umu.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Holgersson, Annelie
Publications (10 of 11) Show all publications
Forsberg, R., Holgersson, A. & Bodén, I. (2017). Passengers' Perceptions of Railway Safety. International Journal of Transportation, 5(2), 47-54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passengers' Perceptions of Railway Safety
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Transportation, ISSN 2287-7940, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 47-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study was to identify the passengers' perceptions of railway safety, with emphasis on the internal safety and potential safety improvements. Train passengers (n=243) in Sweden were surveyed and data were analyzed with descriptive and bi-variate statistics. Results showed that only 40% judged the internal train safety as safe. Closed luggage racks and more space for luggage were the most acceptable changes. Both regarding internal safety and acceptable safety changes there were significant differences between high-and low-frequency travelers, with more seasoned travelers less worried about safety and less excepting of additional safety features and costs. The conclusion was that high-frequency and low-frequency travelers differ in their perceptions of safety and that acceptability of safety features followed the perceived effects on comfort.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SCIENCE & ENGINEERING RESEARCH SUPPORT SOC, 2017
Keywords
accident, crash, injury object, prevention, wounds/injuries
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139824 (URN)10.14257/ijt.2017.5.2.04 (DOI)000409233300004 ()
Available from: 2017-09-25 Created: 2017-09-25 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
Larcher, M., Forsberg, R., Björnstig, U., Holgersson, A. & Solomos, G. (2016). Effectiveness of finite-element modelling of damage and injuries for explosions inside trains. Journal of Transportation Safety and Security, 8, 83-100
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effectiveness of finite-element modelling of damage and injuries for explosions inside trains
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Journal of Transportation Safety and Security, ISSN 1943-9962, Vol. 8, p. 83-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The rail-bound sector has become a preferred target of terrorist attacks because of its vulnerability, and the most frequent way to carry out these attacks has been the use of explosive devices.The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of modelling detonation effects inside train carriages using explicit finite element techniques. The numerical simulations consider fluid-structure interaction phenomena and several parametric studies are conducted. Carriage damage and injuries to the passengers are examined. Displacements in the model of the carriage structure do not vary greatly for small changes of the charge size, its location, or by open doors. Changing charge size, the location of the detonation, and door setting however had significant impact on the risk of eardrum rupture and fatality. Comparison of the simulation and real life data demonstrate a good agreement between the real and calculated displacements of the carriage, whereas the risk of death and eardrum rupture is slightly higher in the calculations. The model presented can reproduce a reliable actual situation if more parameters that influence injuries of blast waves were considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2016
Keywords
blast wave, finite element model, rail bound, risk, security, structural damage
National Category
Mathematics Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117258 (URN)10.1080/19439962.2015.1046619 (DOI)000380366000007 ()
External cooperation:
Projects
Preparedness for mass-casualty attacks on public transportation
Funder
Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare
Note

Supplement: 1

Available from: 2016-02-25 Created: 2016-02-25 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Holgersson, A. & Strandh, V. (2016). Emergency organizations' diverging perceptions of terrorist attacks. International Journal of Emergency Services, 5(1), 82-94
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergency organizations' diverging perceptions of terrorist attacks
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Emergency Services, ISSN 2047-0894, E-ISSN 2047-0908, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 82-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse how the police, the rescue services and the emergency medical services perceive the threat of terrorism and preparedness for a terrorist-induced crisis. It also aims to unravel differences among the emergency organizations and to discuss their potential implications for emergency preparedness.

Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected using a questionnaire distributed to operational personnel from the emergency services in eight Swedish counties; 864 responses were received and analysed.

Findings – There were significant differences between the police, rescue and ambulance services regarding perceptions of event likelihood, willingness to respond, estimated management capability and level of confidence with tasks to be performed on-scene. Perceived likelihood of events appeared affected by institutional logic; events within their respective domain of responsibility were perceived as more likely. The police stood out in many aspects, with more personnel with experience of violence on duty and a high grading of the probability of terrorist attacks compared to the other organizations. Fewer police had high estimates of their organizations’ management capability and knowledge of tasks on-scene.

