
Kapitalism, Tornedalen, reservgeografi, reservarbetskraft, jordbruk, skogsbruk, offentliga tjänster
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159467 (URN)10.13068/2000-6217 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Alalehto, T. (2018). Crime prevention in terms of criminal intent criteria in white-collar crime: a propositional analysis. Journal of Financial Crime, 25(3), 838-844
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crime prevention in terms of criminal intent criteria in white-collar crime: a propositional analysis
2018 (English)In: Journal of Financial Crime, ISSN 1359-0790, E-ISSN 1758-7239, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 838-844Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

In the field of crime prevention there are several theoretical approaches explaining why crime occurs and how to prevent it. Three of them – routine activity theory, crime pattern theory and the theory of crime-as-choice – are logically tested in this work. The point of departure is to test if the theories are logical consistent and logical valid, irrespective of whether the criterion for criminal intent is changed from direct intention to negligence.

Design/methodology/approach

The issues will be explored in a logical structure by a first-order logic propositional analysis.

Findings

The analysis shows that all three theories are logical consistent, but only routine activity theory is logical valid. The conclusion is that crime prevention should in general assume that routine activity theory is the legitimate theory and that social prevention as a prevention strategy is logically unnecessary to adopt because it does not matter whether the offender is motivated (direct intention) or not (negligence).

Practical implications

It does not really matter if the authors theoretically treat white-collar offenders as motivated, because if they have committed an actus reus, they are an offender according to the objective requisites. This means that the best strategies to prevent a potential white-collar criminal are situational prevention, i.e. complicate their access to money, where it becomes irrelevant if the potential offender has a mens rea or not. What counts is the prevention of actus reus by a potential offender.

Originality/value

As far as I know, no one has previously investigated the logical consistency and/or logical validity of routine activity theory, crime pattern theory and the theory of crime-as-choice as theories of crime prevention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
White-collar crime, Crime prevention, Propositional logic
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153602 (URN)10.1108/JFC-05-2017-0051 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-11-23 Created: 2018-11-23 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
Alalehto, T. (2018). Kausalitet inom samhällsvetenskapen: en fallstudie av nazistiska partiframgångar i Tärendö kommun. Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, 120(1), 33-46
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kausalitet inom samhällsvetenskapen: en fallstudie av nazistiska partiframgångar i Tärendö kommun
2018 (Swedish)In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 33-46Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Syftet är att diskutera kausalitet inom samhällsvetenskapen. Mer specifikt, kausalitet som relationen mellan nödvändiga och tillräckliga villkor i syfte att härleda varför A, B, C…..n orsakar Z. Artikeln tar sin empiriska utgångspunkt i kommunalvalet i Tärendö 1934 där det nazistiska partiet erhöll hela 30,8 procent av väljarna gentemot de omkringliggande kommunerna där partiet erhöll mindre än 4 procent. Den analytiska utgångspunkten är nödvändiga och tillräckliga villkor bakom en historisk händelse, den så kallade INUS-modellen, härledd genom ett antal formallogiska regler (framför allt regeln om kontraposition). Resultatet är att i Tärendö fanns ett antal samhällsbärande personer (kronojägare, provinsialläkare, präst och några större bönder) som bar upp det nazistiska budskapets trovärdighet till skillnad mot omkringliggande samhällen. Samt att det inte fanns något etablerat socialdemokratiskt alternativ, förutom ett kommunistiskt parti, och försvagade borgerliga partialternativ i Tärendö som bildade ett värn mot nazismen till skillnad mot omkringliggande samhällen.

Abstract [en]

The article’s purpose is to discuss causality in the social sciences. More specifically, causality as the relationship between the necessary and sufficient conditions in order to derive why A, B, C ... cause Z. Its empirical focus is the1934 Tärendö municipal election within which the Swedish Nazi party received 30.8 percent of the vote as compared to surrounding municipalities where it received less than 4 percent of the vote. Its analytical foci are the necessary and sufficient conditions behind a historical event, as refered to by the so-called INUS model, derived from a number of formal logical rules (above all the rule of contraposition). In Tärendö, in contrast to surrounding communities, a number of socially prominent people (the forester, doctor, priests and farmers) supported the Nazi message and there was no established social-democratic alternative, besides a communist party, and only weakened bourgeois partial alternatives that formed a defense against Nazism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Fahlbeckska stiftelsen, 2018
Keywords
Necessary and sufficient conditions, formal logic, Tärendö, Nödvändiga och tillräckliga villkor, formallogik, Tärendö
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146545 (URN)
Available from: 2018-04-12 Created: 2018-04-12 Last updated: 2018-08-07Bibliographically approved
Alalehto, T. (2018). The logic of agency or the logic of structure in the concept of white collar crime: a review. Crime, law and social change, 69(3), 385-399
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The logic of agency or the logic of structure in the concept of white collar crime: a review
2018 (English)In: Crime, law and social change, ISSN 0925-4994, E-ISSN 1573-0751, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 385-399Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since 60s the white collar crime concept is divided in occupational crime versus corporate crime, exposing two different causal primacy: an agency logic and a structural logic. The logic of agency argues that corporate crime concept and the logic of structure is more or less useless for white collar crime research. The logic of structure argues that corporate crime has a validity in its own and describe a dimension of white collar criminality that the logic of agency doesn’t reach. The validity of this two positions is discussed by four crucial issues: The status of juristic persona, explanatory value, mens rea and suffering by punishment. It ends up in a Soritie paradox to which a three valued formal logic by the Stoicists Chrysippus is applied. The conclusion is that the logic of agency has the primacy, and the concept of occupational crime should be the prime concept for white collar crime.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dordrecht: Springer, 2018
Keywords
white collar crime, occupational crime, corporate crime, logic of agency, logic of structure, formal logic
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142072 (URN)10.1007/s10611-017-9744-9 (DOI)000431138900004 ()
Available from: 2017-11-20 Created: 2017-11-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Alalehto, T. (2018). The Origin of White Collar Criminality?: Exploring a Gene x Environment Interaction Hypothesis. International Journal of Criminology and Sociology, 7, 196-205
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Origin of White Collar Criminality?: Exploring a Gene x Environment Interaction Hypothesis
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Criminology and Sociology, E-ISSN 1929-4409, E-ISSN EISSN 1929-4409, Vol. 7, p. 196-205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim for this article is the elementary question: why does white collar criminals become white collar criminals? The answer is a hypothetical syllogistic constructed hypothesis for further empirical exploration in the agenda. The hypothesis takes its point of departure in biosocial criminology, especially the gene-environment interplay, focused on white collar criminality. The hypothesis proposes a link between criminal attitudes and criminal behavior based on how biological (e.g. intergenerational heredity, MAO-A), neurological (e.g. executive functioning, cortical thickness) and social-psychological/sociological factors (e.g. peer-group, rationalizations, social stress, loss of class status) correlates to each other as a system of mechanisms.

Keywords
White collar crime, biosocial criminology, mechanisms, formal logic.
National Category
Law and Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-149691 (URN)10.6000/1929-4409.2018.07.14 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-26 Last updated: 2018-06-27Bibliographically approved
Alalehto, T. & Azarian, R. (2018). When white collar criminals turn to fatal violence: the impact of narcissism and psychopathy. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 15(2), 215-226
Open this publication in new window or tab >>When white collar criminals turn to fatal violence: the impact of narcissism and psychopathy
2018 (English)In: Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, ISSN 1544-4759, E-ISSN 1544-4767, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 215-226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present article takes as its point of departure Perri's view, according to whom the impact of personality traits such as psychopathy and narcissism has unduly been omitted in research on white collar criminality. However, this article argues that although such factors have an important role to play in some cases when white collar criminals turn violent in order to prevent the detection of their felonies, they constitute neither the necessary nor the sufficient conditions for white collar criminals to commit murders. This means on the one hand that, although potentially increasing the risk for violence, these traits are not by themselves sufficient as the triggers of violent acts and can function so only under certain social‐contextual circumstances. However, such personality traits are not by themselves necessary, as there can be empirical cases of fraud detection murder committed by white collar criminals lacking them. This position is supported by both a logical analysis of Perri's main arguments and by empirical evidence, consisting of a few real‐life cases of Scandinavian white collar criminals who have “turned red.”

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
fraud detection, murder, narcissism, personality traits, psychopathy, white collar crime
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146546 (URN)10.1002/jip.1503 (DOI)000434224200012 ()
Available from: 2018-04-12 Created: 2018-04-12 Last updated: 2018-10-19Bibliographically approved
Alalehto, T. (2018). White Collar Crime: A Propositional Logical Analysis of a Concept. Journal of Forensic Sciences & Criminal Investigation, 9(4), Article ID 555769.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>White Collar Crime: A Propositional Logical Analysis of a Concept
2018 (English)In: Journal of Forensic Sciences & Criminal Investigation, ISSN 2476-1311, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 555769Article, review/survey (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