Practical implications – Differences in perspectives of terrorism preparedness and response among the emergency services were shown, highlighting the importance of enabling inter-organizational insights on safety culture, with risk awareness and management strategies, as well as knowledge of the other organizations’ institutional logics and main tasks, so as to achieve an effective, collaborative response to terrorism-induced crises.

Originality/value – Little research has been conducted comparatively with regard to the emergency services and their perceptions of terrorism-specific threats and preparedness, particularly in the Swedish context.

 

Keywords
Firefighters, Confidence, Police, Preparedness, Capability, Willingness to respond, Emergency medical rvices, Threat perception
National Category
Public Administration Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127989 (URN)10.1108/IJES-01-2016-0002 (DOI)000384312800007 ()
Available from: 2016-12-05 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Holgersson, A., Sahovic, D., Saveman, B.-I. & Björnstig, U. (2016). Factors influencing responders' perceptions of preparedness for terrorism. Disaster Prevention and Management, 25(4), 520-533
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors influencing responders' perceptions of preparedness for terrorism
2016 (English)In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 520-533Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse factors influencing perceptions of preparedness in the response to terrorist attacks of operational personnel in Swedish emergency organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected using a questionnaire distributed to operational personnel from the police, rescue and ambulance services in eight Swedish counties; 864 responses were received and analysed. Findings: Three aspects of the perception of preparedness for terrorist attacks among Swedish emergency responders were studied: willingness to respond; level of confidence with tasks; and estimated management capability. Factors which positively influenced these perceptions were male sex, training in first aid and dealing with mass casualty incidents, terrorism-related management training (MT), table-top simulations, participation in functional exercises, and access to personal protective equipment (PPE); work experience was inversely related. Occupation in police or rescue services was positively associated with willingness to respond whereas occupation within the emergency medical services was positively associated with estimated management capability. Practical implications: These findings show that terrorism-related MT and access to PPE increase the perceptions of preparedness for terrorism among the emergency services, aiding judgements about investments in preparedness by crisis management planners. Originality/value: Limited research in disaster management and hazard preparedness has been conducted in a European context, especially regarding terrorism. Little is known about aspects of preparedness for terrorism in Sweden, particularly from the perspective of the emergency responders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016
Keywords
Training, Confidence, Firefighters, Police, Capability, Willingness to respond, Emergency medical services
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy Political Science Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117257 (URN)10.1108/DPM-12-2015-0280 (DOI)000381212600007 ()
Projects
Preparedness for mass-casualty attacks on public transportation
Funder
Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare
Note

First published in theses in manuscript form.

Available from: 2016-02-25 Created: 2016-02-25 Last updated: 2019-04-30Bibliographically approved
Holgersson, A. (2016). Preparedness for mass-casualty attacks on public transportation. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå Universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preparedness for mass-casualty attacks on public transportation
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Public transportation constitutes a vulnerable sector in modern day society with a high probability of generating mass casualties if attacked. By preparing for mass-casualty attacks (MCAs), response can become more effective and public transportation can become a less rewarding target. However, preparedness for attacks, much like response, implies resource constraints, and this dissertation pinpoints some major dilemmas that inhibit achieving preparedness for MCAs on public transportation in Sweden.

Aim: The aim of this dissertation was to investigate preparedness for mass-casualty attacks on public transportation. This allowed for identification of major challenges for preparedness and response with a particular focus on the Swedish context.

Methods: Study I included 477 MCAs identified through searches of the Global Terrorism Database, journals, newspapers and websites, which were examined with descriptive statistics. Study II thematically analyzed 105 articles attained by systematic searches of the PubMed and Scopus databases. Study III and IV statistically analyzed data from 864 responses to a purposive-designed questionnaire, from operational personnel of the Swedish emergency organizations. Study V entailed validation of a finite element (FE) simulation model of a bombing in a train carriage compared to the bombings in Madrid 2004.

Results: International trends of MCAs (≥ 10 fatally injured and/or ≥ 100 non-fatally injured) on public transportation, during the years 1970-2009 (I) showed that the average number of injured increased considerably, despite a quite stable incidence rate since the 1980s. High numbers of injured people were connected to attacks on terminal buildings, multiple targets and complex tactical approaches. Few MCAs occurred in Europe, but the average number of fatalities per incident and injured per incident were the second highest among regions. The literature study (II) of previous on-scene management showed that commonly encountered challenges during unintentional incidents were added to during MCAs, implying specific issues for safety, assessment, triage and treatment, which require collaborative planning and specific training. The study regarding the Swedish emergency organizations’ perceptions of terrorist attacks (III) showed significant differences on perceptions of event likelihood, willingness to respond, estimated management capability and level of confidence in knowledge of tasks to be performed on scene. The police respondents stood out; e.g., fewer police personnel had high estimates of their organizations’ management capability and knowledge of tasks on-scene compared to the other organizations. The study of factors that influence responders’ perceptions of preparedness for terrorism (IV) showed that these were influenced by the responders’ sex, work experience, organizational affiliation, various training arrangements and access to personal protective equipment (PPE). Investing in amenable factors, such as terrorism-related management training and provision of PPE, could improve responders’ perceptions of preparedness for terrorism. A finite-element (FE) model of an explosion in a train carriage (V) was developed and showed that FE modeling techniques could effectively model damage and injuries for explosions with applicability for preparedness and injury mitigation efforts, but, also, there was room for improvement of the model in terms of injuries.

Conclusion: Achieving preparedness for MCAs on public transportation is a multiple choice balancing act between ostensible dilemmas regarding investments, disaster plans, training, response strategies, collaboration and inventions.

Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Kollektivtrafik utgör en sårbar sektor i dagens samhälle, med hög sannolikhet att generera en situation med många drabbade vid attentat. Genom att förbereda för masskadeattentat (MCA) kan hanteringen bli effektivare och kollektivtrafiken utgöra ett mindre givande mål. Beredskap för attentat, liksom själva hanteringen, innefattar dock resursbegränsningar och denna avhandling belyser somliga avgörande utmaningar som hämmar utvecklandet av beredskap för MCA mot kollektivtrafiken i Sverige.

 

Syfte: Syftet med avhandlingen var att undersöka beredskapen för masskadeattentat mot kollektivtrafik. Detta möjliggjorde identifiering av stora utmaningar för beredskap och insatser, med särskilt fokus på den svenska kontexten.

 

Metoder: Studie I innefattade 477 MCA som identifierades genom sökningar i Global Terrorism Database, vetenskapliga tidskrifter, tidningar och webbsidor, som sedan undersöktes med deskriptiv statistik. I Studie II genomfördes en tematisk analys av 105 artiklar, funna genom systematiska sökningar i databaserna PubMed och Scopus. I Studie III och IV genomfördes statistisk analys av data från 864 respondenter till en ändamålsenligt utformad enkät, utskickad till operativ personal inom blåljusorganisationerna. Studie V innebar validering av en finita element (FE)-modell av en explosion i en tågvagn genom jämförelse med bombningarna i Madrid 2004.

 

Resultat: I den internationella utvecklingen av MCA (≥ 10 dödsfall eller ≥ 100 icke-dödligt skadade) mot kollektivtrafik, under åren 1970-2009 (I) visade det sig att det genomsnittliga antalet skadade ökade kraftigt, trots en tämligen stabil incidens av antalet händelser sedan 1980-talet. Skadadeutfallet var ofta stort vid angrepp på terminalbyggnader, multipla mål och användning av komplexa taktiska metoder. Få MCA inträffade i Europa, men det genomsnittliga antalet dödsfall per fall och skadade per fall var den näst högsta bland regioner. Litteraturstudien (II) av skadeplatshantering vid tidigare attentat visade att vanligt förekommande utmaningar under oavsiktliga masskadehändelser utökades under MCA med särskilda svårigheter kring säkerhet, bedömning, triage och behandling, vilket i sin tur kräver gemensam planering och särskild utbildning. Studien om de svenska blåljusorganisationernas uppfattningar om terroristattacker (III) visade signifikanta skillnader på uppfattningar om sannolikhet av olika händelser, viljan att respondera, beräknad hanteringskapacitet och förlitan till kunskap om uppgifter som ska utföras på skadeplats. Polisernas svar utmärkte sig; t.ex. hade färre inom polisen höga uppskattningar av sin organisations hanteringskapacitet och sin egen kunskap om uppgifter på plats, jämfört med de andra organisationerna. Studien av vilka faktorer som påverkade respondenternas uppfattning om beredskap för terrorism (IV) visade att uppfattningar påverkades av deras kön, arbetslivserfarenhet, organisationstillhörighet, olika former av utbildning och tillgång till personlig skyddsutrustning. Investeringar i åtgärder såsom terrorism-relaterad träning och personlig skyddsutrustning skulle kunna förbättra uppfattning om beredskap för terrorism inom blåljusorganisationerna. En FE modell av en explosion i en tågvagn (V) utvecklades och visade att FE metoden skulle kunna modellera materiella skador och personskador av explosioner, med tillämpning för beredskap och skadelindrande åtgärder, men visade också att det fanns utrymme för förbättring av modellen avseende personskador.