In their book White-Collar Crime – An Opportunity Perspective (2009), Benson and Simpson undertake the task of more precisely denoting the concept of white-collar crime by its nature and how the causal structure of the object is meant to be understood. The aim of this article is to prove the logical consistency (validity and consequence) of Benson and Simpson’s derivation of the concept. The article focuses on the propositional explanation of causation, by applying first-order logic inference rules of sentential and predicate logic based on the rule of contraposition: a → b ↔ ¬b → ¬a. The results show that Benson and Simpsons’ argument is not logical valid, but logical consequent that is something that the agenda can build on.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Juniper Publishers, 2018
Keywords
White-collar crime, causality, formal logic
National Category
Law and Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-149756 (URN)10.19080/JFSCI.2018.09.555769 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-26 Last updated: 2018-06-27Bibliographically approved
Alalehto, T. (2017). Den tornedalska identiteten i Sverige – finns den?. In: Henry Barsk, Tapio Salo, Kyösti Satokangas (Ed.), Tornionlaakson vuosikirja 2015-2017: Tornedalens årsbok 2015-2017 (pp. 12-45). Haparanda: Tornionlaakson neuvosto
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Den tornedalska identiteten i Sverige – finns den?
2017 (Swedish)In: Tornionlaakson vuosikirja 2015-2017: Tornedalens årsbok 2015-2017 / [ed] Henry Barsk, Tapio Salo, Kyösti Satokangas, Haparanda: Tornionlaakson neuvosto , 2017, p. 12-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Haparanda: Tornionlaakson neuvosto, 2017
Series
Tornionlaakson vuosikirja = Tornedalens årsbok, ISSN 0787-197X ; 2015-2017
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138829 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-01 Created: 2017-09-01 Last updated: 2018-09-04Bibliographically approved
Johansson, M. & Alalehto, T. (2017). Nazismen i Tornedalen: en jämförelse mellan Pajala och Tärendö 1934-1944. In: Henry Barsk, Tapio Salo, Kyösti Satokangas (Ed.), Tornionlaakson vuosikirja 2015-2017: Tornedalens årsbok 2015-2017 (pp. 46-68). Haparanda: Tornionlaakson neuvosto
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nazismen i Tornedalen: en jämförelse mellan Pajala och Tärendö 1934-1944
2017 (Swedish)In: Tornionlaakson vuosikirja 2015-2017: Tornedalens årsbok 2015-2017 / [ed] Henry Barsk, Tapio Salo, Kyösti Satokangas, Haparanda: Tornionlaakson neuvosto , 2017, p. 46-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The municipal election of 1934 gave the Nazi party over 30 per cent of the votes in Tärendö municipality which led to six mandates in the municipal council and the chairmanship for the local Nazi politician. The Nazi party held its position as a municipal political force still until the end of Second World War with a popular vote of over 12 per cent in the election 1944 to the parliament. In comparison to other municipalities in the Swedish Tornio valley this was an exceptional political expression by the citizens. In the article we compare Tärendö toward Pajala from different perspectives of institutional, the mobilization of political movement and political leadership. The article tries to answer: how come that the Nazi party was successful in Tärendö but not in Pajala, despite the short distance and the cultural, social and market similarities between the two municipalities? The results show that institutional structure can only explain in margin the differences in Nazi voting. The main reason behind Nazi voting in Tärendö was the interaction between the mobilization of the political movements and the character of the local political leadership.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Haparanda: Tornionlaakson neuvosto, 2017
Series
Tornionlaakson vuosikirja = Tornedalens årsbok, ISSN 0787-197X ; 2015-2017
Keywords
Nazism, Tornio valley, political preferences and local leadership
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138832 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-01 Created: 2017-09-01 Last updated: 2018-09-04Bibliographically approved
Alalehto, T. & Larsson, D. (2016). Measuring trust in the police by contextual and individual factors. International Journal of Law Crime and Justice, 46, 31-42
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring trust in the police by contextual and individual factors
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Law Crime and Justice, ISSN 1756-0616, E-ISSN 1876-763X, Vol. 46, p. 31-42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigate if procedural justice and police competence affects trust in the police independent on the level of perception of corruption, and whether the impact of procedural justice and police competence varies due to perception of corruption. The data used is European Social Survey round 5 (2010), containing 24 countries. To separate individual effects from aggregate effects we used multilevel analyses. The results show that procedural justice and police efficiency are of importance for trust in the police independent of the perception of corruption. But the results also show that the impact of both procedural justice and police competence varies due to the level of perception of corruption. The conclusion is therefore that the fight against corruption must be prioritized to increase trust in the police.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Trust in the police, Perception of corruption, Procedural justice, Competence, Multilevel analysis
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117365 (URN)10.1016/j.ijlcj.2016.01.001 (DOI)000384863100003 ()
Available from: 2016-02-28 Created: 2016-02-28 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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