 

Slutsats: Förverkligandet av beredskap för masskadeattentat mot kollektivtrafik utgör en balansgång i beslutstagande mellan vad som förefaller vara dilemman om investeringar, krisplaner, utbildning, responsstrategier, samverkan och innovationer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2016. p. 64
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1778
Keywords
antagonism, disaster medicine, emergency response, emergency organizations, mass transit, preparedness, rescue work, security, terrorism
National Category
Surgery
Research subject
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117263 (URN)978-91-7601-407-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-03-18, Hörsal D, målpunkt T, 9 tr, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Preparedness for mass-casualty attacks on public transportation
Funder
Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare
Available from: 2016-02-26 Created: 2016-02-25 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Forsberg, R., Holgersson, A., Bodén, I. & Björnstig, U. (2014). A study of a mass casualty train crash, focusing on the cause of injuries. Journal of Transportation Safety & Security, 6(2), 152-166
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of a mass casualty train crash, focusing on the cause of injuries
2014 (English)In: Journal of Transportation Safety & Security, ISSN 1943-9962, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 152-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This case study includes 73 fatally and nonfatally injured passengers from a level-crossing train crash in Nosaby, Sweden, in 2004. The aim was to identify the injury panorama and the injury objects and to determine the injury-inducing variables. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, quantitative content analysis, and multivariate data analysis. The first carriage overturned, and its occupants were the ones who suffered the most severe and lethal injuries. Injury type and injury location for these passengers also differed significantly from the passengers on the other two carriages. Tables significantly influenced injury type and injury location in all carriages, whereas the injured persons’ seating position had significant effect only in the second and third carriage. Those who had travelled facing forward with a table in front of them in Carriages 2 and 3 were more likely to have sustained injuries to their abdomen or pelvis. Other injury-inducing objects were seats, interior structures, wood pellets from the truck, and other passengers. Neck sprains were significantly more prevalent among those who had travelled facing backward. Improved train crashworthiness also needs to include interior safety, which would have a potential to reduce crash injuries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2014
Keywords
accident, injury event, injury object, principal components analysis, partial least square discriminant analysis, railway
National Category
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-61293 (URN)10.1080/19439962.2013.831963 (DOI)000209817600004 ()
Note

Originally included in thesis in submitted form with the title: "A study of a mass casualty train crash focused on the cause of injuries using multivariate data analysis"

Available from: 2012-11-09 Created: 2012-11-08 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Holgersson, A. & Björnstig, U. (2014). Mass-casualty attacks on public transportation. Journal of Transportation Security, 7, 1-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mass-casualty attacks on public transportation
2014 (English)In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 7, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The 21st century has provided many examples of the devastating effects attacks can have when public transportation has been targeted or used as weapons. Four hundred and seventy seven mass-casualty attacks (≥10 fatally injured and/or ≥100 non-fatally injured) against public transportation and terminal buildings during the years 1970–2009 were studied with data from the Global Terrorism Database in addition to open media sources, scientific journals, and books. Asia was the most frequently targeted region, followed by the Middle East & North African region and Sub Saharan Africa. Airplanes were the most frequently attacked mode of transport during the 1970s, but were surpassed by buses in the mid-80s. There was also an alarming increase in attacks against terminal buildings during 2000–2009. The two most common types of attacks were bombings and armed assault. Complex tactical approaches so as to achieve as much carnage as possible were apparent—e.g., maximizing the number of exposed people, enhancing weapon effects, approaching victims one-by-one, combining several attack types, and targeting rescue personnel. These approaches were more predominant during the last two decades and attacks against rescue personnel were exclusive to the 21st century. The average number of injured increased considerably, despite a quite stable incidence rate since the 1980s. High numbers of non-fatally injured people were connected to attacks on terminal buildings, multiple targets and complex tactical approaches. These incidents, with more and more non-fatally injured, challenge our societal response structures and thus require more research.

National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117254 (URN)10.1007/s12198-013-0125-z (DOI)
Projects
Preparedness for mass-casualty attacks on public transportation
Funder
Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare
Available from: 2016-02-25 Created: 2016-02-25 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Holgersson, A., Forsberg, R. & Saveman, B.-I. (2012). Inre säkerheten i tåg eftersatt: fallstudie efter tågkraschen i Kimstad. Läkartidningen, 109(1-2), 24-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inre säkerheten i tåg eftersatt: fallstudie efter tågkraschen i Kimstad
2012 (Swedish)In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 1-2, p. 24-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Delar av tågnätet i Sverige är i dag överbelastat, vilket försvårar möjligheterna till underhåll samtidigt som slitaget ökar. Tåghastigheten ökar, liksom antalet skadehändelser och deras allvarlighetsgrad, medan säkerhetsarbetet halkar efter. Inredning, glas och bagage hade stor inverkan på skadebilden vid tågkraschen i Kimstad år 2010. Avståndet till banvallen utgjorde sekundär skaderisk vid evakueringen. Inredningen orsakade allvarligast skador, bagaget moderata skador och glas många, men lindriga skador. Energiabsorberande ytor, luckor för bagageförvaring samt antilacerativa fönster kan reducera antalet skador vid en tågkrasch. Evakueringen kan underlättas av tillgång till utfällbara stegar.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-51177 (URN)
Available from: 2012-01-12 Created: 2012-01-12 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Holgersson, A. & Saveman, B.-I. (2011). Kunskapsöversikt - passagerarsäkerhet i tåg. Umeå
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kunskapsöversikt - passagerarsäkerhet i tåg
2011 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: , 2011. p. 53
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-54669 (URN)
Available from: 2012-05-07 Created: 2012-05-04 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Holgersson, A. & Strandh, V.Emergency organizations’ diverging perceptions of terrorist attacks.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergency organizations’ diverging perceptions of terrorist attacks
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To analyse how the police, the rescue services and the emergency medical services (EMS) perceive the threat of terrorism and preparedness for a terrorist-induced crisis. It also aims to unravel differences among the emergency organizations and to discuss their potential implications for emergency preparedness. Methodology: Data were collected using a questionnaire distributed to operational personnel from the emergency services in eight Swedish counties; 864 responses were received and analysed. Findings: There were significant differences between the police, rescue and ambulance services regarding perceptions of event likelihood, willingness to respond, estimated management capability and level of confidence with tasks to be performed on scene. Perceived likelihood of events appeared affected by institutional logic; events within their respective domain of responsibility were perceived as more likely. The police stood out in many aspects, with more personnel with experience of violence on duty and a high grading of the probability of terrorist attacks compared to the other organizations. Fewer police had high estimates of their organizations’ management capability and knowledge of tasks on-scene. Practical implications: Differences in perspectives of terrorism preparedness and response among the emergency services were shown, highlighting the importance of enabling inter-organizational insights on safety culture, with risk awareness and management strategies, as well as knowledge of the other organizations’ institutional logics and main tasks, so as to achieve an effective, collaborative response to terrorism-induced crises. Originality: Little research has been conducted comparatively with regard to the emergency services and their perceptions of terrorism-specific threats and preparedness, particularly in the Swedish context. 

National Category
Political Science Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117256 (URN)
Projects
Preparedness for mass-casualty attacks on public transportation
Funder
Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare
Note

Inskickad till International Journal of Emergency Services

Available from: 2016-02-25 Created: 2016-02-25 Last updated: 2018-06-07
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications